Android is a software cluster for mobile devices that includes an
operating system OS, key applications and middleware.
About the design, Kernel of Android is based on Linux kernel
further furnished by Google.
Android doesn’t have a essential X Windows System nor does it
support the full set of standard GNU libraries, which makes it
difficult to port existing Linux applications or libraries to Android.
Android was founded in Palo Alto, California in October 2003 by
Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears and Chris White who work at
“Google” to develop.
“…smarter mobile devices that are more aware of its owner’s
location and preferences.”
Android was bought by “Google” in 2005.
On the 5th of the November 2007 the Open Handset Alliance, a
consortium of several companies was unveiled with the goal to
develop open standards for mobile services.
Android is not a single piece of hardware; it’s a complete, end-toend software platform that can be adapted to work on any
number of hardware configurations.
Everything is there, from the boot loader all the way up to the
Android uses Linux for its device drivers, memory management,
process management and networking.
The next level contains Android native libraries. They are all
written in C/C++ internally, but calling through Java interfaces,
In this layer, Surface Manager, 2D and 3D graphics, Media
Codecs, the SQL database (SQLite) and a web browser engine
Android is a multi-process system, in which each application (and
parts of the system) runs in its own process.
Most security between applications and the system is enforced at
the process level through standard Linux facilities, such as user
and group IDs that are assigned to applications.
The OHA is committed to make their vision a reality: to deploy the
Android platform for every mobile operator, handset
manufacturers and developers to build innovative devices
Intel doesn’t want to lose ownership of the netbook market, so
they need to prepare for anything, including Android
More Android devices are coming and some will push the
envelope even further
Android 1.0, the first commercial version of the software, was
released on September 23, 2008.
HTC dream first commercially sold out mobile which runs on
android on Oct 22 2008.
On February 9, 2009, Android 1.1 update was released, initially
for the HTC Dream only.
Android 1.1 was known as "Petit Four" but not used officially.
On April 30, 2009, the Android
1.5 update was released, based
on Linux kernel 2.6.27. This was
the first release to officially use
a name based on a dessert
On September 15, 2009, the
Android 1.6 SDK – dubbed
Donut – was released, based
on Linux kernel 2.6.29.
On October 26, 2009, the
Android 2.0 SDK – codenamed
Éclair – was released, based on
Linux kernel 2.6.29.
On May 20, 2010, the Android
2.2 (Froyo, short for Frozen
Yogurt) SDK was released,
based on Linux kernel 2.6.32.
On December 6, 2010, the
Android 2.3 (Gingerbread) SDK
was released, based on Linux
On February 22, 2011, the
Android 3.0 (Honeycomb) SDK
– the first tablet-only Android
update – was released, based
on Linux kernel 2.6.36. The first
device featuring this version, the
Motorola Xoom tablet, was
released on February 24, 2011.
The SDK for Android 4.0.1 (Ice
Cream Sandwich), based on
Linux kernel 3.0.1, was publicly
released on October 19,
2011.Googles Gabe Cohen
stated that Android 4.0 was
"theoretically compatible" with
any Android 2.3.x device in
production at that time.
On June 27, 2012, at the Google
I/O conference, Google
announced Android 4.1 (Jelly
Bean). Based on Linux kernel
3.0.31, Jelly Bean was an
incremental update with the
primary aim of improving the
functionality and performance of
the user interface. Nexus 7 the
first device to run Jelly Bean.