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Identification of phytonematodes from vegetable growing areas in malakand division of khyber pakhtunkhwa and their organic biocontrol with pleurotus species
 

Identification of phytonematodes from vegetable growing areas in malakand division of khyber pakhtunkhwa and their organic biocontrol with pleurotus species

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Gives some data about the use of oyster spp. for biocontrol of plant nematodes in vegetables in northern areas of Paksitan.

Gives some data about the use of oyster spp. for biocontrol of plant nematodes in vegetables in northern areas of Paksitan.

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    Identification of phytonematodes from vegetable growing areas in malakand division of khyber pakhtunkhwa and their organic biocontrol with pleurotus species Identification of phytonematodes from vegetable growing areas in malakand division of khyber pakhtunkhwa and their organic biocontrol with pleurotus species Presentation Transcript

    • IDENTIFICATION OF PHYTONEMATODES FROMVEGETABLE GROWING AREAS IN MALAKAND DIVISION OFKHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA AND THEIR ORGANICBIOCONTROL WITH PLEUROTUS SPECIESByMuhammad Rizwan Liaqat
    • Objectives To identify plant parasitic nematodes from differentvegetable growing areas of Malakand Agency. To test in vitro bio-control efficacy of Pleurotus spp.
    • What are nematodesThe Greek word nematode means "threadlike"Nemat=threadode=likeNematodes are unsegmented roundworms.Kingdom Animalia - Phylum Nematoda
    • WHY NEMATODES ARE IMPORTANT?? Nematodes are Economically Important toAgriculture!"Annual crop loss estimates caused by plant parasiticnematodes are roughly $80 billion worldwide. Most abundant animal life form..."If nothing but nematodes were present there wouldbe an outline of the Earth and many of its features
    • "Reproductive Potential (Egg production) Anguina 25,000 eggs (2,000/wk) Meloidogyne 500-1500 eggs
    • Nematode Groups Marine, Freshwater, Soil Plant Parasites Microbivores ("free-living“) Fungivores Omnivores (feed on multiple sources) Predators (on nematodes, protozoa,etc.) Animal Parasites - Vertebrate (50 species attack humans) Nematode parasites of insects (entomopathogenic)
    • Root Knots
    • INTRODUCTION During 1984 to 1988 the nematodes infestation increasedto such a level that tomato and other solaneceious cropsfail to grow in the whole Malakand and Swat Region (Alikhan and Haji Muhammad Agricultural Officers Dargai). Chemical control of nematodes is not possible and notjustifiable. As it were not useful against nematodeswhich are living inside the soil and also dangerous toliving beings and environment.
    •  Bio control is environment friendly and durablemethod to control nematodes. Different fungi were applied in past as bio control agentagainst nematodes (but harmful). Pleurotus spp which are edible mushroom, have alsoused as good source of bio control agent againstnematodes.
    • MATERIALS AND METHODS Soil samples collection from fields. Processing of samples. Quantitative analysis Qualitative analysis Temporary Mounts Killing nematodes Permanent slide mounts
    •  Photomicrograph of eelworm and cyst nematodes. Collection of Pleurotus Species. Inoculation of Pleurotus spp. in Malt Extract broth media. Observation on growth of the Pleurotus spp. Extraction of natural products. Application of the organic solvent to the nematodes in Petriplates. Data analysis.MATERIALS AND METHODS
    • RESULTSTable. 01. Qualitative and Quantitative analysis of plant parasiticnematodesS. No. LocalityNo. of nematodes pergramGenera isolated1. Jabben Turbela Pull 0.86PratylenchusXiphenemalongidorous,TylenchorhynchusHelicotylenchus2. Jabben 0.33HelicotylenchusPratylenchusXiphinemaTylenchorhynchusTylenchuslongidorous,Hoplolaimus
