Group 1
Block 22- BS PH
2013- 2014
Social Science:
A Concept Map
I. Psychology
A. Definition of Psychology
Psychology is a...
3. Developmental Theories
Theories of development provide a framework for thinking about human growth,
development, and le...
4. Other Research Methods in Psychology


Computer simulation (modelling)



Interview, can be structured or unstructure...
4. Social Exchange Theory- claims that society is composed of ever present
interactions among individuals who attempt to m...
4. Neoevolutionism – discards some dogmas from the earlier theory of evolutionism
5. Cultural Materialism - human social l...
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Concept map outline

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Concept map outline

  1. 1. Group 1 Block 22- BS PH 2013- 2014 Social Science: A Concept Map I. Psychology A. Definition of Psychology Psychology is an academic and applied discipline that involves the scientific study of mental functions and behaviours. Psychology has the immediate goal of understanding individuals and groups by both establishing general principles and researching specific cases, and by many accounts it ultimately aims to benefit society B. Key Concepts in Psychology There are four main key concepts in psychology. 1. Behaviour- What is it that influences or determines human and non-human behaviour and how can it be measured. Psychologists pose a variety of theories to explain human behaviour. 2. Personality- The term ‘personality’ refers to a person’s unique behavioural and cognitive patterns. Personality is closely linked to identity. 3. Motivation- Motivation is largely about values and rewards. Motivation theories tend to assume that every learned response is the result of some motivation. 4. Intelligence- Some psychologists believe that intelligence is a single, general ability, while others believe it encompasses a range of aptitudes, skills, and talents. C. Some Theories in Psychology: 1. Behavioural Theories It is a theory of learning based upon the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning. Advocated by famous psychologists such as John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner, behavioral theories dominated psychology during the early half of the twentieth century. Today, behavioral techniques are still widely used in therapeutic settings to help clients learn new skills and behaviors. It includes Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning, and the like. 2. Cognitive Theories Cognitive theories of psychology are focused on internal states, such as motivation, problem solving, decision-making, thinking, and attention. It includes Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development: sensorimotor stage (from birth to age 2), preoperational stage (from age 2 to about age 7), concrete operational stage (from age 7 to 11), and formal operational stage (adolescence to adulthood)
  2. 2. 3. Developmental Theories Theories of development provide a framework for thinking about human growth, development, and learning. It includes Freud’s Psychosexual Theory of Development and Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development. 4. Humanist Theories It began to grow in popularity during the 1950s. While earlier theories often focused on abnormal behavior and psychological problems, humanist theories instead emphasized the basic goodness of human beings. Some of the major humanist theorists include Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow. It includes Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs 5. Personality Theories It looks at the patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behavior that make a person unique. 6. Social Psychology Theories It focused on helping us understand and explain social behavior. Social theories are generally centered on specific social phenomena, including group behavior, prosocial behavior, social influence, love and much more. 7. Learning Theories Learning theories focus on how people learning and acquire new knowledge. This is an interdisciplinary topic of interest that often draws upon information from psychology, education, instructional design, and other areas. D. Research Methods in Psychology A wide range of research methods are used in psychology. These methods vary by the sources of information that are drawn on, how that information is sampled, and the types of instruments that are used in data collection. Methods also vary by whether they collect qualitative data, quantitative data or both. Qualitative psychological research is where the research findings are not arrived at by statistical or other quantitative procedures. Quantitative psychological research is where the research findings result from mathematical modelling and statistical estimation or statistical inference. 1. Correlational Research- refers to any of a broad class of statistical relationships involving dependence.Familiar examples of dependent phenomena include the correlation between the physical statures of parents and their offspring, and the correlation between the demand for a product and its price. 2. Descriptive research- is used to describe characteristics of a population or phenomenon being studied. It does not answer questions about how/when/why the characteristics occurred. Rather it addresses the "what" question (What are the characteristics of the population or situation being studied?) 3. Experimental psychology research- refers to work done by those who apply experimental methods to the study of behavior and the processes that underlie it. Experimental psychologists employ human participants and animal subjects to study a great many topics, including, among others sensation & perception, memory, cognition, learning, motivation, emotion; developmental processes, social psychology, and the neural substrates of all of these.
