Rizwan haseeb

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Principles Of Management
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Rizwan haseeb

  1. 1. Principles of Management Management Yesterday & Today CHAPTER-2
  2. 2. AFTER STUDYING CHAPTER Two AND LISTENING TO MY LECTUER, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO:  Historical Background Of Management.  Classical Approach.  Quantitative Approach.  Behavioral Approach.  Contingency/Contemporary Approach
  3. 3. Organization Behavior Scientific Management General Administration System Approach Contingency Approach Major Approaches Of Management
  4. 4.  Ancient Management  Egypt (pyramids)  China (Great Wall)  Adam Smith  Published “The Wealth of Nations” in 1776  Advocated the division of labor (job specialization) to increase the productivity of workers  Industrial Revolution  Substituted machine power for human labor  Created large organizations in need of management
  5. 5. The first studies of management, which emphasized rationality and making organizations and workers as efficient as possible.
  6. 6. Classical Approach Scientific Management An approach that involves using the scientific method to determine the “One Best Way” for a job to be done.
  7. 7.  The “father” of scientific management  Published Principles of Scientific Management (1911) The theory of scientific management » Using scientific methods to define the “one best way” for a job to be done » Putting the right person on the job with the correct tools and equipment » Having a standardized method of doing the job » Providing an economic incentive to the worker Fredrick Winslow Taylor
  8. 8.  Focused on increasing worker productivity through the reduction of wasted motion  Developed the micro chronometer to time worker motions and optimize performance.  How Do Today’s Managers Use Scientific Management?  Use time and motion studies to increase productivity  Hire the best qualified employees  Design incentive systems based on output Frank and Lillian Gilbreth
  9. 9. General Administrative Theory An Approach to management that focuses on describing what mangers do and what constitutes good management practice.
  10. 10. Believed that the practice of management was distinct from other organizational functions like Finance, Production, Distribution, and other typical business functions. Henri Fayol
  11. 11. Fayal's 14 principles of Management Developed fourteen principles of management that applied to all organizational situations. 1. Division of labor. 2. Authority. 3. Discipline. 4. Unity of command. 5. Unity of direction. 6. Subordination of individual interests to the general interests. 7. Remuneration. 8. Centralization. 9. Scalar chain. 10. Order. 11. Equity. 12. Stability. 13. Initiative. 14. Esprit de corps.
  12. 12.  Developed a theory of authority structures and relation in 1900s,called bureaucracy. Bureaucracy. A form of organization characterized by division of labor ,a clear defined hierarchy, detailed rules and regulations, and impersonal relationships. Max Weber.
  13. 13. Weber’s Ideal Bureaucracy
  14. 14. Quality Management A philosophy of management driven by continual improvement in the quality of work processes and responding to customer needs and expectations
  15. 15. oIntense focus on the customer. oConcern for continual improvement oProcess-focused. oImprovement in the quality of everything. oAccurate measurement. oEmpowerment of employees. What is Quality Management?
  16. 16. Early Advocates The study of the actions of people at work; people are the most important asset of an organization
  17. 17. Early Advocates of OBEarly Advocates of OB
  18. 18. Hawthorne studies A series of studies during the 1920s and 1930s that provided new insights into individual and group behavior
  19. 19. • Experimental findingsExperimental findings  Productivity unexpectedly increased under imposed adverseProductivity unexpectedly increased under imposed adverse working conditions.working conditions.  The effect of incentive plans was less than expected.The effect of incentive plans was less than expected. • Research conclusionResearch conclusion  Social norms, group standards and attitudes more stronglySocial norms, group standards and attitudes more strongly influence individual output and work behavior than doinfluence individual output and work behavior than do monetary incentives.monetary incentives. A series of productivity experiments conducted atA series of productivity experiments conducted at Western Electric from 1927 to 1932.Western Electric from 1927 to 1932.
  20. 20. The field of study concerned with the actions (behavior) of people at work. Organization Behavior
  21. 21. A set of interrelated and interdependent parts arranged in a manner that produces a unified whole. System Approach
  22. 22. Basic Types of Systems
  23. 23. The Organization as an Open System
  24. 24. A management approach which says that organization are different, face different situations (contingencies), and require different ways of managing Contingency Approach
  25. 25. Popular Contingency Variables • Organization size • As size increases, so do the problems of coordination. • Routineness of task technology • Routine technologies require organizational structures, leadership styles, and control systems that differ from those required by customized or non-routine technologies. • Environmental uncertainty • What works best in a stable and predictable environment may be totally inappropriate in a rapidly changing and unpredictable environment. • Individual differences • Individuals differ in terms of their desire for growth, autonomy, tolerance of ambiguity, and expectations.

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