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Bim For Existing Federal Facilities

Bim For Existing Federal Facilities



BIM White Papter at EcoBuild America, National Institute of Building Sciences Conference.

BIM White Papter at EcoBuild America, National Institute of Building Sciences Conference.



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    Bim For Existing Federal Facilities Bim For Existing Federal Facilities Document Transcript

    • BIM for Existing Federal Facilities WHITE PAPER Abstract BIM (Building Information Modeling) is fast becoming the standard for design and construction of new facilities. Today, 83% of A&E firms are using BIM software. The National BIM Standard (NBIMS) defines what BIM is and what the goals of a BIM are. The challenge and question posed is, how to implement BIM concepts to existing federal facilities and their associated information systems, in a cost effective manner. The methodologies detailed in this paper, are a set of steps and procedures that will enable owners to assemble current information systems into a functioning and powerful Building Information Model. If these methodologies are followed, all facility stakeholders will succeed. Even if an organization is not required to follow the BIM Standard, it is still an excellent guide for achieving an Integrated System, a Data Portal, and a Decision Support System, that improves the proficiency of facility operations and management. Prepared by: Roy J. Interrante, P.E. Intergraph Corporation Security, Government & Infrastructure (SG&I) Division 619-947-4638 roy.interrante@intergraph.com December, 2010Ecobuild America, National Institute of Building Sciences Page 1 of 32 December 2010
    • BIM for Existing Federal Facilities TABLE of CONTENTS ABSTRACT.......................................................................................................................................1 BIM DEFINED...................................................................................................................................3 PREMISE..........................................................................................................................................5 INTRODUCTION ..............................................................................................................................7 THE DATA PROBLEM AND SOLUTION ................................................................................................8 STEP 1 – DIAGRAM AND DOCUMENT DATA FLOW MODEL ......................................................9 DATA EVALUATION PROCESS ........................................................................................................11 STEP 2 – STORYBOARD AND DESIGN APPLICATION .............................................................13 DATA PORTAL – USER INTERFACE .................................................................................................13 BIM PORTAL FRAMEWORK ............................................................................................................14 SECURITY MODULE .......................................................................................................................16 STEP 3 – DEVELOP ARCHITECTURE FOR INTEGRATION – THE INTEGRATION HUB .........17 DEVELOP INTEGRATION HUB ARCHITECTURE .................................................................................18 NBIMS – INTEGRATION AND INTEROPERABILITY .............................................................................20 STEP 4 – DEVELOP BIM APPLICATION ......................................................................................21 FEATURES OF THE BIM INTEGRATION APPLICATION ........................................................................22 BENEFITS AND ANALYSIS OF METHODOLOGY .......................................................................25 BENEFITS .....................................................................................................................................25 ANALYSIS – INTEGRATION PROJECTS.............................................................................................26 CMM – CAPABILITY MATURITY MODEL .....................................................................................28 CONCLUSION ................................................................................................................................32 REFERENCES ...............................................................................................................................32Ecobuild America, National Institute of Building Sciences Page 2 of 32 December 2010
    • BIM for Existing Federal Facilities BIM Defined In the A&E world, when people speak of BIM (Building Information Modeling), they think of and refer to the design process of using 3D software that is more than CADD, but a sophisticated set of tools that allow all disciplines of a building design and construction process to act in harmony. For example, when the Architect adds or changes a wall, the plumbing, HVAC, electrical, and structural engineering systems are all interoperable and the change in that wall is reflected in the design of the various systems. Any problems or conflicts are also addressed in these BIM applications. The definition of BIM, according to the NBIMS (National BIM Standard), goes beyond this premise, especially after the design and construction phases, and extends into all phases of the building’s life cycle. According to Dana Smith, Executive Director of the buildingSMART alliance, and Alan Edgar, Chair of the National BIM Standard Project Committee, “Some have identified BIM as dealing with only 3D modeling and visualization. While important, this description is limiting. A more useful concept is that a Model should access all pertinent graphic and non-graphic information about a facility as an integrated resource”. [3] The information challenge, and the objective of this paper, is to demonstrate how the NBIMS can be applied to existing facilities that are in the O&M (Operations and Maintenance) phases of the Building’s life cycle. BIM concepts can be used in the design of an integrated decision support system. BIM for facilities management and operations and maintenance is being encouraged by many federal agencies, such as NASA and the Army Corps of Engineers. There is a misunderstanding that BIM is just 3D modeling of a structure. 3D Modeling can be part of a BIM implementation, but the essence of BIM is just that, Building Information. The following definitions of BIM have been extracted from the National BIM Standard and are part of the global buildingSMART Information Delivery Initiative: A Building Information Model (BIM) is a digital representation of physical and functional characteristics of a facility. As such it serves as a shared knowledge resource for information about a facility forming a reliable basis for decisions during its life-cycle from inception onward. A basic premise of BIM is collaboration by different stakeholders at different phases of the life cycle of a facility to insert, extract, update or modify information in the BIM process to support and reflect the roles of that stakeholder. The BIM is a shared digital representation founded on open standards for interoperability. The following figure is by courtesy of NIBS National Building Information Modeling Standards Committee.Ecobuild America, National Institute of Building Sciences Page 3 of 32 December 2010
    • BIM for Existing Federal Facilities Geospatial Financial Data Data Legal Data Designer BIM Data Specifier Data Environmentalist Owner / Occupier Data Data Sustainers Data BIM – Building Information Modeling The above diagram from the NBIMS shows that the objective is to integrate all information about facilities into the BIM. Information about the Building/Facility is needed throughout the life cycle phases and it is needed by all stakeholders. According to the National Institute for Building Sciences, “the vision of the National BIM Standard is an improved planning, design, construction, operation, and maintenance process using standardized machine-readable information model for each facility, new or old, which contains all appropriate information created or gathered about that facility in a format useable by all throughout its lifecycle” [1, pg. 6]. The large vision of BIM is to facilitate improved efficiencies at all stages of a facilities lifecycle. It is not the objective of the Standard that one vendor provide all the tools necessary. Per the NBIMS, “It should be stated emphatically in the introduction that we do not envision a single database or vendor for the data repository, simply a central location where all software packages can come to seek related BIM information. The requirements for information storage and sharing cover three traditionally separate facets of the industry, Computer Aided Design (CAD), Computer Aided Facility Management (CAFM), and Geospatial Information Systems (GIS). A model view of a BIM could incorporate information from any or all of these technologies. The greatest cost associated with capital facilities occurs during the operational phase, owners are expected to obtain the greatest value from having real-time, as-is BIM.” [1, pg. 59-60] This paper is focused on establishing a BIM during the operational phase of a facility’s life cycle.Ecobuild America, National Institute of Building Sciences Page 4 of 32 December 2010
