Designing Collection Experiences: Availability

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Availability as the primary measure of public library collection performance.

Availability as the primary measure of public library collection performance.

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  • Spent some years of his childhood in Polk City, Iowa
  • What is the ratio of girls to the total?
  • Extensive discussion in Lancaster.
  • Late 1990s
  • What is the mean number of items out at any one time? (32/12=2.7)How many times did the number of items out exceed 3? (2 times)How many items were necessary to ensure that a copy was always available (5 – or 6, if you want one on the shelf at all times)
  • The first duplicate you add nets the most additional availability. As you add more duplicates, the additional satisfaction due to each copy decreases. You are adding copies to satisfy increasingly unlikely combinations of arrivals.

Transcript

  • 1. Designing Collection Experiences: 2. Availability Roy Kenagy rjkenagy@netins.net www.whatwouldranganathando.org September 17 & October 1, 2013 Waterloo Public Library
  • 2. Measurement
  • 3. Exercise What are some collection performance measures?
  • 4. Input Output Outcome
  • 5. “The most important figures that one needs for management are unknown or unknowable… but successful management must nevertheless take account of them.” W. Edwards Deming. Out of the Crisis. Cambridge, Mass.: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Center for Advanced Engineering Study, 1986, p. 121, crediting Lloyd S. Nelson.
  • 6. The mission of librarians is to help create transformative meaning in the lives of readers and the conversations of communities.
  • 7. The Many Collections Hypothesis
  • 8. Charlie Robinson Baltimore County Public Library “Give ‘em what they want, when they want it.”
  • 9. Availability
  • 10. Availability: Are the texts that the reader would prefer to select presented when the reader would prefer to select them?
  • 11. Reader Library Texts Collection In Use Shelved Collection Other Text Experiences Other Library Experiences
  • 12. Ratio
  • 13. Rod Pierce. "Definition of Ratio." Math Is Fun. Ed. Rod Pierce. August 24, 2013. http://www.mathsisfun.com/definitions/ratio.html
  • 14. 1,500 items in use 8,500 items shelved 1. What is the ratio of items in use to items in the collection? 2. What is the ratio of items on the shelf to items in the collection? 10,000 items in the collection
  • 15. Availability Surveys Measuring reader satisfaction
  • 16. Availability survey ratio: just ask the readers…
  • 17. Van House, Nancy A., Mary Jo Lynch, Charles R. McClure, Douglas L. Zweizig, and Eleanor Jo Rodger. Output Measures for Public Libraries: A Manual of Standardized Procedures. 2nd ed. Chicago: American Library Association, 1987.
  • 18. “The principle categories of dissatisfaction” Paul B. Kantor "Availability Analysis," Journal of the American Society for Information Science 27, no. 5 (September-October 1976) 311-19. F=109 FrustrationSuccess
  • 19. Exercise What are some sources of library and reader error in availability studies?
  • 20. Library Error & Reader Error Library Error Reader Error
  • 21. Bill Price and David Jaffe. The Best Service Is No Service: How to Liberate Your Customers From Customer Service, Keep Them Happy, and Control Costs. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2008.
  • 22. Rhizomes
  • 23. Unlike the graphic arts, drawing, or photography, unlike tracings, the rhizome pertains to a map that must be produced, constructed, a map that is always detachable, connectable, reversible, modifiable, and has multiple entranceways and exits and its own lines of flight. It is tracings that must be put on the map, not the opposite. Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari. A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia, translated and with a forward by Brian Massumi. Capitalism and Schizophrenia, 2. Minneapolis University of Minnesota Press, 1987, p. 20.
  • 24. Relative use The relation between the holdings ratio and circulation ratio of a rhizome. An indicator that a rhizome may be over- sized or under-sized.
  • 25. Relative use F. Wilfred Lancaster,. If You Want to Evaluate Your Library . . . 2nd ed. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois, Graduate School of Library and Information Science, 1993. Gregory R. Mostyn. "The Use of Supply-Demand Equality in Evaluating Collection Adequacy," California Librarian 35 (April 1974) 16-23.
  • 26. Holdings ratio
  • 27. Circulation ratio
  • 28. Collection Holdings Ratio Circulation Ratio Relative Use Youth .25 .50 2.00 Adult .75 .50 .67
  • 29. Relative use
  • 30. Collection Holdings Circulation Holdings Ratio Circulation Ratio Relative Use Youth 8,000 19,500 0.24 0.35 1.4 Adult 20,000 21,000 0.61 0.37 0.6 Media 5,000 16,000 0.15 0.28 1.9 Total 33,000 56,500
