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Rizwan haseeb

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Principles Of Management

Principles Of Management
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    Rizwan haseeb Rizwan haseeb Presentation Transcript

    • Principles of Management Management Yesterday & Today CHAPTER-2
    • AFTER STUDYING CHAPTER Two AND LISTENING TO MY LECTUER, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO:
      • Historical Background Of Management.
      • Classical Approach.
      • Quantitative Approach.
      • Behavioral Approach.
      • Contingency/Contemporary Approach
    • Major Approaches Of Management Organization Behavior Scientific Management General Administration System Approach Contingency Approach
    •  
      • Ancient Management
        • Egypt (pyramids)
        • China (Great Wall)
      • Adam Smith
        • Published “The Wealth of Nations” in 1776
          • Advocated the division of labor (job specialization) to increase the productivity of workers
      • Industrial Revolution
        • Substituted machine power for human labor
        • Created large organizations in need of management
    • The first studies of management, which emphasized rationality and making organizations and workers as efficient as possible.
    • Classical Approach An approach that involves using the scientific method to determine the “One Best Way” for a job to be done. Scientific Management
        • The “father” of scientific management
        • Published Principles of Scientific Management (1911)
      • The theory of scientific management
          • Using scientific methods to define the “one best way” for a job to be done
          • Putting the right person on the job with the correct tools and equipment
          • Having a standardized method of doing the job
          • Providing an economic incentive to the worker
      Fredrick Winslow Taylor
        • Focused on increasing worker productivity through the reduction of wasted motion
        • Developed the micro chronometer to time worker motions and optimize performance .
      • How Do Today’s Managers Use Scientific Management ?
        • Use time and motion studies to increase productivity
        • Hire the best qualified employees
        • Design incentive systems based on output
      Frank and Lillian Gilbreth
    • An Approach to management that focuses on describing what mangers do and what constitutes good management practice. General Administrative Theory
      • Believed that the practice of management was distinct from other organizational functions like Finance, Production, Distribution, and other typical business functions.
      Henri Fayol
    • Fayal's 14 principles of Management
      • Developed fourteen principles of management that applied to all organizational situations.
        • Division of labor.
        • Authority.
        • Discipline.
        • Unity of command.
        • Unity of direction.
        • Subordination of individual interests to the general interests.
        • Remuneration.
        • Centralization.
        • Scalar chain.
        • Order.
        • Equity.
        • Stability.
        • Initiative.
        • Esprit de corps.
        • Developed a theory of authority structures and relation in 1900s,called bureaucracy.
        • Bureaucracy.
        • A form of organization characterized by division of labor ,a clear defined hierarchy, detailed rules and regulations, and impersonal relationships.
      Max Weber.
    • Weber’s Ideal Bureaucracy
    •  
        • A philosophy of management driven by continual improvement in the quality of work processes and responding to customer needs and expectations
      Quality Management
        • Intense focus on the customer.
        • Concern for continual improvement
        • Process-focused.
        • Improvement in the quality of everything.
        • Accurate measurement.
        • Empowerment of employees.
      What is Quality Management?
    •  
        • The study of the actions of people at work; people are the most important asset of an organization
      Early Advocates
    • Early Advocates of OB
      • A series of studies during the 1920s and 1930s that provided new insights into individual and group behavior
      Hawthorne studies
      • Experimental findings
        • Productivity unexpectedly increased under imposed adverse working conditions.
        • The effect of incentive plans was less than expected.
      • Research conclusion
        • Social norms, group standards and attitudes more strongly influence individual output and work behavior than do monetary incentives.
      A series of productivity experiments conducted at Western Electric from 1927 to 1932.
    • The field of study concerned with the actions (behavior) of people at work. Organization Behavior
    •  
    • A set of interrelated and interdependent parts arranged in a manner that produces a unified whole. System Approach
    • Basic Types of Systems
    • The Organization as an Open System
    • A management approach which says that organization are different, face different situations (contingencies), and require different ways of managing Contingency Approach
    • Popular Contingency Variables
      • Organization size
        • As size increases, so do the problems of coordination.
      • Routineness of task technology
        • Routine technologies require organizational structures, leadership styles, and control systems that differ from those required by customized or non-routine technologies .
      • Environmental uncertainty
        • What works best in a stable and predictable environment may be totally inappropriate in a rapidly changing and unpredictable environment.
      • Individual differences
        • Individuals differ in terms of their desire for growth, autonomy, tolerance of ambiguity, and expectations.