    • BIM for Existing Federal Facilities Per the NBIMS, “the problem is all the existing facilities in the owner’s portfolio. Even with planning, it will take many years before facility turnover results in a fully populated BIM repository. As-is BIM often is driven by asset management functions. As more information becomes available through BIM-based information exchanges, owners are able to drill down into the details of each added facility or infrastructure asset for more and more information. The BIM vision is to improve the Operations and Maintenance process.” [1, pg. 60-61] This paper focuses on methodologies and system design approaches for implementing BIM concepts for existing facilities in their operational and maintenance (O&M) phases, and specifically federal facilities. Many BIMs in existence do not meet the NBIMS definition of a BIM, since they are really only intelligent drawings, visualization tools, or production aides. The Standard also describes how to rate the maturity level of a BIM via a Capability Maturity Model (CMM). [8] The CMM measures the degree to which a BIM implementation measures up to a mature BIM Standard. Accordingly, a project or application cannot be called a BIM if it does not meet the minimum level of the CMM. “We are saying that if you are not taking into account this minimum BIM level, then you shall not call what you are doing a building information model.” [1, pg. 71] As an example, a recent project was independently evaluated and was rated as being 80% BIM compliant, per the CMM. The other 20% could be realized by adding 3D and more interoperability between data systems. The BIM Capability Maturity Model and this study will be described in more detail at the end of this paper. Premise Many facilities in federal Installations are fairly old, dating back to WWII and beyond, and were originally designed and built according to obsolete specifications. These facilities have had many owners through the decades (e.g., from the Army Air Corps, to Air Force, to Army Corps of Engineers, to NASA, etc.). The usage and function of these structures also changed (e.g., from barracks to warehouses to office, etc.). Numerous modifications occurred to these facilities as needs of federal agencies changed. Building standards and technologies also changed and were applied to these facilities (i.e. HVAC systems, electrical and water system upgrades, computer networks, etc.). Many federal facilities have increased their life expectancy by decades, and facilities that were built in the 1940’s as temporary housing for troops, are still in service, 60 years later. Some facilities have undergone extensive renovations, where wall sections and basic architecture have been removed or added. Numerous facilities have gone through retrofitting to comply with new health, safety, and environmental standards, such as asbestos removal or abatement, seismic reinforcement, fire protection, security, access control, energy saving modifications, etc. These retrofits, modifications, and renovations sometimes use current standards and specifications, but many times customized systems have to be built in order to work around the existing constraints of a facility. For example, installing an HVAC system into an existing structure may require special fabrication of duct work that does not comply to computerized specifications. If there are hundreds or even thousands of such shop fabrications within an existing facility, it would be extremely difficult to fit these into BIMEcobuild America, National Institute of Building Sciences Page 5 of 32 December 2010
    • BIM for Existing Federal Facilities software. It would not be impossible, only extremely cost prohibitive to migrate a building into a BIM system for many existing federal facilities. As Information Technology (IT) has evolved, the Federal Government has applied various technologies to existing facilities to improve performance and efficiencies. These Information Technologies include CADD (Computer Aided Design and Drafting), GIS (Geospatial Information Systems), CMMS (Computerized Maintenance Management Systems), CAFM (Computer Aided Facility Management), UCS (Utility Control Systems), etc. The results of these IT initiatives have spurred numerous data system applications to manage these facilities. The latest technological advancement to improve facilities management is BIM. The Army Corps of Engineers, NASA, GSA, and other federal agencies have been encouraging the BIM concept. [5] [7] [10] Even the Tri-Services GIS Center is now called the “CAD/BIM Center”. [4] Many vendors have BIM products for new construction, but BIM can be more than that and can be used for existing facilities that were designed, built, and renovated before BIM software existed. The eventual goal of BIM is to develop data standards that will allow interoperability between vendors and applications. However, this goal has not been fully realized at this time. Currently, many applications are needed to contain the entire knowledge base of a facility. This knowledge base is contained in CADD, GIS, CMMS, CAFM, Space Management, Real Property, Financials, and sometimes many more. The foundation of this paper is derived from the NBIMS (National Building Information Modeling Standard). This standard is being established by the Building Smart Alliance, which is a council of the National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS). http://www.buildingsmartalliance.org/ . Many BIM concepts can be used for an existing facility and its associated data and management applications that will improve sustainability and operational performance. The challenge of creating a BIM for Existing Facilities is that after decades of Operations and Maintenance (O&M), numerous Information Systems have been implemented. For many Installations, 30 to 50, and sometimes more, separate systems are used to manage a facilities and infrastructure project. As Interoperability between software application improve, so will the BIM. However, it is not necessary to wait for this evolution to occur. Many BIM concepts and characteristics of the BIM Capability Maturity Model (CMM) can be achieved today. One can think of BIM as the umbrella of all facility information systems, with CADD, GIS, CMMS, CAFM, etc. systems under that umbrella. And this is what was accomplished at several federal sites. Intergraph’s strength is delivering data to customers in a meaningful way. It is not debatable that new construction of facilities use BIM concepts and software, starting from Concept, to Design, to Build, in the facilities’ life cycle. The challenge and question posed in this paper is how to implement BIM concepts to existing facilities in the Operation phase, and do it in a cost effective manner. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate methodologies that have been implemented at Federal sites to obtain the primary objectives of BIM in the facility’s current information environment.Ecobuild America, National Institute of Building Sciences Page 6 of 32 December 2010
    • BIM for Existing Federal Facilities Introduction Per the NBIMS definition “a basic premise of BIM is collaboration by different stakeholders”. The definition also states that “BIM serves as a shared knowledge resource for information about a facility” and that this information is a “reliable basis for decisions”. [1, pg. 21] The essence of Building Information Modeling is the ability to integrate all pertinent information about a facility. The data integration techniques and strategies discussed in this paper are the result of more than 15 years of integrating facility information systems at various Federal Government installations. These concepts are not theoretical, but have been tested in the field, and have been proven to achieve the integration of data sets from many types of complex data system environments. This integration has resulted in the dramatic transition of work and business practices for many stakeholders. Engineers, Technicians, and Managers no longer spend a large portion of their time searching for data. Once this type of integration is established, they simply click a few buttons, and report their data in various formats. The methodologies presented ensure that reliable, authoritative data are readily available for meaningful analysis while minimizing the redundancy in both information and processes. Existing systems and applications are leveraged in order to eliminate the need for additional software or licensing implications. These data integration methodologies are not reliant on any one vendor provided applications. The objective is to supplement any existing data reporting tools, and to provide a data portal to pertinent information by using all means available, including leveraging off of existing applications, to achieve the most effective data portal possible that satisfies the customer’s requirements for data retrieval and reporting. This approach is not about usurping other existing systems, but it is about using and leveraging them. Data integration of enterprise data systems is a very complicated problem. Some vendors over simplify the problem, and therefore propose simple solutions, and never solve the problem. This integration methodology avoids this possibility because it is not reliant on vendor provided applications. The methodology utilized to realize an Integrated Building Information Model (BIM) consists of four (4) major steps. These steps have been defined through the process of integrating many enterprise data systems. These steps have proven successful and able to solve many disparate data architecture integration issues. Methodology for Data Integration 1. Diagram and Document Data Flow Model 2. Storyboard and Design Application – The Web Portal 3. Develop Architecture for Integration – The Integration Hub 4. Develop BIM Application The final chapter will demonstrate how the development methodologies and approach described in this paper produced a BIM application that is 80% compliant to the BIM Standard, via the BIM Capability Maturity Model (CMM).Ecobuild America, National Institute of Building Sciences Page 7 of 32 December 2010
    • BIM for Existing Federal Facilities The Data Problem and Solution Problem At almost all federal facilities there exists many separate data sources. These data sources are maintained by their respective organizations and serve local goals for their organizations. Information is hard to extract from these various sources and even harder to correlate. In addition, many of the data sources require dedicated software licenses to access the information and require specialized knowledge and training. It is in this environment that facility managers must administer and make decisions that involve these data sources. Space Mapping/GIS Management Department Planning Utilities Department Department Architecture/CAD Maintenance Department and Operations Current Data Environment at many Federal Facilities Solution The strategic solution to solve this data problem is to implement a dynamic data integration of the separate data sources with visual and intelligent reporting capabilities. The objectives of this strategic plan are to provide a web interface to facilities data sets, rapid data access, a visual portal to multiple data sets, and be integrated in such a way that facilitates information gathering and analysis. This BIM application will make business sense, in that it improves the efficiency and decision making capabilities of facilities managers and all stakeholders.Ecobuild America, National Institute of Building Sciences Page 8 of 32 December 2010