    • 3. Dobandy Varteer 0.16DitylenchusParalongidorousTylenchorhynchusHelicotylenchusPsilenchus4. Dobandy 0.88HelicotylenchusPratylenchusXiphenemaTylechusParalongidorousDitylenchusAphelenchus5. Dobandy 2 0.45HelicotylenchusXiphenemaTylenchuslongidorous,HoplolaimusDitylenchusAphelenchus6. Palona 0.34 HelicotylenchusXiphenema
    • 7. Heroshah 0.43HelicotylenchusPsilenchusAphelenchusParalongidorousTylenchusXiphenema8. Haryan Kohat 0.55HelicotylenchusXiphenemalongidorous,Paralongidorous
    • Table 02.Qualitative and percentage analysis of free-living andpredacious nematodes in Dargi, Malakand.S. NO. Locality Free LivingNematodesPercentage1. Jabban PullDorylaimidsCephalobidsAcrobeloidesRhabditids25.5%34.0%4.2%5.2%2. JabbanDorylaimidsRhabditidsCephalobids25%6.8%7.9%3. Dobandy VertarDorylaimidsCephalobids16.2%23.8%4. DobandyMononchidsDorylaimids8.9%15.8%
    • 5. Dobandy 2DorylaimidsCephalobidsRhabditids20%7.2%10.9%6. PalonaDorylaimidsRhabditids35.5%15.5%7. HeroshahDorylaimidsRhabditids16.2%8.1%8. Haryan KohatDorylaimidsRhabditids18.6%6.4%
    • Table 03. Frequency of occurrence of plant parasitic nematodes in eachlocality in Dargi, Malakand.S. NO. Genera isolatedFrequency ofOccurrence (%)1 Helicotylenchus 100%2 Xiphinema 71%3 Pratylenchus 57%4 Ditylenchus 57%5 Tylenchorhynchus 28%6 Aphelenchus 28%7 Hoplolaimus 27%8 Tylenchus 25%
    • 9 Psilenchus 16%10 Longidorous, 1311 Paralongidorous 1112 Cyst nematodes 7%
    • Hoplolaimus seinhorsti Luc, 1958
    • Genus Helicotylenchus steiner, 1945
    • Genus Xiphinema Cobb, 1913
    • Genus Longidoroidea Thron, 1935
    • Genus Paralongidorus.major verma, 1973.
    • Genus Pratylenchus Filipjev, 1936
    • Genus Tylenchorhynchus
    • Genus Tylenchus Bastian, 1865
    • Genus Psilenchus de Man, 1921
    • Genus Aphelenchulus Cobb, 1920
    • Genus Ditylenchus Filipjev, 1936
    • Genus Mononchus Cobb. 1918.
    • Cyst (Heterodera spp.):
    • Effect of extracts from Pleurotus florida on nematodes mortality.ConcentrationPleurotus florida ExtractsFruiting bodyMushroomwasteBroth100 ppm1 Hour (T1) 14 26 284 Hour (T2) 28 31 2724 Hour (T3) 65 34 39Average 36 30 31200 ppm1 Hour (T1) 22 50 414 Hour (T2) 55 57 5524 Hour (T3) 67 57 70Average 48 55 56300 ppm1 Hour (T1) 58 58 514 Hour (T2) 77 69 7324 Hour (T3) 95 69 86Average 53 65 70400 ppm1 Hour (T1) 88 66 764 Hour (T2) 91 79 9324 Hour (T3) 99 79 97Average 93 74 88
    • Effect of extracts from Pleurotus ostreatus on nematodes mortality.
    • Effect of extracts from Pleurotus citronopileatus on nematodes mortality.
    • Conclusion1) Our finding confirmed that Dargi region is heavily infestedby plantparasitic, cyst and root-knot nematodes.2) They directly and indirectly infect crops (by actingas a virusvectors).
    • 3) Extracts from three species of Pleurotus (P. florida, P. ostreatus,P.citronopileatus.) have been found effective against nematodesin in vitro.4) Extracts of P. citronopileatus was found even more effective innematode killing at lower level.
    • RECOMMENDATIONS AND FUTURE WORK: Pleurotus species can be used for the organic control of nematodes. Extracts from these fungi should be further tested under field conditions. Molecular identification of the parasitic nematodes in the surveyed areashould be carried out. This will further confirm these results. Chemical analysis would find the presence of the nematicidal compoundsin these fungi.
    •  Theses extracts should be tested against different parasitic nematodesunder pot and field conditions. Pleurotus species can be used for the organic control of nematodes. Extracts from these fungi should be further tested under fieldconditions.Control Nematodes Save the Crops
    • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS First of all I am thank full to Allah Almighty. I am highly indebted to my Advisor Prof. Dr. Saifullah. All Faculty members, staff and my student fellows, ofPlant Pathology Department, The Agricultural UniversityPeshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
    • THANKYOU