Aligning Outcomes, Assessment & Reporting


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Aligning Outcomes, Assessment & Reporting

  1. 1. School of Education | 1 EDUC2036 Specialist Studies in History 1 Aligning Outcomes, Assessment & Reporting Dr Robert J. Parkes Senior Lecturer in Curriculum Studies Covenor of HERMES History Education Research Group
  2. 2. School of Education | 2The Teacher’s Toolkit • Assessment • Formal / Informal • Formative / Summative • Norm-Referenced / Criterion-Referenced • Standards-Based Assessment • Assessment of / for / as Learning • Outcomes { Aims > Objectives > Outcomes } • Feedback & Reporting • Backward Design • Teaching Strategies & Learning Activities
  3. 3. School of Education | 3The Meaning of Assessment • 1423, "to fix the amount (of a tax, fine, etc.)," from Anglo-Fr. assesser, from M.L. assessare "fix a tax upon," originally frequentative of L. assidere "to sit beside" (and thus to assist in the office of a judge), from ad- "to" + sedere "to sit." One of the judge's assistant's jobs was to fix the amount of a fine or tax. • The sense: "to judge the value of a person, idea, etc." is from 1934.
  4. 4. School of Education | 4What is assessment? • Assessment is the process of identifying, gathering and interpreting information about students' learning. BOS (1999) • Any systematic method of obtaining information from tests and other sources, used to draw inferences about characteristics of people, objects, or programs; the process of gathering, describing, or quantifying information about performance; an exercise—such as a written test, portfolio, or experiment—that seeks to measure a student's skills or knowledge in a subject area. SABES (System for Adult Basic Education Support, n.d.) online at • The process of judging student behavior or product in terms of some criteria. It may include objective tests as well as the use of rating scales, observation checklists, content analysis, interviews based on performances, discussions and written assignments. Carmen L. Armstrong’s (1994) Designing Assessment in Art
  5. 5. • Assessment is an integral part of instruction, as it determines whether or not the goals of education are being met. • Assessment affects decisions about grades, placement, advancement, instructional needs, curriculum, and, in some cases, funding. • Assessment inspire us to ask these hard questions: "Are we teaching what we think we are teaching?" "Are students learning what they are supposed to be learning?" "Is there a way to teach the subject better, thereby promoting better learning?" Why do we Assess?
  6. 6. Why do we assess? Competing curriculum visions provide different answers! School of Education | 6
  7. 7. Competing Curriculum Visions [and their relationship to assessment goals] * Schiro, M. S. (2008). Curriculum theory: Conflicting visions and enduring concerns. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications. Schiro’s Model* Assessment Goal Academic Idealist Curriculum Ranks students for a future in an academic disciplinary field. Techno-Rationalist Curriculum Certifies to a client (ie. Business) that the student has attained certain skills. Learner-Centred Curriculum Diagnoses students’ abilities to inform future lesson planning to best support children’s learning. Social Reconstructionist Curriculum Measures progress with respect to a student’s perceived capacities and abilities.
  8. 8. School of Education | 8Types of Assessment • Ranking: Norm-Referenced vs Rating: Criterion- Referenced Assessment • Assessment of learning vs Assessment for learning • Summative vs Formative • Internal vs External • Formal vs Informal
  9. 9. Types of Assessment Formal Assessment Informal Assessment
  10. 10. Types of Assessment Summative Assessment Formative Assessment
  11. 11. Rating vs Ranking RATING RANKING
  12. 12. School of Education | 12Ranking: Norm-Referenced Assessment • Assessment by comparison of individuals • The Bell Curve • Reality TV uses it all the time!
  13. 13. School of Education | 13Ranking: Best Film/TV Series
  14. 14. School of Education | 14Ranking: Best Film
  15. 15. School of Education | 15Rating: Criterion-Referenced Assessment • Rating candidates or artefacts against defined (and objective) criteria. • Criterion-referenced assessment is often, but not always, used to establish a person’s competence (whether s/he can do something). • The best known example of criterion-referenced assessment is the driving test, when learner drivers are measured against a range of explicit criteria (such as “Not endangering other road users”).