    • BIM for Existing Federal Facilities Operations & Maintenance Assets Financial Utility Data Integration Control Real Decision Support System Property Data Portal BIM CADD Architectural GIS Utilities Maps Facilities Data Integration-Conceptual The diagram above depicts the conceptual goals of an integration project. Many Data Sets and Applications exist at federal facilities and some of these data sets may have some level of integration. These Data Sets are shown as circles around the Integration Portal. The slashed lines represent integration between different data sets. The hatched lines represent the utilization of this existing integration within the Data Portal. Users not only benefit from this integration, but they also are able to access many other data sets within the Decision Support Portal. The objective is to provide a portal to multiple data sets and be integrated in such a way as to facilitate information gathering and analysis. It is not the objective to replace existing data sets or applications. The goal is to bring a majority (70 to 80%) of many data sets into an easy to use portal for rapid data access and to improve the efficiency and decision capabilities of facilities managers. This data integration solution utilizes existing data sets and their associated processes and applications. Each sub-system is reviewed with the data maintenance staff and other data users to determine the best approaches to access, report, and integrate data. Recommendations to improve processes or data structure are also made as appropriate. The architecture of this application is scalable, in order that new data access portals, components, functions, and applications can be added in the future. Step 1 – Diagram and Document Data Flow Model The first step for developing a data integration system is to develop a Data Model and Flow Diagram. This diagram is created using UML (Unified Modeling Language). UML is a graphical language for visualizing and documenting complex systems. It is the blue print or map of an information system. UML is a general purpose modeling tool for visually and intelligently displaying object oriented software systems. Therefore it is well suited to represent the results of the data source analysis.Ecobuild America, National Institute of Building Sciences Page 9 of 32 December 2010
    • BIM for Existing Federal Facilities Data Model Legend The figure above depicts the diagram legend for the Data Model, and the figure below is a partial example from a Data Model Diagram. In carrying out this step, data surveys and user interviews are conducted. Information about database schemas, file servers, spread sheets, processes, data owners, security, web applications, etc. are collected. Information from these interviews and investigations are used to develop the system diagram. These documents serve as a tool for understanding the existing data flows and help in the design and development of the integrated BIM application. Data patterns, duplications, data gaps, problems, etc. are invariably discovered during the development of the Data Model. These issues are also documented. The objective is to create a living document that is updated as the design process develops and as the system changes and integration occurs. It is used to determine future data integration possibilities. The Data Model is the means to document the data structure of complex information system environments. It can be viewed as the map of how information is populated, transferred, and maintained throughout an enterprise. The Data Model is built using UML software. These products have many useful tools for building UML models and diagrams. One such tool is linkages and hyperlinks. Data sources on the graphics model are linked to the actual data source. If the data modeler clicks on a graphic object depicting a data source, such as a file server or database, the actual data source opens. This is an excellent way to insure that data connectivity and network permissions are functional. The modeler can then easily open the data source, view the structure of the data, and analyze the data content. The Data Model is an integral part of a data integration BIM. It must be maintained to monitor changes to various data sets so that data connectivity is maintained in the data integration portal application.Ecobuild America, National Institute of Building Sciences Page 10 of 32 December 2010
    • BIM for Existing Federal Facilities Master Floor Plans Component Manager: Name Master Floor Plans MicroStation Files CADD Owner: Name Mngt. PARCH ServerShare$Path Project Architect Management Data Application Link Referenced Drawings Ascii File (data used by PARCH Application) Referenced Drawings CADD Mngt. Emergency Evacuation System Drawings MicroStation Files MicroStation Files Notes: Owner: Name Owner: Name  Data Capture Project in progress. ServerShare$Path (Electric, Mechanical, Plumbing)  Directory naming ServerShare$Path convention is not consistent. Data Model and Flow Diagram – example The Data Model is an invaluable tool for any Data Integration project. Unfortunately, many vendors skip this step, or perform it at a very basic level (i.e. a spreadsheet with a list of Data Sources), and therefore never get an intelligent understanding of the entire Enterprise Data Information System. The consequence of not developing a robust data model is that a solution will miss data integration opportunities and maintaining data connectivity will become more difficult or may fail. Without a detailed data model, the customer is often not aware of all the data sources and processes available in their enterprise. Data Evaluation Process The methodology and processes for evaluating enterprise data sources is to view that data as a system with interrelated parts. Information flows both into and out of various parts of that system. Some parts are electronic and others are manual. When evaluating the data sources a series of questions are asked of the data users, owners, and administrators. The actual workflows and processes are observed. Data schemas, file structures, and applications are analyzed. All this information is captured and documented in a UML diagram. During the evaluation process, analysis is performed to determine the most efficient method to access various data and generate reports for users. The primary component in the BIM solution is a sophisticated integration method called the Integration Hub. The Integration Hub is discussed in detail under Step 3. Integration Solutions for each individual Data Source are also addressed.Ecobuild America, National Institute of Building Sciences Page 11 of 32 December 2010
    • BIM for Existing Federal Facilities The following list includes the basic questions and analysis performed when evaluating Data Sources for an integration solution: Define Data Schema / Data Dictionary. Define Data Types. Evaluate Database Software. o Oracle o Spreadsheets o SQL Server o GIS o Sybase o CADD o Microsoft Access o Others Define Applications that input and output data from each data source. Define Web Applications that access each data source. Define any custom or standard tools that exist for each data source. Define data entry and maintenance of data source. Define ID values, nomenclature, data field names. Define possible correlation to other sources. Analyze Reports for the data source. Define any existing integration with the data source to any other data source. Identify Owners, Data Maintainers, System Administrators, Vendors, Users, and all persons involved with the Data Source. Define system architecture, servers, peripheral software, security, etc. Define any Processes involved in the Data Source. These processes can be manual, automated or both. Review and observe various Workflows involving the Data Source. Define the Queries and Reports generated for the Data Source. Follow the Flow of Data. Many Sources have multiple connections to each other. Some data sources are independent. Document all information on UML Data Flow Model. The analysis performed utilizes some of the following methods to determine the best approach to integrate data via a common tool, i.e., BIM web portal. More details regarding these integration methodologies and algorithms are discussed throughout this paper. Determine applicable methods to connect to each respective Data Source. Some data connections are simple, and only require an SQL statement into the Data Source to return a Data Set, and other data connections are more challenging, and require the use of various integration techniques. Determine network, permissions, protocols, etc. in order to access the Data Source.Ecobuild America, National Institute of Building Sciences Page 12 of 32 December 2010
    • BIM for Existing Federal Facilities Review any web pages and URL variables that might be used. Determine if data should be post processed. Determine if an API or COM Object exists that can be used for data access. Determine performance and reliability of the Data Source and associated applications. Determine if caching of data may be needed. Cached data could be stored on servers or on client machines. Determine if Metadata, Correlation Tables, SQL on-the-fly, or other methods of extracting and reporting data may be needed. Step 2 – Storyboard and Design Application Once the Data Model diagramming begins, a Storyboard design of the application is developed. An application storyboard is a graphical representation of the look and feel of the final product. Many programming and development issues can be resolved during the storyboarding process. Data users are very involved in this process, so that the BIM application will produce the desired results. The Data Modeling process continues throughout this task in order to determine the structure and location of necessary data sets. In carrying out this step, detailed layout diagrams of the application are developed. These diagrams are used to communicate with the development team and the customer. The diagrams are the beginning outline of the look and feel of the Data Portal. From them, a web storyboard is developed consisting of a site layout of data windows, titles, buttons, navigation, hyperlinks, pull-down menus, functions, tools, graphics, report layout, etc. Web architecture design diagrams are developed consisting of web server software, components, and configuration; and links to data sub-sets (databases, spreadsheets, reports, etc.). The web architecture design diagrams are included as part of the storyboard design documents. These Storyboard documents define development phases. This design process has been proven to greatly reduce programming time and effort. The programming team knows what is expected, and the data integration investigation has already been accomplished. Some vendors skip the Storyboarding step because they have an existing Solution, and they try to fit the customer’s requirements into this prefabricated solution. The preferred approach is to determine the customers requirement, and build the Storyboard and design the application around those data requirements. Data Portal – User Interface To ensure that the goal of providing an intuitive, functional and easy-to-use data integration tool is deployed, the end user is actively involved in the development and design of the storyboard. During this design phase, the end user is walked through the proposed screen layouts, data navigation and extracting process to insure that the web pages will be intuitive, that data extraction is easy, and that the appropriate informationEcobuild America, National Institute of Building Sciences Page 13 of 32 December 2010
