Wcdma Training

11,691 views
11,549 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
9 Comments
29 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total views
11,691
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1,467
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
837
Comments
9
Likes
29
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Wcdma Training

  1. 1. UMTS W-CDMA -By Rohit Joshi
  2. 2. Contents • Basic Architecture of 3G ( W-CDMA ) system • How do CDMA systems work? • Channel structures of W-CDMA system • A simplified flow of radio access
  3. 3. UMTS Overview
  4. 4. UMTS and 3G wireless • Staged roll-out with "vintages" releases: – Release 3 ("1999") GPRS data services • Multimedia messaging service (MMS) = SMS successor ~ MIME email • RAN via evolved CDMA – Release 4: March 2001 – Release 5: March-June 2002 – Release 6: June 2003 all-IP network • Main new features (affecting packet services): – All-IP transport in the Radio Access and Core Networks – Enhancements of services and service management – High-speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) • Introduces additional downlink channels: • High-Speed Downlink Shared Channel (HS-DSCH) • Shared Control Channels for HS-DSCH
  5. 5. UMTS Data Rates macrocell 2 km 144 kb/s microcell 1 km 384 kb/s picocell 60 m 2 Mb/s • Follow-on to GSM, but WCDMA physical layer • New spectrum around 2 GHz • Radio transmission modes: – frequency division duplex (FDD): 2 x 60 MHz – time division duplex (TDD): 15 + 20 MHz • Chip rate 3.84 Mcps  channel bandwidth 4.4 – 5 MHz
  6. 6. UMTS QoS Class conversational voice, video conferencing low delay, strict ordering streaming video streaming modest delay, strict ordering interactive web browsing, games modest delay background email download no delay guarantees
  7. 7. UMTS Architecture
  8. 8. UMTS Architecture UTRAN Packet switched Core Network UE IP server Applic. Application TCP GGSN TCP Radio Access Bearers IP IP IP IP RNC SGSN Radio Bearers PDCP PDCP Iu UP Iu UP GTP-U GTP-U RLC GTP-U GTP-U GPRS Logical channels RLC IP backbone MAC MAC UDP UDP UDP/ UDP/ Transport channels TCP IP routing TCP Node B PHY PHY IP IP IP IP IP IP FP FP AAL2/ AAL2/ AAL5/ AAL5/ PHY ATM ATM ATM ATM Physical channels Uu Iub Iu Gn Gn/Gp Gi
  9. 9. UMTS Architecture Simplified CN Iu Iu RNC Iur RNC Iub Iub Iub Iub NB NB NB NB Uu Uu Uu Uu
  10. 10. UMTS Gateway Architecture Legacy Mobile Signaling Networks Multimedia IP Networks Roaming Signaling Mm Gateway (R-SGW) Mh Ms HSS CSCF Gi Cx Mg Mr Gi MRF Media Gateway Transport Switching Gi Control Function Gateway (T-SGW) (MGCF) SGSN GGSN Mc (= H.248) Media Gateway Media Gateway Gi PSTN/Legacy/External (MGW) (MGW) Alves
  11. 11. UMTS Rel-4 Rel-5 Architecture
  12. 12. IM Sub System Call State Control Function (CSCF) Home Application Subscription Subscriber Server Server Location Function Interrogating-CSCF Sh • Accesspoint to domain SLF HSS AS • Hides topology and configuration Diameter Diameter ISC UE Dx Cx Cx SIP Gm Mw Mw UA P-CSCF I-CSCF S-CSCF (User Agent) SIP SIP SIP Visited Home Domain Domain Serving-CSCF Proxy-CSCF • Session control services • Registration, AS usage, charging, etc Jalava
  13. 13. CDMA
  14. 14. Spread Spectrum • “Spread” the radio signal over a wide frequency range by modulating it with a code word unique to the radio • Receiver’s correlator distinguishes signals by examining the spectrum with a time synchronised duplicate of the spreading code • Power limited system • Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum(DSSS) – Carrier is modulated by a digital code in which code bit rate is much larger than information bit rate. • Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum – Carrier frequency is shifted in discrete increments in a pattern generated by a code sequence.
