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Cycling and Sustainability: Two Wheels Good, Four Wheels Bad

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Public Prsentation at Vancouver Island University, Nanaimo, BC, Match 2012

Public Prsentation at Vancouver Island University, Nanaimo, BC, Match 2012


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  • 1. Cycling Towards Sustainability: Two Wheels Good, Four Wheels Bad R.J. Payne Lakehead UniversityThunder Bay, Ontario
  • 2. Cycling Towards SustainabilityIntroductionBob, the cyclist● Vancouver-Thunder Bay; Quebec (my wife cycled there); Netherlands; Britain● A recreational cyclist● Thunder Bays Active Transportation Committee● Lives in OntarioThe “Good” and the “Bad”● NOT moral● Benefits vs. costs – To people – To the environment
  • 3. Cycling Towards SustainabilityIntroductionThree things today● Who are cyclists?● What Infrastructure is needed for cyclists?● What are the challenges facing cyclings contribution to sustainability?
  • 4. Cycling Towards SustainabilityWho are Cyclists?Cyclists differ from each other: how? ● By age, ● By gender, ● By socio-economic status, ● By motivation, ● By type of bike, ● By type of biking – Recreational – Competitive – UtilitarianCan cyclists be “segmented” into meaningful groups?
  • 5. Cycling Towards SustainabilityNot much academic research on Home Adventurers Fashion Practical BoysGirls Pursuers Userssegmenting cyclists; however, Education College ↑ Graduate College ↑ High School School ↓ ● A Taiwanese study ● 35 Values, Attitudes and Lifestyles Usage Rate Seldom Often Seldom Usually (VALS) questions in scalar form ● N = 193 respondents Usage Roads Challenging Bike Lanes Bike Lanes Ocassion Roads Challenging ● Found four (4) cycling segments: Roads ● Fashion cyclists - 32% Purpose Transport Exercise Leisure Leisure ● Adventure cyclists - 17% ● Home cyclists (boysgirls) - 20% Type of Normal Mountain Normal Normal Bicycle bikes bikes bikes bikes ● Practical (Utilitarian) cyclists - 31% Folding BikesApplicabilityUtility to us?(source: Chu et al., 2010)
  • 6. Cycling Towards SustainabilityNeeds for infrastructurei. A wide definition of “infrastructure”:● on-road lanes and bike paths, including rail trails● Interconnected networks (local, regional, provincial, national?)● Signage and Guides (maps, books, GPS)● Parking, bike racks● Bike plans (Alternative transportation plans)● Bicycling policy● Health promotion policy● Tourism policy If infrastructure = provision, then several levels of government are implicated here; room too for NGOs and community organizations.
  • 7. Cycling Towards Sustainabilityii. Three Case Studies on Infrastructure1. The Netherlands2. Province of Quebec3. Victoria, BC What lessons might we learn from these case studies?
  • 8. Cycling Towards Sustainability1. The Netherlands● With Germany, and Denmark, the Centre of the Cycling Universe? ● Cycling in Utrecht, Netherlands● Long-distance routes, connected to regional and local routes, with ● Cycling in the Dutch Countryside signage● Bike lanes and bike paths, with separation from vehicular traffic the norm● Guides and maps● Racks and parking● Drivers are also cyclists● Tourism: cycle touring companies, B&Bs, hotels and hostels
  • 9. Cycling Towards Sustainability2. Province of Quebec● Canadas most cycling-friendly province?● Strategic direction: Bicycle Policy (2008) under the Transport Ministry● La Route Verte ● 4000+kms ● Maps and signage ● Cyclists on less busy roads● Cyclist safety● Cyclists responsibilities● Tourism: promotion of cycle tourism, cycle touring companies, B&Bs, hotels and hostels (e.g., Lac St. Jean)
  • 10. Cycling Towards Sustainability3. Victoria, BC● Canadas most cycling-friendly urban area?● CRD Bicycle Strategy provides strategic direction● Lochside and Galloping Goose regional trails and feeders● Victoria and Saanich leadership● Several other municipalities have bike plans or initiatives in OCPs● Bike lanes● Signage and maps● Events (Bike to work week)
  • 11. Cycling Towards SustainabilityLessons?1. Separation (bikes from vehicles) is safer and attracts more cyclists, including children2. Networks provide opportunities for different sorts of cyclists3. Signage, maps, guides - branding4. Involvement(s) of governments crucial – funding, development, policy integration5. Different levels of government → different purposes6. Strategic direction from plans andor policy necessary7. Integrated policies (bicycle, tourism, health) desirable8. Positive economic impact through tourism9. Follow-up monitoring: does it all work as planned?
  • 12. Cycling Towards SustainabilityChallenges1. Politics● e.g., Torontos last municipal election: cycling an issue2. Strategy● Direction: what, for which cyclists, to what standard, for what purposes● e.g., Thunder Bay, Ontario3. Integrated policies● Transport ministry in Ontario has a bicycle policy and is revising it● Meanwhile, lead on policy integration for cycling comes from elsewhere4. Evaluation● Users? Maintenance? Renewal? Effectiveness?
  • 13. Cycling Towards SustainabilitySelected ReferencesCapital Regional District, 2002. Bicycle Strategy, Draft Working Paper No. 3, Victoria, BC(available online athttp://www.crd.bc.ca/reports/regionalplanning_/generalreports_/transportation_/cycling_/archivebackgroundinf_/3bicyclestrategy/3bicyclestrategy.pdf ).Chu, Y., Su, K., Chen, Y., Wu, C., and Hung, P. 2010. The Craze for Cycling: Who and Why?Unpublished paper; (available online at URL:http://www.cuc.ac.jp/eng/gpac/papers/nccu/Paper_Management.pdf).Lamont, M. 2009. Reinventing the wheel: a definitional discussion of bicycle tourism.Journal of Sport and Tourism, 14 (1), pp. 5-23.Lumsdon, L. 2000: Transport and tourism: cycle tourism – a model for sustainabledevelopment?, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 8 (5), pp. 361-377.
  • 14. Cycling Towards SustainabilityQuebec, 2008. Bicycle Policy, (Available online athttp://www.mtq.gouv.qc.ca/portal/page/portal/Librairie/Publications/en/amenagements_cyclables/pol_velo_en2008.pdf).Share the Road Cycling Coalition, 2010. When Ontario Bikes, Ontario Benefits: A GreenPaper for an Ontario Bicycling Policy (available online atwww.sharetheroad.ca/str_green_paper_2010_03_02-pdf-r155217).Stantec and Vandermark Consulting, 2008. Ontario Bike Plan, prepared for the OntarioCycling Alliance (Available online athttp://www.tbn.ca/forms/OntarioBikePlan-2008-web.pdf).
  • 15. Thank you!Questions?

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