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Cepe11 bodle upload Cepe11 bodle upload Presentation Transcript

  • The ethics of online anonymity or Zuckerberg vs. “moot” Robert Bodle CEPE 2011 Milwaukee, WI
  • Five years of interoperability advances Facebook Developer (2006) Facebook Platform (2007) Facebook Connect (2008) Open Stream (2009) Open Graph (2010) Sharing one's 'social graph'
  • interoperable applications mashups widgets social games desktop mobile social plug-ins The “Like” button
  • Mark Zuckerberg
  • Facebook's real name only policy “ Impersonating anyone or anything is not permitted . To encourage people to use their real names on Facebook, we limit the number of times names can be changed. Also, if a Facebook representative changes your name for you, this change is considered final and you can’t manually change your name afterwards.”
  • Definition of anonymity “ nonidentifiability by virtue of noncoordinatability of traits” (Wallace)
  • Zuckerberg vs. 'moot' “ having two identities for yourself is an example of lack of integrity” (Zuckerberg)
  • Zuckerberg vs. 'moot' “ having two identities for yourself is an example of lack of integrity” (Zuckerberg) “ I think that's totally wrong . . . anonymity is authenticity” (Poole a.k.a. 'moot')
  • Fully anonymous posts – by design
  • Anonymous collective action
  • Anonymous campaigns
  • Anonymous campaigns
  • Anonymous campaigns
  • Anonymous Campaigns
  • overview
    • cost/benefit analysis of anonymity
      • two fold effects of anonymity
    • deontological appraisal of anonymity
      • anonymity as enabling other rights
    • pluralist approach
      • combining frameworks
      • diverse implementation of anonymity
    • recommendations
      • gov, companies, users
  • Anonymity common in online communities? Anonymity - 90% of posts are completely anonymous Ephemerality – a discussion thread lasts “an averages 5 minutes” (Berstein, Hernandez, Harry, Andre, Panovich, and Vargas, 2011)
  • Anonymity common in online communities? “ One important social rule . . . that Nobody is anonymous. Everybody is required to attach their real userid to their postings. It is possible to use pseudonyms to create alternate identities . . . but the pseudonyms are always linked in every posting to the real userid” (Stewart Brand qut in Rheingold, p. 38, 2000).
  • Two-sided effects of anonymity Minimizes accountability Disinhibition Depersonalization
  • Limits of utilitarianism -doesn’t account for the underlying values, and “ideals of justice and human rights” (Spinello, 2003) -doesn't account for the “extended range of our actions” in digital media (Ess, 2009).
  • Deontology and rights based ethics Immanuel Kant - Absolutist moral principles generated from imperatives: -each of us should act according to the principles that we wish other rational beings to act on. -human beings should be treated as ends rather than as means.
  • Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)
  • Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) Article 12: N o one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence . . . Article 19: Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers
  • Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) “ Indeed, throughout history, people’s willingness to engage in debate on controversial subjects in the public sphere has always been linked to possibilities for doing so anonymously ” (La Rue, p. 15. 2011).
  • Human Rights on the Internet are interpreted and applied differently -arbitrary blocking or filtering of content -criminalization of legitimate expression -imposition of intermediary liability
  • Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement
  • Sarkozy and Zuckerberg at G8
  • Critique of the Categorical Imperative -inflexibility -inability to “make room for justified and important ‘exceptions to the rule’” (Ess, 181, 2009)
  • Meta-ethical Pluralism - a shared single norm applied “in diverse ways, in diverse contexts” (Ess, p. 191, 2009)
  • Ethical Pluralism – balancing human rights laws online Prima facie duties (W.D. Ross) Principalism (Beachamp and Childress) “ Principles of necessity and proportionality” (La Rue, 2011).
  • Summary - Ethics of Anonymity -benefits and positive effects -enables privacy and freedom of expression -flexible implementation
  • Conclusion – How to ensure the “noncoordinatability of traits” -identification should be opt in -anonymity should be the default -encourage a culture of responsible anonymity
  • Conclusion – How to ensure the “noncoordinatability of traits” -identification should be opt in -anonymity should be the default -encourage a culture of responsible anonymity - embrace anonymity & security tools - challenge persistent user identity online
  • Anonymity revisited - FTW
  • Thank you for your attention. [email_address] http://twitter.com/robertbodle
  • The ethics of online anonymity or Zuckerberg vs. “moot” Robert Bodle CEPE 2011 Milwaukee, WI