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  1. 1. Universidad de Puerto Rico Recinto de Arecibo English DepartmentMartin Luther King Jr. Joymille Rivera López 840-08-6600 INGL 3093 L10
  2. 2. I. Introduction: What would you if you are going to take a bus and someone says to you: “You can’t sit in here because you are black”? .Or even worst: “You have to get out of here because I can’t take a ride with you”. I know that will be the most miserable day of your life and believe it or not that is a conduct that remains around the world. It is called segregation and is the separation of different racial groups in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home just because you belong to another racial group. That’s why I chose a man that defended the civil rights of the black people with intelligence and respect and his name is Martin Luther King Jr.
  3. 3. II. History (1955): By the time Martin Luther King started fighting to secure the progress on civil rights in the United States there was many other things happening in the world. For example:  United States: 1. January 7 - Marian Anderson is the first African American singer to perform at the Metropolitan Opera in New York City. 2. August 19 - Hurricane Diane hits the northeast United States, killing 200 and causing over $1 billion in damage. 3. September 24 - U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower suffers a coronary thrombosis while on vacation in Denver. 4. October 4 - The Brooklyn Dodgers finally win the World Series, defeating the New York Yankees 2-0 in Game 7 of the 1955 Fall Classic. 5. December 1 - Rosa Parks is arrested for refusing to give up her seat on the bus to a white person, and the national civil rights movement begins.  Around the world: 1. January 2 - José Antonio Ramón Cantera, president of Panama, is assassinated at a race track in Panama City. 2. May 5 - West Germany becomes a sovereign state. 3. September 19 - Hurricane Hilda kills 200 in Mexico. 4. May 19 - The Austrian State Treaty, which restores Austrias sovereignty, is concluded between the four occupying powers of World War II and Austria.  Puerto Rico: 1. The Festival Casals is founded by Pablo Casals. 2. Tony Vega was born in Salinas. 3. Mapita Cortes Mercado represented Puerto Rico in Miss Universe. 4. The Instituto de Cultura Puertorriqueña was founded.
  4. 4. III. Biography: Martin Luther King, Jr. was born at noon on Tuesday, January 15, 1929 at the family home, 501Auburn Avenue, N.E., Atlanta, Georgia. Dr. Charles Johnson was the attending physician. Martin LutherKing, Jr. was the first son and second child born to the Reverend Martin Luther King, Sr. and AlbertaWilliams King. Also born to the Kings were Christine, now Mrs. Isaac Farris, Sr., and the Reverend AlfredDaniel Williams King. The Reverend A.D. King is now deceased. Martin Luther King, Jr.’s maternal grandparents were the Reverend Adam Daniel Williams,second pastor of Ebenezer Baptist Church, and Jenny Parks Williams. His paternal grandparents wereJames Albert and Delia King, sharecroppers on a farm in Stockbridge, Georgia. Martin Luther King, Jr., was originally named "Michael King, Jr.", until the family traveled toEurope in 1934 and visited Germany. His father soon changed both of their names to Martin in honorof the German Protestant leader Martin Luther. He had an older sister, Willie Christine King, and ayounger brother Alfred Daniel Williams King. King sang with his church choir at the 1939 Atlantapremiere of the movie Gone with the Wind. Growing up in Atlanta, King attended Booker T. Washington High School. He skipped ninth andtwelfth grade, and entered Morehouse College at age fifteen without formally graduating from highschool. In 1948, he graduated from Morehouse with a Bachelor of Arts degree in sociology, andenrolled in Crozer Theological Seminary in Chester, Pennsylvania, from which he graduated with aBachelor of Divinity degree in 1951. King then began doctoral studies in systematic theology at BostonUniversity and received his Doctor of Philosophy on June 5, 1955. A 1980s inquiry concluded portionsof his dissertation had been plagiarized and he had acted improperly but that his dissertation still"makes an intelligent contribution to scholarship". King married Coretta Scott, on June 18, 1953, on the lawn of her parents house in herhometown of Heiberger, Alabama. King and Scott had four children; Yolanda King, Martin Luther KingIII, Dexter Scott King, and Bernice King. King became pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church inMontgomery, Alabama when he was twenty-five years old in 1954. Throughout his career of service, King wrote and spoke frequently, drawing on his experience asa preacher. On October 14, 1964, King became the youngest recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize, whichwas awarded to him for leading non-violent resistance to end racial prejudice in the United States.Montgomery Bus Boycott, 1955 In March 1955, a fifteen-year-old school girl, Claudette Colvin, refused to give up her bus seat toa white man in compliance with the Jim Crow laws. King was on the committee from the BirminghamAfrican-American community that looked into the case; Edgar Nixon and Clifford Durr decided to waitfor a better case to pursue. On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up herseat. The Montgomery Bus Boycott urged and planned by Nixon and led by King, soon followed. Theboycott lasted for 385 days and the situation became so tense that Kings house was bombed. King wasarrested during this campaign, which ended with a United States District Court ruling in Browder v.Gayle that ended racial segregation on all Montgomery public buses.