    • BIM for Existing Federal Facilities is obtained. With this level of user involvement in the design phase, the BIM web portal will look, feel, and deliver the needed information in the desired formats. As the design is finalized, the application is analyzed to insure intuitiveness and ease of use. As an example, the number of work-flow steps that a user will need to extract data are reviewed: Step 1: Open the application Step 2: Select a Facility Number from a Pull Down List Step 3: Push a button for the desired report, data value, map, drawing, etc. Step 4: Data is displayed If it appears, during the storyboard design phase, that data extraction will be too complicated, take too many steps, or be cumbersome for the user, additional automation is developed within the application to process the data. Many programming steps may be taking place within the application, but the user is unaware of that, and they simply retrieve the data they are looking for. Additional examples of how the web portal (the user interface) can be used to facilitate easy extraction of data are provided below: Pull down lists are generated via database queries to allow the user to easily navigate and reduce key-ins. Pre-built queries and reports are generated. The user does not need to know SQL. They simply select the data or report they want, and it is generated for them. Multiple pull downs and variables can also be provided, and the user simply selects those variables and options and then hits a create report button. No understanding of SQL syntax is needed. Navigation of the web portal is maintained by using a panel design (i.e. a dashboard). The user opens and closes panels that reveal various query tools, but they are never directed to a point of being lost on the web page. BIM Portal Framework The BIM portal framework (see the Conceptual Storyboard diagram below) is very similar to other web portals being used on the Internet (see Google Earth as an example) and to those successfully deployed by Intergraph for similar data integration projects. The Panels on the left, however, are not just a long tree structure of data layers, but are separated panels that act independent from each other. New components can be easily added to the BIM Portal Application, which would be separate from other Components. It is a misunderstanding to view this application as a single function when it is, in fact, multi-functional, and new components can be added with no problem. Each of the Panels on the left side of the Portal Console act independent from each other. They basically act as separate applications, with various functions, that work within the overall framework of the web portal application. The reporting data window on the bottom, also acts independently. For example, if a user selects a real property data control panel on the left, a real property data window would be displayed on the bottom panel. Alternatively, if the user selects a CMMS panel, then a CMMS data window would display. Also, the architecture of this portal is not limited to a one to one relationship, i.e. Real Property queries andEcobuild America, National Institute of Building Sciences Page 14 of 32 December 2010
    • BIM for Existing Federal Facilities CMMS queries. A panel could have integration built into the functions, that combines and joins these two data sources. If there were separate data in both databases, and they were correlated by a Building ID, for example, then a Panel of CMMS to Real Property Reports would give the user the ability to query and join these sources in one component, and the reports would be displayed in a new data widow. The Data window can be displayed on the bottom data widow as a summary report of values, or buttons can be added to pop open reports in a separate browser window. All of the actual details of the navigation, panels, functions, reports, data windows, maps, drawings, etc. are designed with the customer, data users, and data managers in the Storyboarding phase of the project. It should also be noted, that sometimes a navigation and query tool can look good during the Storyboard process. Even though everyone involved is diligent, the product may still have issues that aren’t recognized until the preliminary development is built and tested. This happens in the movie business all the time. A scene may look good on the paper, but once the actors perform, the director may send the screen writers back to the drawing board. That is why the Development Phase is divided into 3 parts: Preliminary Development, Test and Modify, and Deployment. The testing phase is intended to catch these types of issues. The NBIMS recognizes that different users need and require different views and reports of the same BIM. This design process and framework will support the fulfillment of that requirement. Integration BIM - Data Portal Hub Facilities Facilities Data Utilities Select Building Architectural GIS Data Data GIS CMMS Real Property Data Data Assets CMMS Select Asset ID Utilities Environmental Data Architect Energy Financial Environ Data Data Project Report Data Reports Energy Create Reports Real Prop View Files Create Reports DATA MODEL Project Reports Spread Sheet Storyboard Design of BIM Application – ConceptualEcobuild America, National Institute of Building Sciences Page 15 of 32 December 2010
    • BIM for Existing Federal Facilities Security Module In a BIM, or any other data integration project, data access and control is a concern and requirement. Many of the underlying data systems may have various layers of data access control. For example, all users might have access to employee phone numbers, but only managers will have access to payroll information. A Security Module has been designed to control data access from the BIM application interface. Per the diagram below, the user logs into a network and is authenticated. The User ID is compared to an Access Control database. Only users with special permissions can view certain data objects (red objects). All other users can only view unrestricted data objects (black objects). If the user is not listed in the Access Control database, they can only view unrestricted data. This framework reduces data maintenance for the system administrator. Only users with special data permissions are listed in the Access Control database. The administrator does not need to list every user, which could be in the hundreds or thousands. Access Control Design Specifications  Uses current User/Password. Return ID from Network Server.  The “Access Control Database” contains only Users who have access to Restricted Data.  All data fields, data reports, tools, categories, map layers, etc. on the BIM web site are named objects, and viewing this data can be controlled and restricted.  The “Access Control Database” contains only the Data Objects that have Restricted Access.  Only Users in the “Access Control Database” with the Data Object field checked yes, will have access to the Object.  All other Users (users who are not on the Access Control Database) will have access to a default set on objects. Default Users will not see “Restricted Objects”.Ecobuild America, National Institute of Building Sciences Page 16 of 32 December 2010
    • BIM for Existing Federal Facilities Access Control Module Step 3 – Develop Architecture for Integration – The Integration Hub As the application storyboard is developed and the data structures are documented in the Data Model, strategies to access and integrate data are developed. This system architectural component is called the Integration Hub. The Integration Hub consists of software and data that connects applications and functions to various data sources. This task involves the initial architecture development and design of the integration tools and methodologies to solve connectivity challenges. The platform for the BIM for data collection consists of two main parts, the Web Portal and the Integration Hub. The Web Portal is the interface that the users see and use to query and report data. The Integration Hub is the behind-the scene mechanism used to extract information from various data sources and deliver that information to the user. The Web Portal and the Integration Hub are developed simultaneously, based on the findings from the Data Modeling and Storyboarding steps. It is always the objective of this approach to use as much of the existing systems and architecture as possible. It is also the objective of this approach to develop applications that are easy to maintain and to use standard web development practices.Ecobuild America, National Institute of Building Sciences Page 17 of 32 December 2010
    • BIM for Existing Federal Facilities The Web Portal is the interface that the user interacts with. This platform could be of various configurations. Best results have been achieved when a standard web page interface is created with standard HTML and Java Scripting. This simple platform has resulted in the easiest web application to use and maintain. However the Web Portal could be built on any platform the customer prefers. The Integration Hub consists of many parts, but the main objective still applies; use existing systems, networks, servers, platforms, etc. where possible. In general, web development for a connection to a data source uses the following basic steps:  The user requests information on a web page via a key-in, pull-down, button, etc.  That request is sent to a web server.  The web server connects to a database or file server.  The data is retrieved and placed in the desired format on the server.  The server then sends the information back to the user’s browser. Develop Integration Hub Architecture As the application storyboard is developed and the data structures are documented in the Data Model, strategies to access and integrate data are developed. This system architectural component is called the Integration Hub. The Integration Hub consists of software and data that connects applications and functions to various data sources. This task involves the initial architecture development and design of the integration tools and methodologies to solve connectivity challenges. An example of data integration is the creation of a single integrated report for a facility from a building spreadsheet, a CMMS asset database in an Oracle Database, and a Real Property off-site database. Various integration technologies, approaches, and methodologies are used to integrate homogeneous and non-homogeneous data sets, and build the data Integration Hub. Some of these data set integration techniques include the following:  Direct SQL connection and query  Data correlation by logical code via dynamically generated SQL  Data correlation and integration by metadata  Data integration by correlation data tables  Data replication and warehousing methods  XML data exchange The Integration Hub continues to be developed as new data-sets are introduced into the Data Portal. The level of integration performed is at a read-only echelon (versus full transactional). Existing data entry applications and processes remain as is. However, recommendations for data improvements are made.Ecobuild America, National Institute of Building Sciences Page 18 of 32 December 2010
