GOOD MORNING
“ If we are to reach real peace in this world, and if we are to carry on a real war against war, we shall have to begin wi...
INTRODUCTION- Children are considered as an asset of society and children are the one who take the nation forward in a due...
PROBLEMS OF CHILD LABOUR - WHERE THE NATION IS HEADING TOWARDS? AKSHATHA PARANJYOTHI KUMAR DEPT. OF SOCIOLOGY GOVT. FIRST ...
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF CHILD LABOUR Indeed the problem of child labour is very old and it has been there since time imme...
WHO IS A CHILD LABOUR? There is no consensus with regard to the meaning of the term child labour. According to the Child L...
CHILD LABOUR IN DIFFERENT SECTORS In India children are employed both in organized and unorganized sectors in rural and ur...
<ul><li>HOW CHILDREN ARE EXPLOITED? </li></ul><ul><li>Children are damaged physically, emotionally, morally and intellectu...
<ul><li>WHAT CIRCUMSTANCES CHILDREN FACE? </li></ul><ul><li>Full time work at a very early age </li></ul><ul><li>Dangerous...
<ul><li>PROBLEMS OF CHILD LABOUR </li></ul><ul><li>Child labour occurs even in developed countries </li></ul><ul><li>Child...
<ul><li>UNICEF CLASSIFICATION OF HAZARDS OF CHILD LABOUR </li></ul><ul><li>Physical hazards- affect overall health of chil...
HEALTH HAZARDS Source- Rural Labour Cell of Academy of Gandhian Studies, Hyderabad, 1988 SL. NO. OCCUPATION HEALTH HAZARDS...
PLUTCHIK’S EMOTIONAL WHEEL LOVE <ul><li>DISGUST  </li></ul>OPTIMISM SURPRISE AGGRESSION AWE CONTEMPT DISSAPOINTMENT REMORS...
<ul><li>The wheel indicates eight primary emotions of children grouped into four pairs of opposites- </li></ul><ul><li>Acc...
The chart shows that children who are engaged in hazardous activities are deprived of primary emotions such as joy, accept...
<ul><li>WORKING CONDITIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Terrible working conditions in urban and industrial areas </li></ul><ul><li>M...
<ul><li>PROBLEMS AT WORK PLACES </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of basic facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of safety measures by em...
<ul><li>WHAT CAUSES CHILD LABOUR </li></ul><ul><li>Economic factors </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme poverty </li></ul><ul><li>In...
<ul><li>Familial factors </li></ul><ul><li>Divorce </li></ul><ul><li>Rigid family relations </li></ul><ul><li>Desertion </...
<ul><li>STATISTICS ON CHILD LABOUR </li></ul><ul><li>17 million children in India work </li></ul><ul><li>children put in a...
<ul><li>WHERE INDIA IS HEADING TOWARDS? </li></ul><ul><li>Labour Ministry stated that India has 12.6 million working child...
<ul><li>RECOMMENDATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Family incomes </li></ul><ul><li>Education- universalisation of primar...
The development of India as a nation is being hampered by child labour. The Government of India must ensure that the needs...
WE ALL CAN HELP When the setting sun asked, Who shall do the rest? A little lamp offered I shall do my best. -  RABINDRANA...
 
<ul><li>REFERENCES- </li></ul><ul><li>Agarwal, Rashmi: “Street Children- A Socio-Psychological Study”, Shipra Publications...
WEBSITES: Census Of India Department of Labour- Government of Karnataka Helplinelaw.com indianembassy.org International La...
NEWS PAPER ARTICLES: The Hindu, Monday, December 06, 2004: Reported by Sahana Charan  Prajavani, Sunday, June 11, 2006: Re...
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17336230 problems-of-child-labour-by-akshata

  1. 1. GOOD MORNING
  2. 2. “ If we are to reach real peace in this world, and if we are to carry on a real war against war, we shall have to begin with children” - MAHATMA GANDHI
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION- Children are considered as an asset of society and children are the one who take the nation forward in a due course. But unfortunately social problems such as unemployment, poverty, ignorance and illiteracy of parents force them to work.
  4. 4. PROBLEMS OF CHILD LABOUR - WHERE THE NATION IS HEADING TOWARDS? AKSHATHA PARANJYOTHI KUMAR DEPT. OF SOCIOLOGY GOVT. FIRST GRADE COLLEGE, RAJAJINAGAR
  5. 5. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF CHILD LABOUR Indeed the problem of child labour is very old and it has been there since time immemorial. In ancient India, in Medieval India and also in pre-capitalist societies, children less than 8 years of age belonging to Scheduled Castes and lower castes were employed for doing menial works. Industrialization and large scale urbanization has aggravated the problem of child labour.