  15. 15. Multiple Access GUARD BANDS FDMA USER # 5 USER # 4 USER # 3 FREQUENCY USER # 2 FREQUENCY USER # 1 TIME TIME TDMA GUARD BANDS CDMA USER # 1 USER # 2 4 USER # 5 USER # 3 USER # Pseudocodes FREQUENCY FREQUENCY Pseudocode N Pseudocode N+1 Pseudocode N+2 TIME Time
  16. 16. Concept of channels in W-CDMA • Single Carrier of 5 MHz • Separate Carrier for Uplink & Downlink • Chip rate of 3.84 Mcps • Channelisation codes & Scrambling codes Identify various channels
  17. 17. Channelization Codes
  18. 18. UTRAN Architecture
  19. 19. Protocol Architecture for UMTS C Plane U Plane Radio APPLICATION DATA STREAM PART Network Transport Network Layer Control Plane Transport Network Transport Network User Plane User Plane Transport Network layer
  20. 20. Protocol in Iub Interface C Plane U Plane Node B Various Frame Application Part Transport Network Protocols NBAP C Plane ALCAP Q2630.1 Q2150.2 SSCF-UNI SSCF-UNI SSCOP SSCOP AAL5 AAL5 AAL2 ATM Layer Physical Layer
  21. 21. Protocol in Iur Interface C Plane U Plane Radio Network Subsystem Application Part Transport Network Iur Data Streams RNSAP C Plane ALCAP Transport Network Transport Network User Plane Q2630.1 User Plane Q2150.1 SCCP MTP3-B ITUN MTP3-B ITUN SSCF-NNI SCTP SSCF-NNI SCTP SSCOP UDP/IP SSCOP UDP/IP AAL5 AAL5 AAL2 ATM Layer Physical Layer
  22. 22. Protocol in Iu Interface CS C Plane U Plane Radio Access Network Application Part Transport Network Iu Protocol Layer RANAP C Plane ALCAP Transport Network Transport Network User Plane Q2630.1 User Plane Q2150.1 SCCP MTP3-B MTP3-B SSCF-NNI SSCF-NNI SSCOP SSCOP AAL5 AAL5 AAL2 ATM Layer Physical Layer
  23. 23. Protocol in Iu Interface PS C Plane U Plane Radio Access Network Application Part Transport Network Iu Protocol Layer RANAP C Plane SCCP GTP-U MTP3-B ITUN UPD SSCF-NNI SCTP SSCOP UDP/IP IP AAL5 AAL5 ATM Layer Physical Layer
  24. 24. UMTS Control Plane Protocol for CS Service MM/CM/ MM/CM/ SMS SMS RELAY RANAP RRC RRC RANAP RLC SCCP SCCP RLC MTP3-B / MTP3-B / SSCOP SSCOP MAC MAC AAL5 AAL5 L1 L1 ATM ATM Uu UTRAN Iu MS 3G-MSC/VLR
  25. 25. UMTS User Plane Protocol for CS Services Trans-coding CS function application like coded voice RELAY 25.415 25.415 RLC RLC MAC MAC AAL2 AAL2 L1 L1 ATM ATM Uu UTRAN Iu MS 3G-MSC/VLR
  26. 26. UMTS Control Plane Protocol for PS GMM/SM GMM/SM /SMS /SMS RELAY RANAP RRC RRC RANAP RLC SCCP SCCP RLC SIGNALLING SIGNALLING BEARER BEARER MAC MAC AAL5 AAL5 L1 L1 ATM ATM Uu Iu MS UTRAN 3G-SGSN
