Test Your Instructional Design IQ


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The following series of questions are typically asked of educators
using audience response systems (aka “clickers”) to choose their answers.
Then there is a discussion comparing what the research suggests and
what the educator’s experience has been.

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  • Your first design consideration should be that the human brain can only hold so much information in working memory at one time. Too much information leads to overload and can decrease how information is moved to long-term memory.
  • Research has shown that we can hold 5 to 9 discreet bits of information in working memory at one time. This is expressed by the formula 7 +/-2. This has led to a practice known as chunking, whereby a large volume of information is broken into manageable chunks. If the information is very new to the learner, or the learner does not have a pre-existing mental model in which to integrate it, they will probably have difficulty assimilating more than five new ideas at a time.
  • Science course through discussion board.
  • Visuals are information-dense because they can be used to represent ideas, create context and show relationships. In glance, the viewer can learn a great deal.
  • In 2007 the Poytner Institute studied how people read online. One of their findings was that people who read what they called “non-traditional narratives” performed better on comprehension tests than those who read only text. So the lesson is to, whenever you can, create a meaningful visual representation of your ideas.
  • Test Your Instructional Design IQ

    1. 1. Test Your ID The following series of questions are typically asked of educators using audience response systems (aka “clickers”) to choose their answers. Then there is a discussion comparing what the research suggests and what the educator’s experience has been. * * Instructional Design
    2. 2. Caveats about research <ul><li>Findings apply to the conditions of the experiments or experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions may be generally true but there is individual variation </li></ul><ul><li>There is not always a clear line from the lab to real word application </li></ul><ul><li>Use these findings to critically reflect on your practice. </li></ul>
    3. 3. How many things can we hold in short term memory at one time? <ul><li>1 </li></ul><ul><li>5 </li></ul><ul><li>9 </li></ul><ul><li>Walking and chewing gum. </li></ul>
    4. 4. The brain can only hold so much information in working memory. Overload
    5. 5. “ Chunking” helps learners manage and store knowledge 7 2 - + Cognitive Load Theory : Objects, Facts, ideas AND Environment
    6. 6. Do experts have better working memories than novices? <ul><li>Yes </li></ul><ul><li>No </li></ul>
    7. 7. Simple model of the mind <ul><li>Working memory capacity is fixed at 7+/- 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Experts have more in long term memory </li></ul><ul><li>Expertise is organized </li></ul><ul><li>into schema: concepts </li></ul><ul><li>that organize knowledge </li></ul>From: Why Students Don’t Like School , Daniel T. Willingham
    8. 8. Chess Experts <ul><li>Novice sees individual moves </li></ul><ul><li>Experts see patterns and sequences </li></ul><ul><li>Chess experts working memory capacity tests equal to novices in other domains. </li></ul><ul><li>Experts automate thinking </li></ul>
    9. 9. Teaching thinking skills is better than teaching facts. <ul><li>True </li></ul><ul><li>False </li></ul>
    10. 10. Conceptual thinking is built on facts in long term memory. <ul><li>“ Thinking is remembering in disguise.” </li></ul><ul><li>More knowledge means being able to fill in gaps </li></ul><ul><li>“ The more you know </li></ul><ul><li>the more you can </li></ul><ul><li>learn.” </li></ul><ul><li>Higher order thinking requires a knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>base </li></ul>
    11. 11. Which type of interaction is most important for student learning? <ul><li>Student to teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Student to student </li></ul><ul><li>Student to content </li></ul>
    12. 12. Multimodal interaction <ul><li>Student to content interaction alone is sufficient, BUT ,this is active engagement with meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivist theory: learning grows from meaning …. and meaning is through interaction. </li></ul>Cognitive presence: “ The extent to which learners are able to construct and confirm meaning through sustained reflection and discourse”
    13. 13. Redundancy: The same thing only different. <ul><li>Multiple means of engagement with information is called Elaborative Rehearsal : creates durable memory, connects meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>We learn new things by relating them to what we already know </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse experience moves learner beyond shallow expertise </li></ul>
    14. 14. Listing course or unit learning outcomes…. <ul><li>Takes up space </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses student attention </li></ul><ul><li>Has no effect one way or another </li></ul>
    15. 15. Objectives focus both the teacher and the student <ul><li>Teacher: Outcomes describe measurable/observable performance, guide design of learning experiences, assessment and measurement. </li></ul><ul><li>Student: Guides attention. Objectives serve as an advance organizer. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Is this an example of well-written outcomes for the learner ? <ul><li>Convert pressure given in either units of atmospheres, mm Hg, inches Hg, torr or Pa to any of the other units, to the correct number of significant figures. </li></ul><ul><li>Apply classical methods of analytic chemistry absorption spectrophotometry. </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze experimental data obtained via gravimetric, volumetric, and instrumental methods of analysis </li></ul>
    17. 17. Objectives need to be… <ul><li>Written in language relevant to the student </li></ul><ul><li>Activate attention </li></ul><ul><li>Relate to what is already known </li></ul><ul><li>Execution: </li></ul><ul><li>orient learner to new information </li></ul><ul><li>Pose a problem, lesson will give the tools to solve it </li></ul><ul><li>tell a story, include what is known, plus more </li></ul>
    18. 18. Course organization influences student learning <ul><li>True </li></ul><ul><li>False </li></ul><ul><li>“Confusion is good for them.” </li></ul>
    19. 19. Why pay attention to course organization <ul><li>Teaching Presence: “The design, facilitation and direction of cognitive and social processes for the purpose of realizing personally meaningful and educationally worthwhile learning outcomes. ” </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency in expectations. Eg. Magazine </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on learning, not searching </li></ul><ul><li>Answers “what do I do next” </li></ul>
