Examples of these include respect for human rights, for the environment, for cultural diversity, equity and non discrimination
International assessments (SACMEQ, PASEC AND PISA) implemented in these countries on a comparable basis and completed over the last decade. See Page 121-122 of the full report for details on these tests plus data on national achievement tests.
¨ Pupil teacher ratios : in most countries of Sub-Saharan Africa and South and West Asia, the number of pupils per teacher exceeds 40 in primary education and climbs over 60 in several cases, including Malawi, Mozambique,Central African Republic and Chad. See table 13A annex of report. In Arab States, Asia, LAC and SSA, disadvantaged areas tend to receive less trained teachers Teacher training: In some Sub-Saharan Africa countries, fewer than 60% of primary school teachers have received some pedagogical training. In Latin America, percentage of trained primary school teachers is under 78% in half the countries with data for 2001. Disadvantaged areas generally receive fewer trained teachers.
Total public expenditure on education as % of GNP: 3.4% SSA, 3.3% South and West Asia; 4.6% LAC, 3.6% East Asia and the Pacific, figure not available for Arab States
variation in literacy scores limited even as expenditure doubles from PPP US$40,000 to US$80,000
Curriculum : Literacy is a critical tool for the mastery of other subjects and is one of the best predictors of longer-term achievement. It must be considered a priority area in efforts to improve the quality of basic education (pp. 146-149) Instructional time has decreased in Sub-Saharan Africa in grades 1-4 between 1980 in 2000 reflecting pressure to meet higher demand under tight resource constraints. Regional average in Arab States = 805 hours, 830 in Latin America, 817 in East Asia Pacific, 789 hours in South and West Asia, 866 in Sub-Saharan Africa. (pp.150-151) Language policy : 20% of world population speaks ‘local language’ as mother tongue. Zambia, Papua New Guinea, China, Cambodia among examples cited in the report (pages 155-158) Until recently, school construction projects in Sub-Saharan Africa rarely included latrines or water supply
Note: Countries with a survival rate of less than 75% are labelled. See figure 3.26 in full report.
Measuring and Monitoringthe Quality of Education Christopher Colclough University of Cambridge
What are we trying to measure? A good quality education encompasses:• Cognitive development: reading, writing, numeracy• Creative and emotional development and the promotion of attitudes and values necessary for effective life in the communityA good quality education carries personal and social benefits:• better health, lower fertility, lower exposure to HIV/AIDS• higher personal income• stronger national growth
International learning assessmentsPIRLS – reading literacy, 9-yr olds, 5 ldcsTIMSS – maths/science, 9/13-yr olds, 9 ldcsPISA – reading/math/sci, 15 yr-olds, OECD+SACMEQ – reading/maths, grade 6, 14 SSAUNESCO LLECE – lit/math, 16 LACsPASEC – lit/maths, 6 Francophone SSA110 countries in at least one study: 46 ldcs, but only at most 16 in any one assessment
Measuring Quantity is Insufficient % that has ever % that % that achieved NER in primary enrolled survived to minimum for the periodStudy Country Cohort (ages 6-14) grade 5 mastery before the testSACMEQ Malawi 100 91 31 7 69(1995) Mauritius 100 99 98 52 99 Grade 6 Reading test Namibia 100 97 74 19 84 U. R.Tanzania 100 87 70 18 54PIRLS (2001) Colombia 100 98 60 27 87Grade 4 Reading test Morocco 100 99 77 59 81 PASEC Burkina Faso 100 35 25 21 28(mid 1990s) Cameroon 100 88 45 33 73 Grade 5 French test Côte d’Ivoire 100 65 45 38 49 Guinea 100 48 32 21 36 Madagascar 100 78 31 20 63 Senegal 100 48 42 25 51 Togo 100 82 49 40 66 Quantitative versus qualitative indicators of participation in primary schooling
Quality diagnosis: achievement testsInternational assessments point to weak performance • Southern Africa: in 4 countries less than 10% and in 3 others around one-third or less of tested grade 6 students reach a ‘desirable level’ in reading • Francophone Africa: in 6 countries, between 14% and 43% of grade 5 pupils have low achievement in French or mathematics • OECD countries: between 2% and 10% of 15-year-olds have serious deficiencies in literacy skills, whereas in middle and low-income countries, between 20% and 50% do so