  27. 27. UMTS User Plane Protocol for PS APPLICATION IP,PPP,X.25, IP,PPP,X.25 OSP RELAY RELAY ,OSP PDCP GTP-U GTP-U GTP-U GTP-U PDCP RLC RLC UDP/ UDP/ UDP/ UDP/IP IP IP IP MAC MAC AAL5 AAL5 L2 L2 L1 L1 ATM ATM L1 LI Uu Iu Gn MS UTRAN 3G-SGSN GGSN
  28. 28. Radio Interface
  29. 29. RADIO Subsystem Access Points GC-SAP Nt-SAP DC-SAP RLC/RRC MAC Layer SHCCH PCCH BCCH DCCH CCCH DTCH CTCH PHYSICAL LAYER
  30. 30. Radio Interface Protocol Architecture
  31. 31. Typical Channel Structure of CDMA
  32. 32. Hierarchy of Radio Resource • Logical Transport Channels • Transport Channels • Physical Channels
  33. 33. Physical Channels
  34. 34. UTRA ( FDD ) or W-CDMA • Basic Physical Resource code/frequency/phase • There are two types of codes – Channelisation – Scrambling • In IS-95 their equivalent are – Walsh codes – PN sequences • The Physical channel is defined by a combination of these basic physical resources • There are hierarchical channel resources from radio resource perspective
  35. 35. Types of Uplink Physical Channels • Dedicated physical channels ( DPCH ) • Common physical channels – Random Access Channel ( PRACH ) – Common Packet Channel ( PCPCH ) • Each physical channel has a associated separate control channel
  36. 36. Uplink Physical Channels DPDCH DATA bits DPCCH Pilot bits TFCI bits FBI bits TPC bits Cch,256,0 Slot 4 Slot 8 Slot 12 Slot 0 Slot 1 Slot 9 Slot 2 Slot 3 Slot 5 Slot 13 Slot 6 Slot 1 0 Slot 7 Slot 11 Slot 14 Frame of 10ms
  37. 37. Uplink Physical RACH Message Part Data Part DATA bits C ch,SF,m Control Part Pilot bits TFCI bits C ch,256,m Slot 4 Slot 8 Slot 12 Slot 0 Slot 1 Slot 9 Slot 2 Slot 3 Slot 5 Slot 13 Slot 6 Slot 1 0 Slot 7 Slot 11 Slot 14 Frame of 10ms
  38. 38. Types of Downlink Physical Channels • Dedicated physical channels ( DPCH ) • Common physical channels – Acquisition indication Channel ( AICH ) – Paging indication Channel ( PICH ) – Common pilot Channel ( CPICH ) – Primary common control channel ( P- CCPCH) – Secondary common control channel ( S-CCPCH ) – Physical downlink shared channel ( PDSCH )
  39. 39. Downlink Physical Data Channel DDPCH TPC TFCI Data 1 bits Data 2 bits Pilot bits bits bits Slot 4 Slot 8 Slot 12 Slot 0 Slot 1 Slot 9 Slot 2 Slot 3 Slot 5 Slot 13 Slot 6 Slot 1 0 Slot 7 Slot 11 Slot 14 Frame of 10ms
  40. 40. Downlink Physical Shared Channel PDSCH Data bits Slot 4 Slot 8 Slot 12 Slot 0 Slot 1 Slot 9 Slot 2 Slot 3 Slot 5 Slot 13 Slot 6 Slot 1 0 Slot 7 Slot 11 Slot 14 Frame of 10ms