    • BIM for Existing Federal Facilities Application Database Data Integration BIM Application Business Process •Data Portal Application •Queries Integration Database •Searches Hub •Reports Business Process •Functions (Web Desktop Access) Data Files Application Business Process Integration Architecture The above Integration Architecture diagram, is a conceptual schematic of the data integration architecture of an enterprise data environment. The symbols on the right represent various data sources. Each Data Source consists of 3 main parts; the data source such as a database or file server, the application(s) that are used to maintain the source data, and the business processes around the data source needed for data population and maintenance. In actuality, these three parts are much more complicated than the one displayed here. The Data Model will present all the details and relationships relevant to these parts. The Integration Hub is a collection of methods to query the data contained in the data source. That method may be a simple database connection and SQL Query to the data source that return an array of values. Alternatively, the method may be more complicated and require a correlation matrix, post processing of the data, conversion to XML format, and caching of data sets. The exact determination and design of the integration method to be used, is developed during the data modeling and storyboarding design processes. Sometimes these integration methods may require various tests to determine the best algorithms to extract data. The final component of the Integration Architecture on the left side of the diagram represents the BIM Web Portal. The Web Portal is the web page application that the user interfaces with to extract information. This Web Portal is the result of the storyboard design. The activity in the Integration Hub is not visible to the user; the user simple selects various querying and reporting tools on the Web Portal and the data is displayed in the desired format. Intergraph approaches data integration projects as a long-term partnership with customers. The success of these types of projects is ensured when there is strongEcobuild America, National Institute of Building Sciences Page 19 of 32 December 2010
    • BIM for Existing Federal Facilities participation by customer representatives and open communication and interactive dialogue with all stakeholders. NBIMS – Integration and Interoperability According to the NIBS (National Institute of Building Sciences) the objective of the NBIMS (National BIM Standard) is to develop open interoperability standards so that information can be exchanged between applications. Interoperability is also one of the areas measured in the BIM Capability Maturity Model. Per the NBIMS, “Things may not flow as smoothly as desired today; hence, we are only requiring that ‘forced interoperability’ occur in the minimum BIM, but some level of interoperability must occur.” [1, pg. 6] COBie COBie (Construction Operations Building Information Exchange) is an initiative that is part of the NBIMS effort. [6] [11] COBie is a data standard that supports the capture of product information during the design and construction process, so that data can be exchanged and integrated into existing maintenance, operations, and asset management systems. One objective of interoperability is that data is collected only once, and then distributed and exchanged to other systems where needed. COBie data exchange is being endorsed by many federal agencies and software vendors. As BIM standards mature, and COBie standards are adopted, it will become easier to integrate and link information since schemas (i.e., table names, field names, data values, etc.) will become normalized. Since integration and interoperability are significant objectives of BIM, and some level of interoperability must be achieved to meet BIM capabilities, they must be defined. Integration vs. Interoperability You cannot have interoperability without integration. Interoperability is a sub-set of integration. Integration can be accomplished by associating information from one system to another. Interoperability is the ability to exchange data from one system to another. This process can be automated, semi-automated, or manual. Full interoperability may be difficult to obtain in the federal facility environment due to numerous existing building management applications, such as CMMS, Facility Management applications, various GIS, Government Real Property databases, etc. However, these applications can be integrated and some interoperability can be obtained. Interoperability is sometimes hard to accomplish in a federal IT environment due to varying security protocols. Some systems can be queried for information, but access to manipulate or populate data is restricted. Some data sources will never have complete interoperability due to security and policy issues. For example, the database within a Real Property system at Head Quarters would not allow other systems to directly modify information. Data staging, correlation, exception reporting, and other methods can be used to achieve some interoperability between data sources. Interoperability is basically the exchange of data values between one system and another. For existing facilities with existing data applications, this requirement can be a challenge. Many systems are fairly closed and are built with many rules and business processes to maintain data integrity within the system. Modifying data from one system to another may be extremely difficult, and in many cases may not be desired at all due to security and maintainability issues. For example, A CMMS (Computerized MaintenanceEcobuild America, National Institute of Building Sciences Page 20 of 32 December 2010
    • BIM for Existing Federal Facilities Management System) asset management application and database schema will contain many data management rules and users have different levels of data access. If an asset record (a physical asset with a specific ID) needs to be added or changed, only users with specific rights can do so. Also, the user interface may show one field to modify the data, but underneath, inside the data schema, many processes are occurring to check, validate, build join relationships, populate log files, etc. for the change. Concurrently, the same asset ID may also exist in other databases, such as in a CADD, GIS, Financial, Space Management, etc. And these separate systems could contain very valuable data needed for the BIM. The challenge is, if data values are changed in one system, how are these changes reflected and performed in the other system. In a perfect IT world, all these independent systems would be completely interoperable, and would be changed automatically. Currently, this in not the case, and in many instances, such as security, complete interoperability is prohibited. For example, if a change is made in the space management application, that change would also need to be applied in a security database. However, security will not give direct access to other departments, even though this data would be valuable in the BIM. The exchange of data in many systems must occur though other means other than direct interoperability. Interoperability - Alternative Solutions Some level of Integration and Interoperability of multiple facility information systems is a requirement of a BIM. These problems and challenges of data interoperability and data exchange have been resolved in many ways. The question and challenge is the level of automation necessary to achieve interoperability. The following are methods used to achieve interoperability (data exchange) between information systems. 1. Manual Data Exchange and Correlation 2. Post Processing of Data 3. Data Staging 4. Exception Reporting 5. Other Automation for Data Integration, Correlation, and Validation Step 4 – Develop BIM Application The development of the BIM Application includes both the Web Portal user pages and the Integration Hub components. Development is conducted in three (3) phases. Preliminary Development, Test and Modify, and Deployment. The first phase, Preliminary Development, focuses on a few features and integration from the design documents from the previous steps (i.e., step 2 – Storyboard and design, and step 3 – Integration Hub design). This phase insures that data connectivity is functional. Then other functions are added according to the design specifications. Next, the second phase, Test and Modify, are conducted. The results of the Test and Modify phase are evaluated, and any changes to the design documents (Web Portal and Integration Hub) are performed. Once the customer approves the final design, the final Deployment phase is conducted.Ecobuild America, National Institute of Building Sciences Page 21 of 32 December 2010
    • BIM for Existing Federal Facilities Features of the BIM Integration Application These following features and functions have been incorporated in various data integration projects. These features have been developed to solve complex data integration challenges. Many of these features are part of the Integration Hub, and are not obvious to the user. The user simply selects the desired information from the Web Portal. Not all of these functions are incorporated at all integration projects, but are presented here to demonstrate the extent of the methodologies employed to solve complex integration issues. Data Connectivity Redundancy Cached Data and Redundancy Linkage to Data Sources Error Control Processes Intuitive Design of Interface Cached Data Sets (Server and Client) Data Retrieval Performance Reliability Automated population of Metadata Post Processing of Data (Server and Manage Non-Homogeneous Client) Database Component Architecture Data Mapping Data Warehousing Exception Reports Data Correlation Processes Manage Disparate Data Metadata Control (correlation, data Correlation by logical code via availability, access control, etc) dynamically generated SQL (SQL on-the-fly) The following discussion describes the significance of several of these features in terms of a deploying a successful data integration solution. Data Connectivity Maintaining Data Connectivity to the BIM Portal Application is extremely important. If connectivity is lost, then obviously the data cannot be extracted. If a Data Portal Application does not anticipate and plan for these changes, it will eventually fail, since changes to data systems are inevitable in our constantly improving technological world. Large Data Enterprises consist of numerous data sources and applications, and this data architecture is not static, it is extremely dynamic and changes are made to source data systems constantly. If a procedure and policy to maintain data connectivity is not developed and maintained, the application will eventually fail. By developing and maintaining a strong and detailed data model, IT managers can observer, plan for, and implement changes to the BIM and the Integration Hub in order to sustain data connectivity. For example, at NASA Marshall two main data systems were modified in the same year. One was Maximo (an IBM application) and the other was the Space Management System. There are over 30 different queries from the Portal Application to the Maximo Database; and over 40 different queries from the Space Management System.Ecobuild America, National Institute of Building Sciences Page 22 of 32 December 2010