  • 31. Other applications of relative use • Interlibrary loan • Holds • Missing or not returned • Withdrawn for damage or wear
  • 32. Brief Test Holdings Availability White, Howard D. Brief Tests of Collection Strength: A Methodology for All Types of Libraries. Westport, CT Greenwood, 1995.
  • 33. Brief Test Holdings Availability
  • 34. Rod Pierce. "How to Calculate the Mean Value" Math Is Fun. Ed. Rod Pierce. April 21, 2013. http://www.mathsisfun.com/mean.html
  • 35. Rod Pierce. "Definition of Median" Math Is Fun. Ed. Rod Pierce. Aug 23, 2013. http://www.mathsisfun.com/definitions/median.html
  • 36. Picture book holdings in Iowa libraries
  • 37. The Language of the Levels Conspectus 0. Out of scope 1. Minimal 2. Basic information 3. Instructional support 4. Research 5. Comprehensive Not Conspectus • Happiness • Glee • Eternal joy • The cat’s pajamas
  • 38. Takeaway from “Brief Tests” holdings measure Validate checklists by looking in a union catalog (WorldCat, Iowa Locator, etc.) to find the distribution of holdings for each title. More holdings means a title that will appeal to more readers.
  • 39. Random Availability
  • 40. Random sample from shelf list
  • 41. 1,500 items in use 8,500 items shelved
  • 42. Snapshot
  • 43. Snapshot: A snapshot is a download of status data about the items in a collection at a specific instant in time. Because status data cycle slowly over loan periods, snapshots provide stable indicators of long-term relationships and trends.
  • 44. Circulation Period Daily change 1 week 0.14 2 weeks 0.07 3 weeks 0.05 4 weeks 0.04
  • 45. Exercise Explain why it is misleading to use a Random Availability snapshot of a collection as an indicator of the availability that the reader actually experiences.
  • 46. Reader-Weighted Availability
  • 47. 0 0.93 0.95 0.65 0.47 0.89 0.94 0 0.94 0.95 0.40 0.27 0.57 0.82 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 Collection Adult 500s Adult 900s Board Books DVDs Beginning Readers Adult Fiction Random Reader-Weighted Comparison between random and reader-weighted availability Data from Grimes Public Library, September 2004
  • 48. Reader-Weighted Availability: Sample from collection in use Roger Edward Stelk and F. Wilfred Lancaster. "The Use of Shelflist Samples in Studies of Book Availability," Collection Management 13, no. 4 (1990) 19-24.
  • 49. 1,500 items in use 8,500 items shelved Random Sample Reader- Weighted Sample List of all items in use with item number Snapshot
  • 50. 1,500 items in use 8,500 items shelved 1,500 items in use Reader- Weighted Availability 500 items in use now 1,000 items not in use now June 15 sample July 30 sample Reader- Weighted Sample
  • 51. Collection development calendar
  • 52. Reader-Weighted Availability: Shelf Sample
  • 53. Reader-Weighted Availability: Sample from the collection in use Data are from the Des Moines Public Library.
  • 54. Reader-Weighted Availability: Sample from the collection in use Collection Collection in Use No. of items in sample Availability % Change Out 2/22/99 On Shelf 4/27/99 1999 1997 Young Adult 970 608 .63 n.a. n.a. YS Nonfiction 2,611 2,069 .78 .69 9% YS Fiction 1,148 902 .79 .77 2% Picture Books 5,745 3,196 .56 .46 10% J Paperbacks 1,008 616 .61 .46 15% Audio discs 4,461 1,988 .45 .48 -3%
  • 55. Estimates from Demand Tables Philip M. Morse. "Demand for Library Materials: An Exercise in Probability Analysis," Collection Management, 1, no. 3-4 (Fall-Winter 1976), 47-78.
  • 56. Turnover Turnover is the mean annual circulation per item of a rhizome.
  • 57. Turnover
  • 58. Use original circulations if possible For all calculations involving circulation, use original circulations if possible, rather than original circulations plus renewals.
  • 59. 1. Collection 2. Number of Items 3. Original Circulation 4. Turnover 5-6. Loan Period 7. Demand per item Table 8. Total Demand Picture Books 3,843 16,199 4.2 3 weeks Board Books 407 2,536 6.2 3 weeks Videos 1,127 10,949 9.7 1 week DVDs 805 13,015 16.2 1 week Audiobooks - tapes 1,005 2,327 2.3 3 weeks Audiobooks - CDs 438 971 2.2 3 weeks Exercise: Reader-Weighted Availability, Estimate from Demand Tables: Turnover, Demand Per Item, Total Demand
  • 60. Core assumption: The mean amount of time an item is out per checkout is equal to the standard length of loan for the item’s rhizome. Readers visit the library on a regular schedule that is in synch with the library’s checkout periods.
  • 61. Distribution of length of loans Ames Public Library 1988-89
  • 62. Mean length of loan, Ames Public Library: 17.6 days Add 3 days for reshelving: 21 days
  • 63. Time since last arrival Stanley J. Slote. Weeding Library Collections: Library Weeding Methods. 4th ed. Littleton, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 1997.