  3. 3. 4. Other Research Methods in Psychology  Computer simulation (modelling)  Interview, can be structured or unstructured.  Survey, often with a random sample (see survey sampling) II. Sociology A. What is Sociology? Sociology is the study of social life, social change, and the social causes and consequences of human behavior. Sociologists investigate the structure of groups organizations, and societies and how people interact within these contexts. B. Some concepts found in Sociology  Society - humanly created organization or system of interrelationships that connects individuals in a common culture.  Culture - sets of traditions, rules, symbols that shape and are enacted as feelings, thoughts, and behaviours of groups of people.  Language - a system of verbal symbols through which humans communicate ideas, feelings, experiences.  Values - preferences - ideas people share about what is good, bad, desirable, undesirable.  Norms - concepts and behaviors that constitute the normal.  Beliefs - conceptions or ideas about the world and about human life that center on the meaning of human experience or the character of the supernatural world.  Deviant Behavior - behavior falling outside the acceptable range according to societal or group norms and values.  Social Organization - the arrangement of the parts that constitute society, the organization of social positions and distribution of people within those positions.  Identity - combines the intimate or personal world with the collective space of cultural forms and social relations. C. Sociological Theories 1. Conflict Theory- claims that society is in a state of perpetual conflict and competition for limited resources. It emphasizes the role of coercion and power in producing social order. 2. Functionalism Theory- claims that society is in a state of balance and kept that way through the function of society's component parts. 3. Symbolic Interactionism Theory- claims that society is composed of everpresent interactions among individuals who share symbols and their meanings.
  4. 4. 4. Social Exchange Theory- claims that society is composed of ever present interactions among individuals who attempt to maximize rewards while minimizing costs. D. Research Methods  Survey - a research method in which subjects respond to a series of statements or questions in a questionnaire or an interview.  Experiments - a research method for investigating cause and effect under highly controlled conditions.  Participant Observations - Participant observation is a method by which researchers systematically observe people while joining in their routine activities. Participant observation research is descriptive and often exploratory. It is normally qualitative research, inquiry based on subjective impressions.  Secondary Analysis- A research method in which a researcher utilizes data collected by others. III. Anthropology A. Key Concepts in Anthropology 1. Culture - behavior patterns, customary beliefs and intellectual faculties acquired by people as members of a society 2. Adaptation – process of obtaining knowledge and creating technology to adjust to environmental conditions; it provides a selective advantage in the competition for survival 3. Integration – a view suggesting that all aspects of a culture are interconnected and that knowing any cultural trait or institution involves knowing how it influences other institutions, and vice versa. 4. Human Universalism - a notion that all people today are fully and equally human. 5. Function - Social institutions, behavior, cultural logic functions to satisfy human needs 6. Comparison - cross-cultural comparison & the comparative approach 7. Structure - systems of relationships, organization, forms of associations, standardized modes of behavior B. Theories 1. Evolutionism - organisms are inherently bound to increase in complexity through the process of evolution 2. Functionalism - the society as a complex system whose parts work together to uphold unity and stability. 3. Configurationalism – the culture’s personality is supposed to pattern the personalities of the members within that culture
  5. 5. 4. Neoevolutionism – discards some dogmas from the earlier theory of evolutionism 5. Cultural Materialism - human social life is a response to the practical problems of earthly existence 6. Structuralism - cultures, viewed as systems, are analyzed in terms of the structural relations among their elements 7. Practice Theory - theory of how social beings, with their distinct purpose, make and transform the world in which they live C. Research Methods 1. Field work – a method of learning and understanding by first-hand observation of people and other primates since their complexity is difficult to learn through laboratory experiments 2. Scientific method - This is the system now used in all sciences to objectively learn about natural phenomena IV. Sources: A. Psychology 1. Concepts http://seniorsecondary.tki.org.nz/Social-sciences/Psychology/Key-concepts 2. Theories http://psychology.about.com/od/psychology101/u/psychology-theories.htm 3. Methods http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_psychological_research_methods B. Sociology 1. Concepts http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/anthropology/21a-245j-power-interpersonalorganizational-and-global-dimensions-fall-2005/study-materials/basic_conc.pdf 2. Theories http://freebooks.uvu.edu/SOC1010/index.php/03.html http://sociology.about.com/od/Sociology101/tp/Major-Sociological-Frameworks.htm 3. Research Methods https://www.google.com.ph/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&ved=0C DoQFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Ffaculty.ccc.edu%2Faberger%2F201.04%2520Socio logical%2520Research%2520Methods.ppt&ei=h9iIUqP2MLG8iAeLvYCoAw&usg=A FQjCNF8uMZ-jf4OAN3bwJ1zfx_i1zoerg&sig2=LlMGi_MlrnfNjXV5_Xjxdg C. Anthropology 1. Concepts http://anthro.palomar.edu/intro/overview.htm 2. Theories Appendix 1 A History of Theories in Anthropology http://highered.mcgrawhill.com/sites/dl/free/0078035023/886575/Appendix_1_A_History_of_Theories_In_A nthropology.pdf 3. Methods http://anthro.palomar.edu/intro/overview.htm

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