  6. 6. WHO IS A CHILD LABOUR? There is no consensus with regard to the meaning of the term child labour. According to the Child Labour( Prohibition and Regulation) Act 1986, ‘child means a person who has not completed his 14th year of age. Any such person engaged for wages, whether in cash or in kind, is a child worker’.
  7. 7. CHILD LABOUR IN DIFFERENT SECTORS In India children are employed both in organized and unorganized sectors in rural and urban areas of which 90 percent is in rural areas. Children are engaged in activities like sowing, weeding, harvesting, tending of cattle, shoe-polishing, rag picking, beedi making, construction activities, hotels and restaurants work, helper at garages, households and so on.
  8. 8. <ul><li>HOW CHILDREN ARE EXPLOITED? </li></ul><ul><li>Children are damaged physically, emotionally, morally and intellectually </li></ul><ul><li>UNICEF states 14 percent of children between 5-14 years are involved in child labour </li></ul><ul><li>Bangladeshi girls and women trafficked for sexual exploitation to Pakistan, and boys were trafficked to Gulf States to work as camel jockeys, says US Dept. of State, Trafficking in Persons Report of 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>In Jammu and Kashmir armed groups recruit children in localized conflicts says Global Report on Child Soldiers 2004. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>WHAT CIRCUMSTANCES CHILDREN FACE? </li></ul><ul><li>Full time work at a very early age </li></ul><ul><li>Dangerous workplaces </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive working hours </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological, verbal, physical and sexual abuse </li></ul><ul><li>obliged to work by circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>Limited or no pay </li></ul><ul><li>Work and life on the streets in bad conditions </li></ul><ul><li>No access to Education </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>PROBLEMS OF CHILD LABOUR </li></ul><ul><li>Child labour occurs even in developed countries </li></ul><ul><li>Children of ethnic minorities, immigrants, and marginalized groups are affected </li></ul><ul><li>Children are exposed to many health hazards at working places </li></ul><ul><li>Victims of many diseases </li></ul><ul><li>They are preferred to adult workers as children are less aware of their rights, accept dangerous work, more obidient and easier to exploit </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>UNICEF CLASSIFICATION OF HAZARDS OF CHILD LABOUR </li></ul><ul><li>Physical hazards- affect overall health of children </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive hazards- Education is reduced by child labour. Cognitive development includes literacy, numeric and acquisition of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional, Social and Moral hazards- Trafficking </li></ul>
  12. 12. HEALTH HAZARDS Source- Rural Labour Cell of Academy of Gandhian Studies, Hyderabad, 1988 SL. NO. OCCUPATION HEALTH HAZARDS 1. Beedi industry Chronic bronchitis and tuberculosis 2. Glass Industry Asthma, Bronchitis, T.B., Eye problem 3. Handloom Industry Asthma, T.B. 4. Zari and Embroidery Eye defects 5. Gem and Diamond cutting Eye defects 6. Construction Stunted growth of child 7. Rag picking Tetanus, skin diseases 8. Pottery Asthma, Bronchitis, T.B. 9. Stone quarries/ Slate quarries Silicosin
  13. 13. PLUTCHIK’S EMOTIONAL WHEEL LOVE <ul><li>DISGUST </li></ul>OPTIMISM SURPRISE AGGRESSION AWE CONTEMPT DISSAPOINTMENT REMORSE JOY ACCEPTANCE ANTICIPATION FEAR ANGER SURPRISE SADNESS
  14. 14. <ul><li>The wheel indicates eight primary emotions of children grouped into four pairs of opposites- </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance and disgust </li></ul><ul><li>Fear and anger </li></ul><ul><li>Surprise and anticipation </li></ul><ul><li>Sadness and joy </li></ul><ul><li>Pluthick is of the view that these primary emotions give birth to number of other emotions. </li></ul>
  15. 15. The chart shows that children who are engaged in hazardous activities are deprived of primary emotions such as joy, acceptance, surprise etc, and they experience more of secondary emotions like disgust, fear, anger and sadness at their work places.