  16. 16. School of Education | 16Rating: Best Film/TV Series 1. Skill in cinematography 2. Sophistication of characterisation 3. Historical accuracy
  17. 17. School of Education | 17Rating: Best Film 1. Skill in cinematography 2. Sophistication of characterisation 3. Clever storyline
  18. 18. Assessment works best when it . . . • Provides diagnostic feedback • Helps educators set standards • Evaluates progress • Relates to a student’s progress • Motivates performance
  19. 19. School of Education | 19Criterion-Referenced Rating Instruments / Rubrics • Competency Based Rubric/Scheme • Analytical Rubric/Scheme • Holistic (Standards-Referenced) Rubric/Scheme
  20. 20. School of Education | 20Competency Based Assessment Rubric Satisfactory Unsatisfactory Accurate Spelling Well Formed Sentences Well Structured Paragraphs Clear Introduction & Conclusion
  21. 21. School of Education | 21Analytical Rubric 5 3 1
  22. 22. • links the achievement of students to specified standards, through evidence collected from a number and variety of activities and from observations over time. • involves teachers gathering evidence of student achievement formally and informally, to make judgements and to facilitate and monitor students' progress using syllabus outcomes. Standards-Referenced Assessment
  23. 23. • what students are expected to know, understand and do at each stage, described in NSW syllabuses through outcomes, content and stage statements • how well students have achieved. Standards Describe:
  24. 24. School of Education | 24Standards-Based Rubric
  25. 25. The Common Grade Scale shown below can be used to report student achievement in both primary and junior secondary years in all NSW schools. The Common Grade Scale describes performance at each of five grade levels. A. The student has an extensive knowledge and understanding of the content and can readily apply this knowledge. In addition, the student has achieved a very high level of competence in the processes and skills and can apply these skills to new situations. B. The student has a thorough knowledge and understanding of the content and a high level of competence in the processes and skills. In addition, the student is able to apply this knowledge and these skills to most situations. C. The student has a sound knowledge and understanding of the main areas of content and has achieved an adequate level of competence in the processes and skills. D. The student has a basic knowledge and understanding of the content and has achieved a limited level of competence in the processes and skills. E. The student has an elementary knowledge and understanding in few areas of the content and has achieved very limited competence in some of the processes and skills. Common Grading Scale [Standards-Based Assessment]
  26. 26. Aims, Objectives & Outcomes
  27. 27. • A learning outcome is a statement of what a learner is expected to know, understand or be able to do as a result of a learning process. Learning Outcomes
  28. 28. This model for developing assessment activities emphasises: • that outcomes are central to the decisions teachers make about teaching, learning and assessment • the importance of gathering evidence about student learning in relation to the outcomes • how teachers use evidence to determine how well students are achieving in relation to the outcomes • the importance of teacher feedback and student reflection • how evidence of student achievement informs future teaching and learning. Using Syllabus Ouctomes
  29. 29. Standards-referenced assessment refers to the process of collecting and interpreting information about students' learning, using syllabus outcomes as key reference points for decisions about students' progress and achievement. Syllabus outcomes: • indicate the knowledge, understanding and skills expected to be acquired by most students by the end of a stage as a result of effective teaching and learning • are derived from the syllabus objectives • present a sequence of learning for each stage and take into account prior and subsequent learning of students. Using Syllabus Outcomes in Standards-Referenced Assessment
  30. 30. Syllabus outcomes are used by teachers to: • plan and develop learning and assessment opportunities • monitor student progress throughout each stage • assess and measure student achievement against intended learning at each stage • report student progress and achievement during, and at the end of, a stage. Using Syllabus Outcomes in Standards-Referenced Assessment
  31. 31. Applying Standards-Based Assessment - 1
  32. 32. Applying Standards-Based Assessment - 2
  33. 33. Applying Standards-Based Assessment - 3
  34. 34. School of Education | 34Moderation: Developing Consistency of Teacher Judgement • Moderation may involve pre-assessment and post- assessment procedures.
  35. 35. You should consider whether each assessment strategy:  is appropriate in meeting the requirements of the syllabus  has explicitly stated purposes and addresses the outcomes  is integral to the teaching and learning program  shows a clear relationship between the outcomes and content being assessed  allows students to demonstrate the extent of their skills, knowledge and understanding in an appropriately challenging way  focuses on what was taught in class and what students were informed would be assessed  provides opportunities to gather information about what further teaching and learning is required for students to succeed  provides valid and reliable evidence of student learning and is fair. Assessment Strategy Checklist
  36. 36. School of Education | 36What makes good assessment? Validity • The appropriateness of the inferences, uses, and consequences that result from the assessment. The best evidence of the validity of assessment comes from the alignment of the assessment tasks to unit learning outcomes and content. Validity seeks to answer questions such as “Are we assessing the right things in the right manner and making the right interpretation of the results?” Reliability • The consistency, stability and dependability of the assessment. Reliability seeks to answer questions such as “Would the same or similar results be achieved on another occasion or by another assessor?” Fairness • The integrity of the assessment. Fairness seeks to answer questions such as “Does the assessment provide opportunities for the student to demonstrate what they have learnt?” and “Is the assessment examining students’ performance on what was actually taught?”