  5. 5. Southern Christian Leadership ConferenceIn 1957, King, Ralph Abernathy, and other civil rights activists founded the Southern ChristianLeadership Conference (SCLC). The group was created to harness the moral authority and organizingpower of black churches to conduct non-violent protests in the service of civil rights reform. King ledthe SCLC until his death. In 1958, while signing copies of his book Strive Toward Freedom in a Harlemdepartment store, he was stabbed in the chest by Izola Curry, a deranged black woman with a letteropener, and narrowly escaped death.Gandhis nonviolent techniques were useful to Kings campaign to correct the civil rights lawsimplemented in Alabama. King applied non-violent philosophy to the protests organized by the SCLC. In1959, he wrote The Measure of A Man, from which the piece What is Man?, an attempt to sketch theoptimal political, social, and economic structure of society, is derived. His SCLC secretary and personalassistant in this period was Dora McDonald.The FBI, underwritten directive from then Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, began telephonetapping King in 1963. J. Edgar Hoover feared Communists were trying to infiltrate the Civil RightsMovement, but when no such evidence emerged, the bureau used the incidental details caught ontape over the next five years in attempts to force King out of the preeminent leadership position.King believed that organized, nonviolent protest against the system of southern segregation known asJim Crow laws would lead to extensive media coverage of the struggle for black equality and votingrights. Journalistic accounts and televised footage of the daily deprivation and indignities suffered bysouthern blacks, and of segregationist violence and harassment of civil rights workers and marchers,produced a wave of sympathetic public opinion that convinced the majority of Americans that the CivilRights Movement was the most important issue in American politics in the early 1960s.King organized and led marches for blacks right to vote, desegregation, labor rights and other basiccivil rights. Most of these rights were successfully enacted into the law of the United States with thepassage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the 1965 Voting Rights Act.King and the SCLC applied the principles of nonviolent protest with great success by strategicallychoosing the method of protest and the places in which protests were carried out. There were oftendramatic stand-offs with segregationist authorities. Sometimes these confrontations turned violent.Albany movementThe Albany Movement was a desegregation coalition formed in Albany, Georgia in November, 1961. InDecember King and the SCLC became involved. The movement mobilized thousands of citizens for abroad-front nonviolent attack on every aspect of segregation within the city and attracted nationwideattention. When King first visited on December 15, 1961, he "had planned to stay a day or so andreturn home after giving counsel." But the following day he was swept up in a mass arrest of peacefuldemonstrators, and he declined bail until the city made concessions. "Those agreements", said King,"were dishonored and violated by the city," as soon as he left town. King returned in July 1962, andwas sentenced to forty-five days in jail or a $178 fine. He chose jail. Three days into his sentence, ChiefPritchett discreetly arranged for Kings fine to be paid and ordered his release. "We had witnessed
  6. 6. persons being kicked off lunch counter stools ... ejected from churches ... and thrown into jail ... But forthe first time, we witnessed being kicked out of jail."After nearly a year of intense activism with few tangible results, the movement began to deteriorate.King requested a halt to all demonstrations and a "Day of Penance" to promote non-violence andmaintain the moral high ground. Divisions within the black community and the canny, low-keyresponse by local government defeated efforts. However, it was credited as a key lesson in tactics forthe national civil rights movement.Birmingham campaignThe Birmingham campaign was a strategic effort by the SCLC to promote civil rights for AfricanAmericans. Many of its tactics of "Project C" were developed by Rev. Wyatt Tee Walker, ExecutiveDirector of SCLC from 1960-1964. Based on actions in Birmingham, Alabama, its goal was to end thecitys segregated civil and discriminatory economic policies. The campaign lasted for more than twomonths in the spring of 1963. To provoke the police into filling the citys jails to overflowing, King andblack citizens of Birmingham employed nonviolent tactics to flout laws they considered unfair. Kingsummarized the philosophy of the Birmingham campaign when he said, "The purpose of ... directaction is to create a situation so crisis-packed that it will inevitably open the door to negotiation".Protests in Birmingham began with a boycott to pressure businesses to sales jobs and otheremployment to people of all races, as well as to end