  • 64. Mean Annual Days Out
  • 65. Annual time on shelf
  • 66. Time on shelf = 365 – 21 = 344 Time on shelf = 365 – 273 = 92
  • 67. Mean time between arrivals
  • 68. Turnover/Time between arrivals/ Annual Circulations: Individual Items Turnover Time between arrivals Weekly circulation Seat-of-the- pants annual circulation 1 344 1/52 = .0192 1 13 7 1 52
  • 69. Mean demand increases exponentially in relation to turnover. Exponential increase: The rate of increase gets higher as turnover gets higher (curves upward), rather than staying the same (straight line).
  • 70. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Turnover MeanDemandPerItem 4 weeks < 1 week1 week2 weeks 3 weeks Mean demand per item by turnover For standard library loan periods – groups of items
  • 71. Demand tables I have built a demand table for each standard length of loan. Use the table to look up the turnover for a rhizome and the corresponding mean demand per item. Round down if a turnover is not listed.
  • 72. 1. Collection 2. Number of Items 3. Original Circulation 4. Turnover 5-6. Loan Period 7. Demand per item Table 8. Total Demand Picture Books 3,843 16,199 4.2 3 weeks 7.6 Board Books 407 2,536 6.2 3 weeks 15.8 Videos 1,127 10,949 9.7 1 week 19.2 DVDs 805 13,015 16.2 1 week 60.5 Audiobooks - tapes 1,005 2,327 2.3 3 weeks 3.1 Audiobooks - CDs 438 971 2.2 3 weeks 3.0 Exercise: Reader-Weighted Availability, Estimate from Demand Tables: Turnover, Demand Per Item, Total Demand
  • 73. Estimate total demand for a rhizome (total potential circulations) Multiply the Demand per Item times the Number of Items.
  • 74. Total demand for a rhizome (from table)
  • 75. 1. Collection 2. Number of Items 3. Original Circulation 4. Turnover 5-6. Loan Period 7. Demand per item Table 8. Total Demand Picture Books 3,843 16,199 4.2 3 weeks 7.6 29,207 Board Books 407 2,536 6.2 3 weeks 15.8 6,431 Videos 1,127 10,949 9.7 1 week 19.2 21,638 DVDs 805 13,015 16.2 1 week 60.5 48,703 Audiobooks - tapes 1,005 2,327 2.3 3 weeks 3.1 3,116 Audiobooks - CDs 438 971 2.2 3 weeks 3.0 1,314 Exercise: Reader-Weighted Availability, Estimate from Demand Tables: Turnover, Demand Per Item, Total Demand
  • 76. Calculate Reader-Weighted Availability Divide Original Circulation by Total Demand.
  • 77. Reader-weighted availability using table
  • 78. 1. Collection 3. Original Circulation 8. Total Demand (above) Reader- Weighted Availability Picture Books 16,199 29,207 .55 Board Books 2,536 6,431 .39 Videos 10,949 21,638 .51 DVDs 13,015 48,703 .27 Audiobooks - tapes 2,327 3,116 .75 Audiobooks - CDs 971 1,314 .74 Reader-Weighted Availability, Estimate from Demand Tables: Reader-Weighted Availability
  • 79. Shelf Availability - Items
  • 80. Duplication
  • 81. Exercise List the duplication practices that you have used or are aware of.
  • 82. Duplication Practices • Number of holds • Past experience with an author or title – gut feelings – gross circulation • Best seller lists – 2 copies if it’s on the list • Book to movie tie-ins • High risk books • Interlibrary loans as early indicator • Buzz • Popular author list – automatically yours • Popular series – at least as many as we bought of the last volume • Suggestions for purchase – number of people • How it’s used – popular use/academic use • Press runs
  • 83. Applying arrival times
  • 84. 7-Day Median Arrival Time Circulations 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Weeks
  • 85. Random arrival times with circulation periods 2 3 5 3 2 2 3 4 3 1 2 2
  • 86. Random arrivals are approximated by the normal curve S.D. = Standard Deviation
  • 87. The Tool Crib Formula Robert S. Grant. "Predicting the Need for Multiple Copies of Books," Journal of Library Automation 4, no. 2 (June 1971) 64-71. Leffler, William L. "A Statistical Method for Circulation Analysis." College and Research Libraries 25 (November 1964): 488-490.
  • 88. 𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑜𝑝𝑖𝑒𝑠 = 1 + 𝐷𝑎𝑦𝑠 𝑖𝑛 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑛 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑜𝑑 × 𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑖𝑟𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑠 𝐷𝑎𝑦𝑠 𝑖𝑛 𝑐𝑖𝑟𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑙𝑖𝑓𝑒
  • 89. Mobil Travel Guide Study
  • 90. Each additional added copy results in fewer additional circulations.
  • 91. Duplication tables for one through four week loan periods are available at: www.whatwouldranganathando.org
  • 92. Always Available Lists Brian Smith. "The Always (Almost Always) Available Book System." U*N*A*B*A*S*H*E*D Librarian, no. 5 (Fall 1972) 3.
  • 93. Annual Replacement Lists
  • 94. Availability: Are the texts that the reader would prefer to select presented when the reader would prefer to select them?