Literacy scores Changes between Sacmeq 1 and 2 560 Kenya 540 Mauritius 520Mean scores in literacy 500 Average 480 Zanzibar (U.R. Tanzania) 460 Namibia 440 Zambia Malawi 420 400 SACMEQ I 1995-1996 SACMEQ II 2000-2001
National Learning Assessments• Subject oriented• Assess achievement relative to intended curriculum• Country studies doubled to 111, 1995-2006• Over 90% focus on maths or language• Results for 16 countries (mainly L.Am) mainly indicate improvement
Percentage of pupils meeting minimumreading mastery levels,by highest and lowestwealth asset score (1995/96)
National resources: finance and quality In low income countries, increasing spending has a positive impact on learners’ cognitive achievement • 6% of GNP recommended on education spending not reached in majority of countries • Education spending higher in rich countries (5.1% of GNP) than in systems where access and quality remain a top challenge (under 4% in Africa and East Asia/Pacific) • Spending increases in East Asia and Pacific and Latin American and Caribbean in late 1990s, but -24% in Philippines; -8% in Indonesia
A Paradox:Test scores and changes in per pupil expenditures in OECD Country Change in Increase in Increase in Staff mathematics real spending real GDP per compensation and science per pupil, 1970- capita, 1970- as % of score, 94 94 current 1970-94 expenditure on primary education, 1995 Australia -2.3 269.8 46.4 79 New Zealand -9.7 222.5 24.3 n.a. France -6.6 211.6 60.7 79 Italy 1.3 125.7 74.6 89 Germany -4.8 108.1 66.8 76 Japan -1.9 103.3 100.7 87 United Kingdom -8.2 76.7 58.3 70 Belgium -4.7 64.7 68 86 Netherlands 1.7 36.3 52.9 78 United States 0 33.1 70.5 80 Sweden 4.3 28.5 35.1 56
National resources: finance and quality Students in countries that invest more in education tend to have better literacy skills. In high-income states, the impact of additional resources is less clear 600 Average combined literacy score 550 Rep. of Korea JapanCanada UK Finland Australia Ireland Sweden Austria 500 Czech Rep. FranceNorway Belgium USA Hungary Germany Denmark Poland Spain Italy Greece Portugal 450 Mexico Chile 400 Argentina Indonesia Brazil 350 Peru 300 0 10 000 20 000 30 000 40 000 50 000 60 000 70 000 80 000 90 000 Cumulative education expenditure per pupil (PPP US$)
Proxies for quality A wide range of evidence indicates that additional resourcesimprove education quality, particularly where they are scarceStudies show that more resources for:• low pupil-teacher ratios• more and better textbooks• time spent learning in school or at home• teacher qualifications and experiencematter for quality
Other essentials that make the difference• Curriculum: relevant, balanced with carefully defined aims• Instructional time: few countries reach recommended 850-1,000 hours/year• Learning materials: strong impact on learning but small percentage of education spending goes to textbooks• Language: Successful models start in mother tongue and make gradual transition to second or foreign language• School environment: safety, health, sanitation for girls and boys, access for disabled
Impact of school organization and pupil characteristics achievement scores in fiveFrancophone African countries (mid-1990s)
How resources are used is important for qualityResearch on the characteristics of effective schools highlights the importance of the following factors: • strong leadership • emphasis on learning basic skills • orderly and secure school environment • high expectations of pupil attainment • frequent assessment of progress
Quality proxies short-list• P/T ratio – but skewness undermines mean value• Repetition rate – but aut. prom policy• % trained teachers – but definitions vary• Expenditure variables – but incomplete data• Learning outcomes – but cohort and curriculum problems and incomplete data• Survival to grade 5 – best in short run?
Survival in school and PTROnly one-third of students reach last grade of primary education where pupil/teacher ratios are high 80 70 Chad Mozambique Malawi 60 Ethiopia Cambodia Bangladesh 50 Burkina Faso Senegal MadagascarPTR Lesotho 40 Mauritania India Niger Nicaragua South Africa 30 Guatemala Colombia Iraq Bolivia 20 Cuba 10 0 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Survival to last grade (% ) Primary education: pupil/teacher ratios and survival to the last grade, 2001