segregated facilities in the stores. When businessleaders resisted the boycott, King and the SCLC began what they termed Project C, a series of sit-insand marches intended to provoke arrest. After the campaign ran low on adult volunteers, it recruitedchildren for what became known as the "Childrens Crusade". During the protests, the BirminghamPolice Department, led by Eugene "Bull" Connor, used high-pressure water jets and police dogs tocontrol protesters, including children. Not all of the demonstrators were peaceful, despite the avowedintentions of the SCLC. In some cases, bystanders attacked the police, who responded with force. Kingand the SCLC were criticized for putting children in harms way. By the end of the campaign, Kingsreputation improved immensely, Connor lost his job, the "Jim Crow" signs in Birmingham came down,and public places became more open to blacks.March on Washington, 1963 King, representing SCLC, was among the leaders of the so-called "Big Six" civil rights organizations whowere instrumental in the organization of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom in 1963. Theother leaders and organizations comprising the Big Six were: Roy Wilkins from the National Associationfor the Advancement of Colored People; Whitney Young, National Urban League; A. Philip Randolph,Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters; John Lewis, SNCC; and James L. Farmer, Jr. of the Congress ofRacial Equality. The primary logistical and strategic organizer was Kings colleague Bayard Rustin. ForKing, this role was another which courted controversy, since he was one of the key figures whoacceded to the wishes of President John F. Kennedy in changing the focus of the march. Kennedyinitially opposed the march outright, because he was concerned it would negatively impact the drivefor passage of civil rights legislation, but the organizers were firm that the march would proceed.The march originally was conceived as an event to dramatize the desperate condition of blacks in thesouthern United States and a very public opportunity to place organizers concerns and grievances
  7. 7. squarely before the seat of power in the nations capital. Organizers intended to excoriate and thenchallenge the federal government for its failure to safeguard the civil rights and physical safety of civilrights workers and blacks, generally, in the South. However, the group acquiesced to presidentialpressure and influence, and the event ultimately took on a far less strident tone. As a result, some civilrights activists felt it presented an inaccurate, sanitized pageant of racial harmony; Malcolm X called itthe "Farce on Washington," and members of the Nation of Islam were not permitted to attend themarch.King is perhaps most famous for his "I Have a Dream" speech, given in front of the Lincoln Memorialduring the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.The march did, however, make specific demands: an end to racial segregation in public school;meaningful civil rights legislation, including a law prohibiting racial discrimination in employment;protection of civil rights workers from police brutality; a $2 minimum wage for all workers; and self-government for Washington, D.C., then governed by congressional committee. Despite tensions, themarch was a resounding success. More than a quarter million people of diverse ethnicities attendedthe event, sprawling from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial onto the National Mall and around thereflecting pool. At the time, it was the largest gathering of protesters in Washingtons history. Kings "IHave a Dream" speech electrified the crowd. It is regarded, along with Abraham Lincolns GettysburgAddress and Franklin D. Roosevelts Infamy Speech, as one of the finest speeches in the history ofAmerican oratory."Bloody Sunday", 1965King and SCLC, in partial collaboration with SNCC, attempted to organize a march from Selma to thestate capital of Montgomery, for March 7, 1965. The first attempt to march on March 7 was abortedbecause of mob and police violence against the demonstrators. This day has since become known asBloody Sunday. Bloody Sunday was a major turning point in the effort to gain public support for theCivil Rights Movement, the clearest demonstration up to that time of the dramatic potential of Kingsnonviolence strategy. King, however, was not present. After meeting with President Lyndon B.Johnson, he decided not to endorse the march, but it was carried out against his wishes and withouthis presence on March 7 by local civil rights leaders. Footage of police brutality against the protesterswas broadcast extensively and aroused national public outrage.[64]King next attempted to organize a march for March 9. The SCLC petitioned for an injunction in federalcourt against the State of Alabama; this was denied and the judge issued an order blocking the marchuntil after a hearing. Nonetheless, King led marchers on March 9 to the Edmund Pettus bridge, thenheld a short prayer session before turning the marchers around and asking them to disperse so as notto violate the court order. The unexpected ending of this second march aroused the surprise and angerof many within the local movement.[65] The march finally went ahead fully on March 25.[66] At theconclusion of the march and on the steps of the state capitol, King delivered a speech that has becomeknown as "How Long, Not Long".[67]