  37. 37. School of Education | 37SMART Assessment  Specified  Measurable  Achievable  Realistic  Timed
  38. 38. • In a standards-referenced framework, teachers will make professional judgements about student achievement at key points in the learning cycle, perhaps at the end of a semester or year, or whenever schools choose to report on the levels of knowledge, understanding and skill demonstrated by students. • The grade descriptions provide a common language for reporting. Reporting
  39. 39. Teachers can use this evidence to: • evaluate student progress in relation to the syllabus outcomes and content being addressed • decide what needs to be taught next, and at what level of detail to assist students in their learning • determine any adjustments to teaching, learning and assessment • form a judgement of student achievement at key points throughout the year • inform students, parents and subsequent teachers of a student’s progress, strengths and areas for improvement • monitor the effectiveness of teaching and learning programs. Using Evidence
  40. 40. • The aim of feedback is for you to communicate to students how well their knowledge, understanding and skills are developing in relation to the outcomes. When planning programs and units of work, you need to think about the ways in which you will provide feedback to your students. • Feedback enables students to recognise their strengths and areas for development, and to plan with you the next steps in their learning. In this way they are given opportunities to improve and further develop their knowledge, understanding and skills. • Teacher feedback about student work is essential for students, and is integral to the teaching and learning process. Student self-reflection and peer evaluation can also provide valuable feedback to students. provide your students with regular opportunities to reflect on their learning. Providing Feedback to Students
  41. 41. • focus on the activity or task and what was expected • be constructive, providing meaningful information to students about their learning • correct misunderstandings • identify and reinforce students' strengths • state clearly how students can improve • allow students to take a more active role in their learning. Feedback to Students should . . .
  42. 42. • is timely, specific and related to the learning and assessment intention • is constructive and provides meaningful information to students about their learning in a variety of forms • focuses on the activity and corrects misunderstandings • identifies and reinforces students’ strengths • provides information about how they can improve • facilitates the development of and provides opportunities for self- assessment and reflection during the learning process • informs future teaching and learning opportunities. Principles of Effective Feedback
  43. 43. • oral discussion with class, groups or individual students • written annotations • general comments to the class about those aspects of the activity or task in which students excelled and those aspects that still need addressing • examples of good responses • peer evaluation and self-evaluation. Forms of Feedback
  44. 44. Aligning Outcomes, Assessment, Learning Activities, Teaching Strategies, and Reporting
  45. 45. • Step 1: What are the important and enduring concepts students should know and understand, or skills they need to perform? • Step 2: What would constitute evidence that they know or understand these concepts, or can perform these skills? • Step 3: What learning and teaching strategies would support the students to attain the target knowledge, understandings, and capacities? • Outcomes: What do you want the students to learn?  Identify the syllabus outcomes for the unit.  Decide on the subject matter or focus of the unit. • Rationale: Why does this learning matter? • Assessment: What are you going to get the students to do (or to produce)?  Decide on the evidence of learning that will be required, how students will demonstrate this in relation to the outcomes and how this evidence will be gathered and recorded.  Ensure a range of assessment strategies is used and that meaningful feedback in a variety of forms can be communicated to students. • Standards/Reporting: How well do you expect them to know it or do it?  What criteria will you use to indicate to students what you expect them to do?  What standards will you define to indicate to students how well you expect them to meet the criteria? • Activities/ Strategies: What will you do to scaffold student success?  Select the relevant syllabus content for the identified outcomes relating to the knowledge, understanding and skills that students will develop.  Plan the learning experiences and instruction and identify the assessment for learning strategies that will provide the evidence of learning. • Sequencing: In what sequence should these learning activities and teaching strategies occur?  Provide opportunities to reflect on student progress and modify future learning experiences accordingly. BackwardDesign
  46. 46. Questions for BEFORE the lesson begins Official Term Why you need to know it Where are we going? Aims, Outcomes & Objectives Must determine the goals for a lesson or it will go no where! Must know how it fits into the “big picture” aims. How are we going to get there? Teaching Strategies & Learning Activities Must design the optimal sequence of activities to help students achieve the goal. Why are we going this way? Rationale Must be able to justify to yourself, your head teacher, the students, and their parents, why you have chosen the Teaching approaches you employ. Questions for DURING the lesson Official Term Why you need to know it Are we there yet? Informal Assessment Must know what will count as evidence that the goals are being achieved or you won’t know if you need to change what you are doing mid-flight, in order for you to successfully reach the goals. Questions for AFTER the lesson Official Term Why you need to know it Was the journey worthwhile? Evaluation So you know what to do next time! Always good to make written notes so you remember next time what you thought would be improvements . . . Otherwise new ideas and improvements are easy to forget. What did we (students and teacher) learn? Did everything work as planned? Are there that could be improved for next time in terms of planning, sequencing, resources, activities? Map of the Learning Journey
  47. 47. Questions? Comments? CRICOS Provider 00109J |