  41. 41. Downlink P-CCPCH acp Primary synchronisation channel acs i,7 Secondary synchronisation channel 256 CHIPS Broadcast channel 2560 CHIPS BCH = 27kbps Channelisation code Cch,256,1 Slot 4 Slot 8 Slot 12 Slot 0 Slot 1 Slot 9 Slot 2 Slot 3 Slot 5 Slot 13 Slot 6 Slot 1 0 Slot 7 Slot 11 Slot 14 Frame of 10ms
  42. 42. Downlink CPICH Pre-defined symbol sequence Common Pilot Channel 2560 CHIPS CPICH = 30kbps Channelisation code Cch,256,0 Slot 4 Slot 8 Slot 12 Slot 0 Slot 1 Slot 9 Slot 2 Slot 3 Slot 5 Slot 13 Slot 6 Slot 1 0 Slot 7 Slot 11 Slot 14 Frame of 10ms
  43. 43. Downlink AICH 4096 chips 1024 chips AI Empty 5120 CHIPS AS AS AS AS AS AS AS AS Slot Slot Slot Slot 0 Slot 2 Slot 4 Slot 6 Slot 8 AS AS 10 AS 12 AS 14 AS AS AS Slot 3 Slot 5 Slot Slot Slot 1 Slot 7 Slot 9 11 13 Two Frame 20ms
  44. 44. Downlink AP-AICH 4096 chips 1024 chips API Empty 5120 CHIPS AS AS AS AS AS AS AS AS Slot Slot Slot Slot 0 Slot 2 Slot 4 Slot 6 Slot 8 AS AS 10 AS 12 AS 14 AS AS AS Slot 3 Slot 5 Slot Slot Slot 1 Slot 7 Slot 9 11 13 Two Frame 20ms
  45. 45. Downlink CD/CA-ICH 4096 chips 1024 chips CDI/CAI Empty 5120 CHIPS AS AS AS AS AS AS AS AS Slot Slot Slot Slot 0 Slot 2 Slot 4 Slot 6 Slot 8 AS AS 10 AS 12 AS 14 AS AS AS Slot 3 Slot 5 Slot Slot Slot 1 Slot 7 Slot 9 11 13 Two Frame 20ms
  46. 46. Downlink CSICH 4096 chips 1024 chips Tx Off SI 5120 CHIPS AS AS AS AS AS AS AS AS Slot Slot Slot Slot 0 Slot 2 Slot 4 Slot 6 Slot 8 AS AS 10 AS 12 AS 14 AS AS AS Slot 3 Slot 5 Slot Slot Slot 1 Slot 7 Slot 9 11 13 Two Frame 20ms
  47. 47. Downlink PICH • There are certain number of Paging Indicator per frame • The number of bits per Paging indicator depend upon the number of Paging Indicators • A UE is always associated to a Paging indicator 12 Bits 288 Bits used for Paging Unused 300 Bits Slot 4 Slot 8 Slot 12 Slot 0 Slot 1 Slot 9 Slot 2 Slot 3 Slot 5 Slot 13 Slot 6 Slot 1 0 Slot 7 Slot 11 Slot 14 Frame of 10ms
  48. 48. Transport Channels
  49. 49. Transport Channel Types • Transport Channels – RANDOM ACCESS CHANNEL ( RACH ) – BROADCAST CHANNEL ( BCH ) – PAGING CHANNEL ( PCH ) – FORWARD ACCESS CHANNEL ( FACH ) – COMMON PACKET CHANNEL ( CPCH ) – DOWNLINK SHARED CHANNEL ( DSCH ) – DEDICATED CHANNEL ( DCH )
  50. 50. Mapping Between Transport & Physical Channels TRANSPORT CHANNELS BCH PCH RACH FACH DSCH DCH CPCH P-CCPCH S-CCPCH PRACH PDSCH DPDCH PCPCH PHYSICAL CHANNELS Note : CPICH , SCH , DPCCH , AICH ,PICH don’t have any transport channel associated with them .