  8. 8. Poor Peoples Campaign, 1968In 1968, King and the SCLC organized the "Poor Peoples Campaign" to address issues of economicjustice. The campaign culminated in a march on Washington, D.C. demanding economic aid to thepoorest communities of the United States. King traveled the country to assemble "a multiracial army ofthe poor" that would march on Washington to engage in nonviolent civil disobedience at the Capitoluntil Congress created a bill of rights for poor Americans.However, the campaign was not unanimously supported by other leaders of the Civil RightsMovement. Rustin resigned from the march stating that the goals of the campaign were too broad, thedemands unrealizable, and thought these campaigns would accelerate the backlash and repression onthe poor and the black. Throughout his participation in the civil rights movement, King was criticized bymany groups. This included opposition by more militant blacks and such prominent critics as Nation ofIslam member Malcolm X. Stokely Carmichael was a separatist and disagreed with Kings plea for racialintegration because he considered it an insult to a uniquely African-American culture. Omali Yeshitelaurged Africans to remember the history of violent European colonization and how power was notsecured by Europeans through integration, but by violence and force.King and the SCLC called on the government to invest in rebuilding Americas cities. He felt thatCongress had shown "hostility to the poor" by spending "military funds with alacrity and generosity".He contrasted this with the situation faced by poor Americans, claiming that Congress had merelyprovided "poverty funds with miserliness". His vision was for change that was more revolutionary thanmere reform: he cited systematic flaws of "racism, poverty, militarism and materialism", and arguedthat "reconstruction of society itself is the real issue to be faced".AssassinationOn March 29, 1968, King went to Memphis, Tennessee in support of the black sanitary public worksemployees, represented by AFSCME Local 1733, who had been on strike since March 12 for higherwages and better treatment. In one incident, black street repairmen received pay for two hours whenthey were sent home because of bad weather, but white employees were paid for the full day.On April 3, King addressed a rally and delivered his "Ive Been to the Mountaintop" address at MasonTemple, the World Headquarters of the Church of God in Christ. Kings flight to Memphis had beendelayed by a bomb threat against his plane.King was booked in room 306 at the Lorraine Motel, owned by Walter Bailey, in Memphis. TheReverend Ralph Abernathy, Kings close friend and colleague who was present at the assassination,swore under oath to the United States House Select Committee on Assassinations that King and hisentourage stayed at room 306 at the Lorraine Motel so often it was known as the King-Abernathysuite. King was shot at 6:01 p.m. April 4, 1968 while he was standing on the motels second floorbalcony. The bullet entered through his right cheek smashing his jaw and then traveled down his spinalcord before lodging in his shoulder. According to Jesse Jackson, who was present, Kings last words onthe balcony were to musician Ben Branch, who was scheduled to perform that night at an event Kingwas attending: "Ben, make sure you play Take My Hand, Precious Lord in the meeting tonight. Play itreal pretty." Abernathy heard the shot from inside the motel room and ran to the balcony to find King
  9. 9. on the floor. The events following the shooting have been disputed, as some people have accusedJackson of exaggerating his response.After emergency surgery, King was pronounced dead at St. Josephs Hospital at 7:05 p.m. According tobiographer Taylor Branch, Kings autopsy revealed that though only thirty-nine years old, he had theheart of a sixty-year-old, perhaps a result of the stress of thirteen years in the civil rights movement.The assassination led to a nationwide wave of riots in more than 100 cities. Presidential nomineeRobert Kennedy was on his way to Indianapolis for a campaign rally when he was informed of Kingsdeath. He gave a short yet empowering speech to the gathering of supporters informing them of thetragedy and asking them to continue Kings idea of non-violence. President Lyndon B. Johnson declaredApril 7 a national day of mourning for the civil rights leader. Vice-President Hubert Humphrey attendedKings funeral on behalf of Lyndon B. Johnson, as there were fears that Johnsons presence might inciteprotests and perhaps violence. At his widows request, Kings last sermon at Ebenezer Baptist