    • BIM for Existing Federal Facilities Numerous changes occurred in the database schemas, processes, applications, and graphics. Since a strong data model existed, and the storyboards acted as documentation of the BIM portal application; analysis, design, and implementation to maintain data connectivity to the portal was accomplished. If these documents of the system architecture had not exited or if changes in the data sources had not been planned for, the application would have failed. Cached Data and Redundancy Cached Data on the Server and Client can be components of this development approach. The benefit of this type of design is that it greatly increases performance and reliability. Performance is increased since much data is pre-processed and stored on the Server or Client machine for quick access. Reliability is increased because even if the network fails or some data sets lose connectivity, much of the user’s application will still function, since data sets are stored and cached at various points in the data retrieval process. Redundancy is built into the application and system architecture. If one part or function or data connection fails, the entire system does not fail. (We have applied highway bridge design for redundancy concepts to software application design). Many integration solutions do not consider caching data or redundancy. These solutions simply connect to the data source via an ODBC or other database connection protocol. Using this approach is not recommended because if the data performance of the source is slow, then the solution is slow; and if a data source gets disconnected, the entire solution fails. Error Control Processes It is often assumed that the actual data in a data source is accurate and structured well. However, years of experience with multiple data sources teaches that authoritative data is not always available. If a data field is incorrectly populated or missing, then queries and links will not work properly and the end user will experience an error. Many times these errors will cause the return of a complicated RDMS (Relational Database Management System) query error to the user. These errors can also cause the application to fail. Part of the design and development process is to anticipate these errors and provide error control processes so that the application will not fail. For example, a component was built that correlates Building IDs in a GIS database with Building IDs in an Asset Management Database. The user simply selects a Building, and data from both data sources is returned. However, if the Building ID information in either data source is input incorrectly, the join query will fail, and an RDBMS error will be returned to the user. If this error in data is not controlled, the application will fail. The simple solution is to build an algorithm in the application that captures this error message, and returns a message box to the user such as “Building Data does not Correlate, Please contact the GIS and Asset Management Administrators”. More intelligence can be added to this algorithm, and an email message could be sent to the data source administrators describing the data correlation error. Many integration systems do not take data source errors into consideration and it is assumed that all data has been entered properly. The system design for data integration must manage and control data entry errors in the underlying data sources.Ecobuild America, National Institute of Building Sciences Page 23 of 32 December 2010
    • BIM for Existing Federal Facilities Cached Data – More Details Data is sometimes cached on the Server or on a Client Machine to improve performance. This is done because some queries and reports required extensive joins and are slow performing. These record sets can be cached, and retrieved by the user when required. Some graphic data (such as maps, floor plans, equipment location) are slow to process on-the-fly. In these cases, pre-processed map tiles and floor plans are run via nightly processes and stored on the web server. The files can then be quickly retrieved by the user when needed. Data can be cached on the client machine in order to greatly improve performance and enhance the user’s experience. For example, for very large and detailed drawings, the file would be cached on the client machine during the first data request. Then as the user zooms and pans the drawing, or clicks on graphic symbols for attribution, the application no longer sends a request back and forth to the server, but accesses the graphics stored on the client’s local machine. Another example of caching data on the client machine is for large arrays of list data. If the user selected a floor plan with hundreds of occupants and equipment, the data about all the room information would be cached on the local machine. As the user selected rooms or equipment on their web page, the data would immediately appear since the data is being retrieved from the users own machine, and requests are not being sent over the network. This list data may come from multiple data sources, but the stored list data would be generated as a single array with all the data already correlated. For example, occupant data could be retrieved from a personnel database and equipment data could be retrieved from an asset database. The data, persons and equipment, are both physically located in the same room and building. The data set lists would be blended and correlated in a single array in memory on the client machine. The results are an extremely fast return of information and an enjoyable experience for the user. Reliability Not only is performance enhanced by caching data, but reliability is also greatly improved. If the network connection fails while operating the web portal, all is not lost. The user still maintains much functionality since much of the data is already cached on their local machine. All of these background processes are not apparent to the user. The user simple selects a pull down menu , button, hyperlink, or graphic element, and the data is retrieved and displayed. Post Processing Post processing some data into various formats is used to improve performance. Processing data into XML format (Extensible Markup Language) is the preferred type of data transfer. XML is a textual data protocol. Currently, it is the standard for web application data transfer. XML files are usually very small, and it is easy to perform post processing of data into an XML file via a text scripting language such a PERL. Graphic and map files are often post processed into XML format types such as SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics), GML (Geography Markup Language), KML (Keyhole Markup Language), etc.Ecobuild America, National Institute of Building Sciences Page 24 of 32 December 2010
    • BIM for Existing Federal Facilities SQL On-The-Fly SQL on-the-fly is an integration method used to correlate data from two or more databases that have related data values, but are in completely separate database systems or networks. Each database is queried separately and data sets are returned to the Server. These data set arrays are then manipulated and blended together via scripting code. A new array of data values are collected, correlated, relayed, and displayed on the Portal in various formats. Processing the data arrays and values can be performed on the Sever or the Client Machine, or a combination of both. SQL on-the- fly methods occur as the user requests data. Where possible, this method is used instead of Data Warehousing, since data warehousing has associated maintenance overhead. Data Warehousing If SQL on-the-fly or other integration methods cannot achieve integration, then sometimes Data Warehousing can solve the problem. The basic concept of Data Warehousing is to retrieve, analyze, extract, transform, load, and store data from numerous data sources. It is a repository of data. For example, data may be contained in various spreadsheets and in various formats. Processes and algorithms can be developed that extract the data from the spreadsheets, and populate a well structured relational database in a Data Warehouse. Then data can be simply queried from the Data Warehouse using conventional SQL statements, and displayed on the Portal. Benefits and Analysis of Methodology Benefits The benefits of implementing this methodology to data integration and BIM are multifold. This approach will assist facility managers and stakeholders in the following areas:  Allow for report generation in a timelier dynamic schedule  Decrease manpower loading required to generate reports, allowing for time to be spent on maintaining better data management  Quicker response to data calls, therefore giving engineers and other users much more time to attend to other issues  Improve quality of reports generated  Assist in making better decisions.  Open access to correlated data sources to wider user base without the need for specialized software or knowledge  Ensures that reliable, authoritative data is readily available for meaningful analysis while minimizing the redundancy in both information and processes  Production of a detailed data model of all data accessed and used by stakeholders improves visibility and accountability for data  Leverages existing standard systems and applications and eliminates the need for additional software or licensing implications o No licenses or special software needed on the server or client desktopsEcobuild America, National Institute of Building Sciences Page 25 of 32 December 2010