  16. 16. <ul><li>WORKING CONDITIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Terrible working conditions in urban and industrial areas </li></ul><ul><li>Miserable working conditions in Industrial units and mining areas </li></ul><ul><li>Victims of diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Exploitation at the hands of Intermediaries </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>PROBLEMS AT WORK PLACES </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of basic facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of safety measures by employers </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of first-aid facilities </li></ul><ul><li>No compensation for injuries </li></ul><ul><li>No insurance </li></ul><ul><li>No incentives or perks </li></ul><ul><li>No bonus </li></ul><ul><li>No break in between working hours </li></ul><ul><li>Harassment by employers </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>WHAT CAUSES CHILD LABOUR </li></ul><ul><li>Economic factors </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of the factory system </li></ul><ul><li>More work for less wages </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits to industries </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Familial factors </li></ul><ul><li>Divorce </li></ul><ul><li>Rigid family relations </li></ul><ul><li>Desertion </li></ul><ul><li>Cruelty at home </li></ul><ul><li>Parent-child conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Other factors </li></ul><ul><li>Failure of Government machinery and Legislative system </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of public awareness </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>STATISTICS ON CHILD LABOUR </li></ul><ul><li>17 million children in India work </li></ul><ul><li>children put in an average of 21 hours of labour per week </li></ul><ul><li>19% of children work as domestic help </li></ul><ul><li>90% working children are in rural India </li></ul><ul><li>85% working children in unorganized sectors </li></ul><ul><li>80% engaged in agricultural work </li></ul><ul><li>2 million child commercial sex workers between the age of 5 and 15 years and 3.3 million between 15 and 18 years </li></ul><ul><li>Form 40% of the total population of commercial sex workers </li></ul><ul><li>71% of them are illiterate </li></ul><ul><li>500,000 children are forced into this trade every year </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>WHERE INDIA IS HEADING TOWARDS? </li></ul><ul><li>Labour Ministry stated that India has 12.6 million working children between the ages of 5-14, the largest number of child labourers in the world </li></ul><ul><li>1979 declared as “International Year of the Child” by UN General Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>No proper enforcement of Policies and Programmes </li></ul><ul><li>What is the purpose of Constitutional Articles? </li></ul><ul><li>June 12 th – Anti Child Labour Day- Is it serving any purpose? </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>RECOMMENDATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Family incomes </li></ul><ul><li>Education- universalisation of primary education </li></ul><ul><li>Social services- that help children and families survive crises such as disease, or loss of home and shelter </li></ul><ul><li>Family control of fertility </li></ul><ul><li>Proper enforcement of policies and programmes </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness among the masses </li></ul><ul><li>Effective role of Government and Non-Governmental Organizations </li></ul>
  23. 23. The development of India as a nation is being hampered by child labour. The Government of India must ensure that the needs of the poor are satisfied. If poverty is addressed, the need for child labour will diminish. Concerted efforts are required from all section of the society to make a dent in the problem. There should be combined efforts of government, international agencies, non-governmental organizations and above all the citizens. Let us hope that child labour issue would be addressed genuinely and eradicated completely from our society in the coming years and near future.
  24. 24. WE ALL CAN HELP When the setting sun asked, Who shall do the rest? A little lamp offered I shall do my best. - RABINDRANATH TAGORE
  25. 26. <ul><li>REFERENCES- </li></ul><ul><li>Agarwal, Rashmi: “Street Children- A Socio-Psychological Study”, Shipra Publications, New Delhi, 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>Ahuja, Ram: “Social Problems in India”, Rawat Publications, New Delhi,1999 </li></ul><ul><li>Child Labour: Targeting the Intolerable, Geneva, 1998 </li></ul><ul><li>Dwarakanath, H.D.: “Child Labour:A Social Evil”, (an article in Little Hands in Chains- Child Labour in India edited by Gandhi, P. Jegadish et.al, Southern Economist Publications, Bangalore, 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Gandhi, P. Jegadish and Subrahmanya, Susheela: “Little Hands in Chains- Child Labour in India”, Southern Economist Publications, Bangalore, 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Khan, Ali Mumtaz: “Sociological Aspects of Child Development- A Study of Rural Karnataka”, Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi, 1980 </li></ul><ul><li>Singh, Dolly: “Child Development- Issues, Policies and Programmes, Kaniska Publishers Distributors, New Delhi, 1995 </li></ul>
  26. 27. WEBSITES: Census Of India Department of Labour- Government of Karnataka Helplinelaw.com indianembassy.org International Labour Office, Geneva- Website International Labour Organization OneWorld.net Unicef website
  27. 28. NEWS PAPER ARTICLES: The Hindu, Monday, December 06, 2004: Reported by Sahana Charan Prajavani, Sunday, June 11, 2006: Reported by C.T. Shantaraj The Hindu, Wednesday, May 23, 2007: Reported by Bageshree S. Prajavani, Sunday, June 10, 2007: Reported by Sacchidananda Kuragunda The Hindu, Wednesday, June 13, 2007 The Hindu, Thursday, June 14, 2007 The Hindu, Friday, June 15, 2007: Reported by Bageshree S. The Hindu, Friday, July 13, 2007 The Hindu, Monday, October 15, 2007 The Times of India, June 12, 2009

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