  51. 51. RACH Protocol Model DTCH DCCH CCCH CCCH DCCH DTCH MAC-d MAC-d MAC-c/sh MAC-c/sh RACH RACH FP FP RachFP RachFP TNL TNL TNL TNL PHY PHY UE Uu NodeB Iub CRNC Iur SRNC
  52. 52. FACH Protocol Model DTCH DCCH MTCH MCCH MTCH MCCH DCCH DTCH MSCH CCCH MSCH CCCH MAC-d MAC-d MAC-c/sh MAC-c/sh/m FACH FACH FP FP FachFP FachFP PHY PHY TNL TNL TNL TNL UE Uu NodeB Iub CRNC Iur SRNC
  53. 53. DCH Protocol Model DTCH DCCH DCCH DTCH MAC-d MAC-d PHY-upper PHY PHY DchFP DchFP DchFP DchFP PHY PHY TNL TNL TNL TNL UE Uu NodeB Iub CRNC Iur SRNC
  54. 54. DSCH Protocol Model DTCH DCCH DCCH DTCH MAC-d MAC-d MAC-c/sh MAC-c/sh DschFP DschFP DschFP DschFP PHY PHY TNL TNL TNL TNL UE Uu NodeB Iub CRNC Iur SRNC
  55. 55. HSDSCH Protocol Model DTCH DCCH DCCH DTCH MAC-d MAC-d CRNC HS-DSCH Flow Control MAC-hs MAC- HS- HS- HS- HS- hs DSCHFP DSCHFP DSCHFP DSCHFP PHY PHY TNL TNL TNL TNL UE Uu NodeB Iub CRNC Iur SRNC
  56. 56. Logical Channels
  57. 57. Logical Channel Types • Control Logical Channels – Broadcast Control Channel ( BCCH ) – Paging Control Channel ( PCCH ) – Dedicated Control Channel ( DCCH ) – Common Control Channel ( CCCH ) – Shared Channel Control Channel ( SHCCH ) • Traffic Logical Channels – Dedicated Traffic Channel ( DTCH ) – Common Traffic Channel ( CTCH )
  58. 58. Mapping Between Logical & Transport Channels LOGICAL CHANNELS BCCH PCCH CCCH DCCH DTCH CTCH BCH PCH RACH FACH DSCH DCH CPCH TRANSPORT CHANNELS
  59. 59. UTRAN MAC Architecture BCCH CTCH MCCH MTCH MAC Control MAC Control PCCH CCCH SHCCH MAC ControlMAC ControlDCCH DTCH DTCH TDD only MSCH MAC Control MAC-es MAC-d Configuration Configuration without MAC c/sh - with MAC c/sh MAC-e MAC-hs Configuration MAC-c/sh/m with MAC -c/sh E-DCH HS- DSCH HS- DSCH Iub PCH FACH FACH RACH USCH USCH DSCH DSCH Iur or local DCH DCH TDD only TDD only TDD only TDD only Associated Downlink Associated Uplink Associated Downlink Associated Uplink Signalling Signalling Signalling Signalling
  60. 60. Network Procedures
  61. 61. Cell Search/Identification • The Primary synchronization code is the same for every cell in the system • The Secondary synchronization code is a sequence of 15 codes from a set of 16 codes • Each cell is allocated one and only one primary scrambling code • Scrambling codes are divided into 64 code groups ; each code group having 8 primary scrambling codes . Each primary scrambling code has associated 15 secondary scrambling codes
  62. 62. W-CDMA Cell Setup NODE-B RNC RESOURCE STATUS INDICATION CELL SETUP REQUEST CELL SETUP RESPONSE COMMON TRANSPORT CHANNEL SETUP COMMON TRANSPORT CHANNEL SETUP RESPONSE SYSTEM INFORMATION
  63. 63. Mobile States CONNECTED STATES CELL_URA CELL_PCH CELL_DCH CELL_FACH IDLE STATE IDLE STATE IDLE STATE
  64. 64. RRC Connection Setup In Dedicated Mode UE Node B Serving Serving RNS RNC 1. CCCH : RRC Connection Request RRC RRC Allocate RNTI Select L1 and L2 parameters 2. Radio Link Setup Request NBAP NBAP Start RX description 3. Radio Link Setup Response NBAP NBAP 4. ALCAP Iub Data Transport Bearer Setup 5. NodeB-SRNC Data Transport Bearer Sync Start TX description 6. CCCH : RRC Connection Setup RRC RRC 7. DCCH : RRC Connection Setup Complete RRC RRC
  65. 65. Hand Off in CDMA • Hard Handoff • Softer Handoff • Soft Handoff
  66. 66. Soft Handover Antenna s T P A T P A Linear s Comb. s T P A • Mobile moves towards edge of cell • BS detects low power • MS spreading code sent to candidate BS • Signals from both BS combined by Rake Reciever • All fingers correlate with rays from new site • Old BS drops mobile spreading code
  67. 67. THANK YOU

×