    • BIM for Existing Federal Facilities o Intuitive navigation tools o No special training  Provides and open data integration platform where: o Other front-end tools may be integrated. These front ends are merely view ports into the data in the Integration Hub and provide another means to navigate through the data. o Other data sources may be easily linked, providing expanded data and correlations. Analysis – Integration Projects The following are relevant references supporting the methodologies for data integration of a BIM presented in this paper. Of primary relevance is Intergraph’s recent experience with NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Further evidence of our longevity in supporting customer’s data integration needs is provided by a discussion of our work for Navy Region Southwest. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center The approach to data integration and development of a BIM portal, detailed in this paper, have recently been implemented for the Facilities Management Office at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Huntsville, AL. The facilities enterprise data structure and the requirement for integration at Marshall are very similar to the data requirements at many federal facilities. The data environment at Marshall consists of a Maximo database for Asset Management, three GIS databases, Space Management application including floor plans, Real Property, Security, Equipment, Environmental, and a host of other databases, applications, and processes. Intergraph’s involvement with the Marshall project started in 2004 and concluded in 2009. Marshall in-house staff is currently maintaining the Data Portal and Integration Hub, a testament to the sustainability of the deployed solution. There are 33 Data Sources that are accessed from the Marshall Portal. Approximately one thousand (1,000) users currently utilize the BIM Portal to access and analyze data from these various data sources. For example, a user at Marshall only has to select a Facility Number from a pull-down list to obtain information about maintenance costs, open Work Orders, Utilities, Photographs, Room Occupant data, Equipment information, etc. Many of the separate Data Sources are joined on-the-fly, and the user simply reviews reports that combine this information. There is also a host of analytical tools available to the user. Various reports can be generated and exported to spreadsheets, redlining capabilities, measuring tools, map and floor plan plotting tools, etc. A detailed Data Model is maintained and tracks changes in the overall data environment. Story Boards of every aspect of the application were designed with the customer to insure that the end product would be exactly what the customer needed. Numerous integration techniques were used to rapidly display data on the user’s desktop. The data integration project has literally transformed the working environment and proficiency of the Facilities Management Office at Marshall. The data sources and data maintenance process have basically remained the same, but now data is actually moreEcobuild America, National Institute of Building Sciences Page 26 of 32 December 2010
    • BIM for Existing Federal Facilities accurate, since data managers can now focus on their data, rather then constantly having to answer numerous data calls. Managers, Engineers, Technicians and others simply access the BIM Data Portal and retrieve their needed information. As stated in the introduction of this document, the data integration techniques proposed are not theoretical, but have been proven time and again to succeed. If this process is implemented at a federal facility, it will revolutionize their data collection and business workflows. Cost Savings Analysis for MSFC A cost savings analysis conducted at Marshall determined the amount of labor time and costs that are saved since the implementation of the Data Portal. Labor Cost Savings Engineers, Technicians, etc. are required to collect and analyze data for various projects. Before the implementation of the BIM Integrated Data Portal, the user would have to obtain information such as Maximo reports, Maps, Floor Plans, etc. from various sources for a particular project. The project might entail the rehabilitation of a facility, or remodel, or a host of other issues. Most data had to be obtained via phone calls or emails requesting the information. It was estimated that it could easily take at least 40 hours per project. A conservative estimate would be 1,000 projects per year for the Facilities Department. Using an average cost per labor hour for NASA civil or contracted workers of $110/MH, the cost for collecting data per year would be over $4 million dollars. Previous Costs: 40 Mh per Project X 1,000 Projects = 40,000 Mh X $110/Mh = $4,400,000 Labor Costs for Data Collection After the BIM Data Portal was implemented, it is estimated that it is taking users about 2 hours to collect, analyze, and report the same data. Current Costs: 2 Mh per Project X 1,000 Projects = 2,000 Mh X $110/Mh = $220,000 Labor Costs for Data Collection The resulting savings in Labor Time is 38,000 Mhs per Year The resulting savings in Labor Costs is approximately $4,180,000 per Year Software Cost Savings Another Cost Savings analysis was conducted to determine the savings from software and license fees. The described methodology in this paper accesses data directly from the underlining RDBMS (Relational Database Management Systems) and by other means that does not require licenses for each user. Data is delivered to the user via a web browser portal on their desktop, and a web server. In the Marshall case, four (4) software licenses would be required to view the same data available on the BIM Portal. The software products are Maximo, MicroStation, ArcGIS, and TriRiga Space Management. Costs of Software Licenses: Maximo - $1,500 per seat MicroStation - $800 per seatEcobuild America, National Institute of Building Sciences Page 27 of 32 December 2010
    • BIM for Existing Federal Facilities ArcGIS - $1,500 per seat TriRiga - $2,000 per seat -------------------------------------- Total Cost = $5,800 Assuming the same 1,000 users, a cost savings of over $5 million results from avoidance of software licenses. Navy Region Southwest – Utility Department A similar data integration and web portal project was conducted over a 6 year period for the Utility Department of the Navy’s Southwest Region. At the time of the project, the Navy’s Utility Department in San Diego, CA was responsible for the management of Utility Distribution Systems for 23 Naval Bases and Housing Areas. Each of these 23 bases operated from 8 to 11 different Utility Systems. Maps of Utility systems, Buildings, Roads, etc. were maintained by the Utility Department for all systems and their corresponding Maximo Databases. The Data Enterprise Environment consisted of 23 separate GeoDatabases and 23 Maximo Databases. The data schemas for each base were different depending on the Installation type. Intergraph solved this data integration challenge by developing a Metadatabase Engine that managed the data structure of these disparate systems. One web portal interface was deployed that could access Maps, Facilities, Maximo, Electrical Components, Schematics, etc of the entire Region. The user simply selected a Base from a Map or Pull-down list, and the web page would be generated for the Base using the Metadatabase. Data automation tools were developed to maintain the Metadatabase and various Exception Reports and Data Correlation Tools were developed to maintain the correlation between the GIS Databases and the various Maximo Asset Management Databases. The Data Modeling process, Storyboarding Methodology, and Integration Hub Development described in this paper were used extensively for the Navy Region Southwest Utility Department. Again, this approach and methodology were very successful for the integration of a large and complicated data enterprise environment. CMM – Capability Maturity Model The Capability Maturity Model (CMM) described in National BIM Standard (NBIMS) is a tool for BIM users to evaluate their practices and processes. The Standard also describes how to rate the maturity level of a BIM. The CMM evaluates the degree to which a BIM implementation measures up to a mature BIM Standard. The CMM is a metrics with 11 area of interests, or characteristics. These areas of interest include data richness, life-cycle views, change management, roles or disciplines, business processes, timeliness/response, delivery method, graphical information, spatial capability, information accuracy, and interoperability. Each area of interest is then rated on its maturity level on a scale of 1 to 10, with 10 being the most mature. The CMM then defines five levels of BIM Certification based on a point scale of 0 to 100. Below 40 is considered not BIM Certified. 40 to 50 is the Minimum BIM level. 50 to 70Ecobuild America, National Institute of Building Sciences Page 28 of 32 December 2010
    • BIM for Existing Federal Facilities is a Certified BIM. 70 to 80 is considered a Silver Certified BIM. 80 to 90 is Gold, and 90 to 100 is Platinum. To demonstrate and explain the CMM, the results from an independent evaluation of the BIM Project at NASA MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) will be used. [2] This evaluation rated the Marshall BIM as being 80% compliant (Silver Certification) to the standard (NBIMS). In the following, each area of interest of the CMM is defined per the NBIMS and then rated and related to the NASA MSFC BIM Application. 1. Data Richness: Having some level of expanded data collected so that the model is a valuable source of information about a facility to a group other than the one developing the information. Rated 9: The BIM is used by many groups at Marshall and it contains data from over 30 sources. Valuable information about facilities and surrounding areas can be obtained from the BIM Portal. 2. Lifecycle Views: A complete lifecycle project phasing does not need to be implemented at this point. Rated 6: The Marshall BIM was implemented decades after construction of most buildings, and therefore does not contain all information of previous lifecycle phases. 3. Change Management: Note: Business process change management does not yet need to be considered for a minimum BIM. However, it is the hope of the NBIMS Committee that a change management process such as the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) program that provides a set of best practice approaches to information management would be used. Using these business processes as your basis will help ensure that everyone is working to converge their efforts. This will help information flow. If it does not, there are procedures to rectify the problems. Rated 7: The Marshall BIM is integrated to current business processes which contain existing change management workflows. If data changes in the source databases, that change is reflected automatically in the BIM. Also, a Configuration Control process was established to manage changes in system configurations and data connectivity. If source data schemas, software, or networking protocols are changed, the BIM Portal and Integration Hub are re-configured to adjust to these changes. 4. Roles or Disciplines: The basis for a BIM includes the sharing of information between disciplines. A minimum level of information sharing is required between designers such as the architect and structural engineer. Rated 5: Information is accessed and shared between many disciplines from the BIM application. The following are some of the many disciplines that distribute data at Marshall: architects, mechanical engineers, maintenance, inspectors, security, environmental, utility control, utility distribution, etc. 5. Business Process: Business process and information interoperability is the cornerstone of BIM. The business process defines how business is accomplished. If the data and information is gathered as part of the business process then data gathering is a no cost requirement. If data is gathered as a separate process then the data will likely not be accurate. The goal is to have data both collected and maintained in a real time environment, so as physical changes are made they are reflected for others to access in their portion of the business process. Only aEcobuild America, National Institute of Building Sciences Page 29 of 32 December 2010