Churchwas played at the funeral. It was a recording of his "Drum Major" sermon, given on February 4, 1968.In that sermon, King made a request that at his funeral no mention of his awards and honors be made,but that it be said that he tried to "feed the hungry", "clothe the naked", "be right on the [Vietnam]war question", and "love and serve humanity". His good friend Mahalia Jackson sang his favorite hymn,"Take My hand, Precious Lord", at the funeral. The city of Memphis quickly settled the strike on termsfavorable to the sanitation workers.Two months after Kings death, escaped convict James Earl Ray was captured at London HeathrowAirport while trying to leave the United Kingdom on a false Canadian passport in the name of RamonGeorge Sneyd. Ray was quickly extradited to Tennessee and charged with Kings murder. He confessedto the assassination on March 10, 1969, though he recanted this confession three days later. On theadvice of his attorney Percy Foreman, Ray pleaded guilty to avoid a trial conviction and thus thepossibility of receiving the death penalty. Ray was sentenced to a 99-year prison term. Ray firedForeman as his attorney, from then on derisively calling him "Percy Fourflusher".He claimed a man hemet in Montreal, Quebec with the alias "Raoul" was involved and that the assassination was the resultof a conspiracy. He spent the remainder of his life attempting (unsuccessfully) to withdraw his guiltyplea and secure the trial he never had. On June 10, 1977, shortly after Ray had testified to the HouseSelect Committee on Assassinations that he did not shoot King, he and six other convicts escaped fromBrushy Mountain State Penitentiary in Petros, Tennessee. They were recaptured on June 13 andreturned to prison.Awards and recognitionKing was awarded at least fifty honorary degrees from colleges and universities in the U.S. andelsewhere. Besides winning the 1964 Nobel Peace Prize, in 1965 King was awarded the AmericanLiberties Medallion by the American Jewish Committee for his "exceptional advancement of theprinciples of human liberty". Reverend King said in his acceptance remarks, "Freedom is one thing. Youhave it all or you are not free". King was also awarded the Pacem in Terris Award, named after a 1963encyclical letter by Pope John XXIII calling for all people to strive for peace.In 1966, the Planned Parenthood Federation of America awarded King the Margaret Sanger Award for"his courageous resistance to bigotry and his lifelong dedication to the advancement of social justice
  10. 10. and human dignity." King was posthumously awarded the Marcus Garvey Prize for Human Rights byJamaica in 1968.In 1971, King was posthumously awarded the Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album for his WhyI Oppose the War in Vietnam. Six years later, the Presidential Medal of Freedom was awarded to Kingby Jimmy Carter. King and his wife were also awarded the Congressional Gold Medal in 2004.King was second in Gallups List of Widely Admired People in the 20th century. In 1963 King was namedTime Person of the Year and in 2000, King was voted sixth in the Person of the Century poll by thesame magazine. King was elected third in the Greatest American contest conducted by the DiscoveryChannel and AOL.More than 730 cities in the United States have streets named after King. King County, Washingtonrededicated its name in his honor in 1986, and changed its logo to an image of his face in 2007. The citygovernment center in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, is named in honor of King. King is venerated as a saintby the Episcopal Church in the United States of America (feast day April 4) and the Evangelical LutheranChurch in America (feast day January 15).In 2002, scholar Molefi Kete Asante listed Martin Luther King, Jr. on his list of 100 Greatest AfricanAmericans.
  11. 11. IV. Direct Quotes: 1. “In the end, we will remember not the words of our enemies, but the silence of our friends”. 2. “Let no man pull you low enough to hate him”. 3. “Segregation is the adultery of an illicit intercourse between injustice and immorality”. 4. “We must learn to live together as brothers or perish together as fools”. 5. “When you are right you cannot be too radical; when you are wrong, you cannot be too conservative”. 6. “All progress is precarious, and the solution of one problem brings us face to face with another problem”. 7. “Nothing in the entire world is more dangerous than sincere ignorance and conscientious stupidity”. 8. “Like an unchecked cancer, hate corrodes the personality and eats away its vital unity. Hate destroys a mans sense of values and his objectivity. It causes him to describe the beautiful as ugly and the ugly as beautiful and to confuse the true with the false and the false with the true”. 9. “I submit to you that if a man hasnt discovered something he will die for, he isnt fit to live”. 10. “It may be true that the law cannot make a man love me, but it can stop him from lynching me, and I think thats pretty important”.
