Cellular Basis Of Life
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Cellular Basis Of Life

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Cellular Basis Of Life Cellular Basis Of Life Presentation Transcript

  • Into the world of cells…
    Development of cytology
  • Essential question
    Are all living organisms made up of cells?
  • Discovery Of The Cell
    Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
    • 1st person to see the cells
    • built his own microscope
    • looked in a drop of pond water
  • Discovery Of The Cell
    Robert Hooke
    • confirmed Leeuwenhoek’s observation
    • 1st to use the word “cell”
    • reminded him of the rooms in a monastery
  • Discovery Of The Cell
    Robert Brown
    • described the nucleus
    • observed cytoplasmic streaming
    • conceptualized of “Brownian motion”
  • Discovery Of The Cell
    Matthias Schleiden
    • contributed to the cell theory
    • stated plants are composed of cells
  • Discovery Of The Cell
    Theodor Schwann
    • contributed to the cell theory
    • discovered Schwann cells
    • cell is the basic unit of life
  • Discovery Of The Cell
    Rudolf Virchow
    • father of pathology
    • illnesses are due to malfunctioning of the cell
    • “Every cell comes from preexisting cell”
  • Cell Theory
    All organisms are composed of cells.
    Cells are the basic unit of life.
    Cells come from preexisting cells.
  • Essential question
    How are cells studied?
  • Microscopy
    It is the technical field of using microscopes to view samples or objects
  • Microscopy Basics
    Magnification is the process of enlarging an object only in appearance.
  • Microscopy Basics
    Resolutionis the ability to tell two points apart as separate points.
  • Microscopy Basics
    Resolution = __0.61 * λ__
    NA
    NA = numerical aperture
    λ = wavelength of light (760 nm)
  • Microscopy Basics
    Numerical aperture
    NA = (n * sin α)
    n = refractive index
    α = half the opening angle
  • Microscopy Basics
  • Microscopy Basics
    Resolving power is the microscope's ability to produce a clear image.
  • Microscopy Basics
    Depth of Field (DOF) is the portion of a scene that appears sharp in the image.
  • Essential question
    What are the different types of microscopes?
  • Types of Microscopes
    Optical Microscope uses two lenses and visible light as the light source.
  • Types of Microscopes
    Stereo microscope creates a 3D image and used for dissection.
  • Types of Microscopes
    Electron microscope uses a particle beam of electrons to illuminate a specimen. (2 types)
  • Types of Microscopes
    Transmission (TEM) provides internal view of the specimen.
    Scanning (SEM) provides the external view of the specimen.
  • Essential question
    How are these specimens prepared for viewing?
  • Specimen Preparations
    cells are killed and heat-fixed
    to provide contrast: stained with colored dyes (optical); coated with electron-dense metals – Au, Pt, Pd and W(electron)
  • Other techniques
    Differential Interference – enhance density differences
    Phase contrast – some regions appear brighter or darker
    Dark-field – light is scattered by the specimen
  • Essential question
    Why cells are so small?
  • Surface Area to Volume
  • How It Limits Cell size?
    A cell is a metabolic compartment where a multitude of chemical reactions occur.
    All raw materials necessary for metabolism can enter only through its cell membrane.
    As a cell grows its SA/V decreases.
  • Cell Sizes
    Cell needs a surface area large enough to allow adequate nutrients to enter and to rid itself of wastes.
  • Reading assignment
    What are the different types of cells?