    • BIM for Existing Federal Facilities minimum level of business processes must integrate their data collection at the minimum BIM level. Rated 7: The Marshall BIM was built around and leveraged off of existing data gathering processes. This system design provides real-time access to data to many users. 6. Timeliness/ Response: Some information is more static than other information. Changes and up to the minute accuracy may be critical in emergency situations. The closer to accurate real time information you can be the better quality the decisions that are made. Some of those decisions may be life saving in nature. Rated 8: The initial objective of the Marshall BIM was for information gathering for facility engineers and managers. However, the response time to gather data became so accurate and fast that NASA Security has become interested in using the BIM Portal for locating persons throughout the Center and other security needs. 7. Delivery Method: In order for a data set to be called a BIM, it must be implemented on a network so discipline information can be shared; however, robust information assurance need not yet be implemented and may be limited to simple password access control to the workstations. Rated 9: The Marshall BIM Portal is a web application on the Marshall network and is easily accessible. An Access Control module has been built on the Portal to limit sensitive data. 8. Graphical Information: Since all drawing output should at this point be National CAD Standard compliant, we are making this a requirement for a minimum BIM. This demonstrates that standards are being considered, when possible. Rated 8: The graphic information accessed by the BIM is well formed, current, and linked to intelligent attribute data. 9. Spatial Capability: Understanding where something is in space is significant to many information interfaces and the richness of the information. Rated 5: The BIM at Marshall is linked to and contains spatial data and capabilities. O&M Equipment location data is in the process of being collected. 10. Information Accuracy: It is a critical element to ensure that ground truth has been implemented; meaning that polygons are located and used to compute space and volume and to identify what areas have been quantified. Hence, we include this item as part of the minimum BIM. Rated 7: The Marshall BIM was built around existing data collection and ground truth processes. The BIM Portal accesses live data, and therefore the information is as accurate as the source. Also, multiple data sets can be queried and viewed at the same time. 11. Interoperability: Our ultimate goal is to ensure interoperability of information. Getting accurate information to the party requiring the information. There are many ways to achieve this, however the most effective is to use a standards based approach to ensure that information is a form that it can be shared and products are available that can read that standard form of information. Rated 6: Various approaches to data integration and interoperability have been discussed in this paper. The BIM Portal and the Integration Hub developed at NASA MSFC allows users to access over 30 different data sources.Ecobuild America, National Institute of Building Sciences Page 30 of 32 December 2010
    • BIM for Existing Federal Facilities Area of InterestMaturity A B C G D F E H I J K Level Data Life-cycle Roles Or Change Business Timeliness/ Delivery Graphical Spatial Information Interoperability/ IFC Richness Views Disciplines Management process Response Method Information Capability Accuracy Support 1 Basic Core No Complete No Single Role No CM Separate Most Response Single Point Primarily Text - Not Spatially No Ground No Interoperability Data Project Fully Capability Processes Info manually Access No IA No Technical Located Truth Phase Supported Not Integrated re-collected - Graphics Slow 2 Expanded Planning & Only One Role Aware of CM Few Bus Most Response Single Point 2D Non- Basic Initial Ground Forced Data Set Design Supported Processes Info manually Access w/ Intelligent As Spatial Truth Interoperability Collect Info re-collected Limited IA Designed Location 3 Enhanced Add Two Roles Aware of CM Some Bus Data Calls Not Network NCS 2D Non- Spatially Limited Limited Data Set Construction/ Partially and Root Cause Process In BIM But Access w/ Intelligent As Located Ground Truth - Interoperability Supply Supported Analysis Collect Info Most Other Basic IA Designed Int Spaces Data Is 4 Data Plus Includes Two Roles Aware CM, RCA Most Bus Limited Network NCS 2D Located w/ Full Ground Limited Info Some Construction/ Fully and Feedback Processes Response Info Access w/ Full Intelligent As Limited Info Truth - Int Transfers Between Information Supply Supported Collect Info Available In IA Designed Sharing Spaces COTS BIM 5 Data Plus Includes Partial Plan, Implementing All Business Most Response Limited Web NCS 2D Spatially Limited Most Info Transfers Expanded Constr/Suppl Design& CM Process(BP) Info Available Enabled Intelligent As- located Ground Truth - Between COTS Information y& Constr Collect Info In BIM Services Builts w/Metadata Int & Ext Fabrication Supported 6 Data w/Limited Add Limited Plan, Design & Initial CM Few BP All Response Full Web NCS 2D Spatially Full Ground Full Info Transfers Authoritative Operations & Construction process Collect & Info Available Enabled Intelligent Andlocated Truth - Int Between COTS Information Warranty Supported implemented Maintain Info In BIM Services Current w/Full Info And Ext Share 7 Data w/ Mostly Includes Partial Ops & CM process in Some BP All Response Full Web 3D - Intelligent Part of a Limited Comp Limited Info Uses Authoritative Operations & Sustainment place and early Collect & Info From BIM Enabled Graphics limited GIS Areas & IFCs For Information Warranty Supported implementation Maintain Info & Timely Services w/IA Ground Truth Interoperability of root cause analysis 8 Completely Add Operations & CM and RCA All BP Collect Limited Real Web Enabled 3D - Current Part of a Full Expanded Info Authoritative Financial Sustainment capability & Maintain Time Access Services - And Intelligent more Computed Uses IFCs For Information Supported implemented Info From BIM Secure complete Areas & Interoperability and being used GIS Ground Truth 9 Limited Full Facility All Facility Life- Business Some BP Full Real Time Netcentric 4D - Add Time Integrated Comp GT Most Info Uses Knowledge Life-cycle Cycle Roles processes are Collect&Maint Access From SOA Based into a w/Limited IFCs For Management Collection Supported sustained by In Real Time BIM CAC Access complete Metrics Interoperability CM using RCA GIS and Feedback loops 10 Full Supports Internal and Business All BP Real Time Netcentric nD - Time & Integrated Computed All Info Uses IFCs Knowledge External External Roles processes are Collect&Maint Access w/ Live SOA Role Cost into GIS w/ Ground Truth For Interoperability Management Efforts Supported routinely In Real Time Feeds Based CAC Full Info w/Full Metrics sustained by Flow CM, RCA and Feedback loops CMM – Capability Maturity Model – NASA MSFC BIM Evaluation Note: Highlighted fields are the CMM ratings for the Marshall BIM. Ecobuild America, National Institute of Building Sciences Page 31 of 32 December 2010
    • BIM for Existing Federal Facilities Conclusion BIM (Building Information Modeling) is being used in the design and construction of facilities throughout the Building Industry. This paper has demonstrated how to utilize, integrate, and leverage existing Building Information Data Systems into a Model that satisfactorily meets the objectives of the NBIMS (National BIM Standard). The operative concept of BIM is Information. The methodologies outlined in this paper are a cost effective way to create a BIM for existing federal facilities in the Operations and Maintenance phase of the building life cycle. BIM is more than a 3D drawing of a building. BIM is an Information Model that can bring together and share information about a facility, forming a reliable basis for decision support and facility management. Thereby fulfilling the primary objective of BIM, which is to save costs. References 1. National Institute of Building Sciences. Publication: National Building Information Modeling Standard. “Overview, Principles, and Methodologies” Version 1 – Part 1, http://www.wbdg.org/bim/nbims.php , Dec 2007. 2. Tal Wamman. Building Information Modeling. “Marshall BIM Review” NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Facilities Management Office, March 2010. 3. Dana Smith and Alan Edgar. Building Information Modeling (BIM). WBDG (Whole Building Design Guide) http://www.wbdg.org/bim/bim.php , July 2008. 4. CAD – BIM Technology Center. Web Reference: https://cadbim.usace.army.mil/BIM , June 2010. 5. GSA (U.S. General Services Administration). 3D-4D Building Information Modeling. Web Reference: http://www.gsa.gov/portal/content/105075 , Aug 2010. 6. Bill Brodt. Construction Operations Building Information Exchange. Facility Maintenance & Operation Committee presentation, 2010. 7. US Army Corps of Engineers. Engineer Research and Development Center. Publication: Building Information Modeling (BIM). “A Road Map for Implementation To Support MILCON Transformation and Civil Works Projects within the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers”, Oct 2006 8. Tammy McCuen and Major Patrick Suerman. The National BIM Standard Capability Maturity Model, Dec 2007. 9. Robert Bradford and Fred Terry. Building Information Models, “Using a Shared Knowledge Resource to Map a Facility’s Life Cycle”, 2007. 10. Stephen Spangler, US Army Corps of Engineers. What is BIM and why should I care about it? 2007. 11. Bill East . Construction Operations Building Information Exchange (COBie). http://www.buildingsmartalliance.org/index.php/projects/activeprojects/25 , 2010.Ecobuild America, National Institute of Building Sciences Page 32 of 32 December 2010