    20. 20. A recorded welcome message from faculty … <ul><li>Looks silly </li></ul><ul><li>Adds bloat to the course </li></ul><ul><li>Supports learning by creating a social connection. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Personal presence for faculty and students helps learning <ul><li>Social Presence: “ The ability of participants in a community of inquiry to project themselves socially and emotionally as ‘real’ people (i.e., their full personality), through the medium of communication being used. ” </li></ul><ul><li>Student introductions through discussion boards </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction can double as support for organization and outcomes </li></ul>
    22. 22. Adding a talking avatar to elearning interactions can help students learn. <ul><li>True </li></ul><ul><li>False </li></ul>
    23. 23. Conversation engages the brain <ul><li>“Pedagogical agents” add social </li></ul><ul><li>conventions to content </li></ul><ul><li>Studies show learning </li></ul><ul><li>improves with avatars. </li></ul><ul><li>Personalization Principle: </li></ul><ul><li>dialogue engages more than </li></ul><ul><li>third person language </li></ul>
    24. 24. Which presentation method is most likely to support learning? <ul><li>Choice One </li></ul><ul><li>Choice Two </li></ul><ul><li>Picture Choice 3 </li></ul>Graphic with text below it. Text integrated in graphic. 1. 2. Makes no difference 3.
    25. 25. Contiguity Principle <ul><li>Place text near the graphic </li></ul><ul><li>Distance leads to split attention </li></ul><ul><li>Examples are labels, hints and brief explanations </li></ul>
    26. 26. Which presentation method is most likely to support learning? <ul><li>Choice One </li></ul><ul><li>Choice Two </li></ul><ul><li>Picture Choice 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Picture Choice 4 </li></ul>Graphic + text + audio Graphic + text Graphic + audio 1. 2. 3. Makes No Difference 4.
    27. 27. Modality and Redundancy Principles <ul><li>Modality </li></ul><ul><li>Use audio instead of text to explain visuals </li></ul><ul><li>Based on dual coding theory </li></ul><ul><li>Most effective when visual is complex </li></ul><ul><li>Redundancy </li></ul><ul><li>Redundancy increases cognitive load </li></ul><ul><li>May be useful for highly complex material </li></ul>
    28. 28. Does catering to students’ learning styles help students learn? <ul><li>Yes </li></ul><ul><li>No </li></ul>
    29. 29. Cognitive psychology says there is little evidence for learning styles theory <ul><li>50 years of testing has produced no confirmed theory </li></ul><ul><li>People may have an aptitude for visual or auditory memory but this is only valuable when visuals and sound are germane to understanding meaning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advance to next slide for a video about the inadequacy of learning style theories. </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. So when should you use sound and visuals? <ul><li>When it is appropriate to the meaning of the content </li></ul><ul><li>When it supports analogies or metaphors that invoke prior learning </li></ul><ul><li>Visual representation of information is almost always helpful if it illustrates: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Categories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sequences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When it supports access to learning (podcasts, video, etc.) </li></ul>
    31. 31. Visual evidence is more memorable than text
    32. 32. Visual evidence is more memorable than text 2007 study by the Poytner Institute
    33. 33. When giving feedback on quizzes and tests it is better to <ul><li>Give it right away </li></ul><ul><li>Give it after some delay </li></ul><ul><li>Both </li></ul>
    34. 34. Feedback principles <ul><li>Delayed feedback more effective than immediate. Delayed feedback is another recall event. “Spacing Effect:” spaced learning almost always more effective than concentrated. </li></ul><ul><li>Learner must practice correct retrieval of knowledge, therefore corrective feedback has greatest cognitive effect. </li></ul><ul><li>Have to know if answers are high confidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask if student is confident </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess multiple ways to diagnose inconsistency </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Extrinsic feedback such as “good job” helps students learn. <ul><li>Yes </li></ul><ul><li>No </li></ul>
    36. 36. Intrinsic feedback supports learning <ul><li>Intrinsic feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>shows the consequence of choices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>clarifies misunderstanding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extrinsic feedback indicates what answers are liked by the person giving feedback. </li></ul>
    37. 37. Instructional design techniques work equally well for novices and experts. <ul><li>Yes </li></ul><ul><li>No </li></ul><ul><li>Depends </li></ul>
    38. 38. Expertise reversal effect <ul><li>People with highly developed understanding need few if any ID support and may find it counter productive </li></ul><ul><li>Experts have advanced organizing schema that let them include more information in a “chunk” </li></ul><ul><li>Are your students experts? Probably not. </li></ul>
    39. 39. If a learner has six hours to study for a test the learner should … <ul><li>Study for six hours straight </li></ul><ul><li>Study for three, two-hour sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Study for six one-hour </li></ul>
    40. 40. The spacing effect: the most under utilized effective teaching method <ul><li>Application: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t assume learners know how to study. Suggest study habits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide numerous and varied opportunities to engage content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revisit “old” material in increasingly spaced intervals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduce new content in the context of old. </li></ul></ul>Cramming works, but only for the short term
    41. 41. How long does it take to develop a new online course? <ul><li>One quarter </li></ul><ul><li>Two quarters </li></ul><ul><li>Three quarters </li></ul><ul><li>It never ends! </li></ul>
    42. 42. Time to develop <ul><li>Redesign </li></ul><ul><li>Redevelop </li></ul><ul><li>Online or Hybrid </li></ul><ul><li>Release Time </li></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><li>“ Great things are not done by impulse, but a series of small things brought together.” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vincent Van Gogh </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>See the Learning Design Presentation for more on course design support