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Rizwan haseeb



Principles Of Management

Principles Of Management



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Rizwan haseeb Rizwan haseeb Presentation Transcript

  • Principles of Management Management Yesterday & Today CHAPTER-2
    • Historical Background Of Management.
    • Classical Approach.
    • Quantitative Approach.
    • Behavioral Approach.
    • Contingency/Contemporary Approach
  • Major Approaches Of Management Organization Behavior Scientific Management General Administration System Approach Contingency Approach View slide
  •   View slide
    • Ancient Management
      • Egypt (pyramids)
      • China (Great Wall)
    • Adam Smith
      • Published “The Wealth of Nations” in 1776
        • Advocated the division of labor (job specialization) to increase the productivity of workers
    • Industrial Revolution
      • Substituted machine power for human labor
      • Created large organizations in need of management
  • The first studies of management, which emphasized rationality and making organizations and workers as efficient as possible.
  • Classical Approach An approach that involves using the scientific method to determine the “One Best Way” for a job to be done. Scientific Management
      • The “father” of scientific management
      • Published Principles of Scientific Management (1911)
    • The theory of scientific management
        • Using scientific methods to define the “one best way” for a job to be done
        • Putting the right person on the job with the correct tools and equipment
        • Having a standardized method of doing the job
        • Providing an economic incentive to the worker
    Fredrick Winslow Taylor
      • Focused on increasing worker productivity through the reduction of wasted motion
      • Developed the micro chronometer to time worker motions and optimize performance .
    • How Do Today’s Managers Use Scientific Management ?
      • Use time and motion studies to increase productivity
      • Hire the best qualified employees
      • Design incentive systems based on output
    Frank and Lillian Gilbreth
  • An Approach to management that focuses on describing what mangers do and what constitutes good management practice. General Administrative Theory
    • Believed that the practice of management was distinct from other organizational functions like Finance, Production, Distribution, and other typical business functions.
    Henri Fayol
  • Fayal's 14 principles of Management
    • Developed fourteen principles of management that applied to all organizational situations.
      • Division of labor.
      • Authority.
      • Discipline.
      • Unity of command.
      • Unity of direction.
      • Subordination of individual interests to the general interests.
      • Remuneration.
      • Centralization.
      • Scalar chain.
      • Order.
      • Equity.
      • Stability.
      • Initiative.
      • Esprit de corps.
      • Developed a theory of authority structures and relation in 1900s,called bureaucracy.
      • Bureaucracy.
      • A form of organization characterized by division of labor ,a clear defined hierarchy, detailed rules and regulations, and impersonal relationships.
    Max Weber.
  • Weber’s Ideal Bureaucracy
      • A philosophy of management driven by continual improvement in the quality of work processes and responding to customer needs and expectations
    Quality Management
      • Intense focus on the customer.
      • Concern for continual improvement
      • Process-focused.
      • Improvement in the quality of everything.
      • Accurate measurement.
      • Empowerment of employees.
    What is Quality Management?
      • The study of the actions of people at work; people are the most important asset of an organization
    Early Advocates
  • Early Advocates of OB
    • A series of studies during the 1920s and 1930s that provided new insights into individual and group behavior
    Hawthorne studies
    • Experimental findings
      • Productivity unexpectedly increased under imposed adverse working conditions.
      • The effect of incentive plans was less than expected.
    • Research conclusion
      • Social norms, group standards and attitudes more strongly influence individual output and work behavior than do monetary incentives.
    A series of productivity experiments conducted at Western Electric from 1927 to 1932.
  • The field of study concerned with the actions (behavior) of people at work. Organization Behavior
  • A set of interrelated and interdependent parts arranged in a manner that produces a unified whole. System Approach
  • Basic Types of Systems
  • The Organization as an Open System
  • A management approach which says that organization are different, face different situations (contingencies), and require different ways of managing Contingency Approach
  • Popular Contingency Variables
    • Organization size
      • As size increases, so do the problems of coordination.
    • Routineness of task technology
      • Routine technologies require organizational structures, leadership styles, and control systems that differ from those required by customized or non-routine technologies .
    • Environmental uncertainty
      • What works best in a stable and predictable environment may be totally inappropriate in a rapidly changing and unpredictable environment.
    • Individual differences
      • Individuals differ in terms of their desire for growth, autonomy, tolerance of ambiguity, and expectations.