  12. 12. V. Influence:Kings main legacy was to secure progress on civil rights in the United States, which has enabled moreAmericans to reach their potential. He is frequently referenced as a human rights icon today. His nameand legacy have often been invoked since his death as people have debated his likely position onvarious modern political issues.On the international scene, Kings legacy included influences on the Black Consciousness Movementand Civil Rights Movement in South Africa. Kings work was cited by and served as an inspiration forAlbert Lutuli, another black Nobel Peace prize winner who fought for racial justice in that country. Theday following Kings assassination, school teacher Jane Elliott conducted her first "Blue Eyes/BrownEyes" exercise with her class of elementary school students in Riceville, Iowa. Her purpose was to helpthem understand Kings death as it related to racism, something they little understood from havinglived in a predominately white community.Kings wife, Coretta Scott King, followed her husbands footsteps and was active in matters of socialjustice and civil rights until her death in 2006. The same year that Martin Luther King was assassinated,Mrs. King established the King Center in Atlanta, Georgia, dedicated to preserving his legacy and thework of championing nonviolent conflict resolution and tolerance worldwide. His son, Dexter King,currently serves as the centers chairman. Daughter Yolanda King is a motivational speaker, author andfounder of Higher Ground Productions, an organization specializing in diversity training.There are opposing views even within the King family — regarding the slain civil rights leaders religiousand political views about homosexuals, lesbians, bisexuals and transgendered people. Kings widowCoretta said publicly that she believed her husband would have supported gay rights. However, hisdaughter Bernice believed he would have been opposed to them. The King Center includesdiscrimination, and lists homophobia as one of its examples, in its list of "The Triple Evils" that shouldbe opposed.In 1980, the Department of Interior designated Kings boyhood home in Atlanta and several nearbybuildings the Martin Luther King, Jr. National Historic Site. In 1996, United States Congress authorizedthe Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity to establish a foundation to manage fund raising and design of a MartinLuther King, Jr. National Memorial on the Mall in Washington, DC. King was a member of Alpha PhiAlpha, the first intercollegiate Greek-letter fraternity established by and for African Americans. Kingwas the first African American honored with his own memorial in the National Mall area and the firstnon-President to be commemorated in such a way. The sculptor chosen was Lei Yixin. The KingMemorial will be administered by the National Park Service.
  13. 13. VI. What if? If Martin Luther King Jr. would not existed maybe the black people wouldn’t have the freedom of speech and vote that they have today and the segregation would still exist in his maximum power. And not only the black people I would say all the ethnic groups because segregation covers every single skin color and all the differences between all the people of the world.VII. Why? I chose Martin Luther King Jr. Because since I studied him I started liking him because of his intelligence and the way he defended his ideals. He never offended anyone but his message was heard and he attracted thousands of followers.VIII. Professional Vocabulary: 1. Racial segregation: is the separation of different racial groups in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a drinking fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home 2. Montgomery Bus Boycott: was a political and social protest campaign started in 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama, intended to oppose the citys policy of racial segregation on its public transit system. 3. Howard Thurman: was an influential American author, philosopher, theologian, educator and civil rights leader. He was Dean of Theology and the chapels at Howard and Boston universities for more than two decades, wrote 20 books, and in 1944 helped found the first racially integrated, multicultural church in the United States. 4. Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) is an American civil rights organization. 5. Jesse Louis Jackson, Sr.: is an American civil rights activist and Baptist minister. 6. Bloody Sunday: when 600 civil rights marchers were attacked by state and local police with billy clubs and tear gas.
  14. 14. 7. "I Have A Dream": is the popular name given to the public speech by Martin Luther King, Jr., when he spoke of his desire for a future where blacks and whites, among others, would coexist harmoniously as equals. Kings delivery of the speech on August 28, 1963, from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial during the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, was a defining moment of the American Civil Rights Movement. 8. James Earl Ray : was a habitual criminal convicted of the assassination of American civil rights leader Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., which occurred on April 4, 1968 in Memphis, Tennessee.IX. Conclusion: With this work I learned more about this character and I really believe that we can see him like an inspiration and like a role model because we have to fight for what we believe no matter what.