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Fascism Communism and Democracy and Education


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  • 1. Fascism, Communism, Democracy & Education RAPHAEL JOHN A. RIVERA MAIE-ET 2012
  • 2. FASCISM
  • 3. FASCISM Fasces – latin ; bundle of elm or birch rods (usually containing an ax) used as a symbol of penal authority in ancient Rome; 1919-1945 central, southern, eastern Europe
  • 4. CHARACTERISTICS OF FASCISM extreme militaristic nationalism contempt for electoral democracy and political and cultural liberalism a belief in natural social hierarchy and the rule of elites
  • 5. CHARACTERISTICS OF FASCISM desire to create a Volksgemeinschaft (German: “people’s community”) individual interests would be subordinated to the good of the nation
  • 6. LIBERTY < DUTY State – link between succeeding generations; farseeing more unselfish; Elite – control of the state; capable of subordinating their own immediate private interests to those of the national ideal; chosen from above; values validated by power to enforce them; not installed by interminable parliamentary debate
  • 8. BENITO MUSSOLINI Italy; Il Duce (Italian: “The Leader”) Europe’s first fascist leader Figure 1 (Benito Mussolini. ) H. Roger-Viollet
  • 9. ADOLF HITLER Germany DerFührer (German: “The Leader”) Figure 2 (Adolf Hitler, c. 1933)
  • 10. CHARACTERISTICS OF FASCIST EDUCATIONValue More Value lessCharacter building intellectual growth transmission of informationblind obedience to critical and independentauthority thinking that challenged fascist ideology
  • 13. REALIZING MAXIMUM POTENTIALLiberal Maximally effective to realize their own material advantageFascist Unselfish devotion to state interest
  • 14. FASCIST EDUCATION Principle – identification of the individual to the state’s interest Volition – will of the state acts in the will of the individual More significant selfhood – less selfish, more far-reaching;
  • 15. ROLE OF TEACHER IN FASCIST EDUCATIONunique superior personality spirituallife of students and the teacher is fused and organically united discipline and respect for authority
  • 16. QUOTES the teacher “is not just an instructor and transmitter of knowledge.…He is a soldier, serving on the cultural and political front of National Socialism. For intellectuals belong to the people or they are nothing.” (Herman Klaus)
  • 17. QUOTES “The National Socialist revolution has replacedthe image of the cultivated personality with the reality of the true German man. It has substituted for the humanistic conception ofculture a system of education which develops outof the fellowship of actual battle.” (Nazi Minister of Culture in Prusia)
  • 18.  political and economic doctrine that aims to replace private property and a profit-based economy with public ownership and communal control of at least the major means of production (e.g., mines, mills, and factories) and the natural resources of a society
  • 19.  When: 19th Century Where: Germany, Russia, China
  • 20.  Germany father of Communism Manifesto of the Communist Party (1848) The German Ideology (written 1845– 46, published 1932); Das Kapital (1867; Capital) Figure 1 (Karl Marx.)Courtesy of the trustees of the British Museum; photograph, J.R. Freeman & Co. Ltd.
  • 21.  Russia Communist worldview Figure 2 (Vladimir Ilich Lenin, 1918.) Tass/Sovfoto
  • 22.  China “creatively” amended Marxist theory to fit Chinese context “Little Red Book” Figure 3 (Mao Zedong in 1967.) © Bettmann/Corbis
  • 23.  Scientific inevitability; presupposes a physical reality independent of man’s mind; Materialistic; postulates for its theory of learning: materialistic view of human nature  if the child is not well in school, he is sent to a doctor to know if he is well;  extraordinary confidence in how physical environment can alter physical nature; Nothing is immovable, intractable  erase all trace of capitalism => new communist man
  • 24.  Physical environment =>economy Mode of production of material things determine the character of social and political institutions NOT institution = product of purely rational principles
  • 25.  Creative process linked with people’s active participation in the construction of communism, with a struggle for a new society Comprehensive harmonious development of all the spiritual and physical resources of every member of the society
  • 26.  Value of goods – measured by labor expended on them; labor ->education Reject dualism between cultural and vocational curriculum Useful labor – central pivot of entire school Student - worker in a laboring society
  • 27.  Liquidating the difference of status and privilege between manual and intellectual labor Polytechnical education – focus on science, engineering, and technology as well as other technical subjects
  • 28. economicaesthetic political labor social scientific
  • 29.  Transitional stage - working class would control the government and economy yet still find it necessary to pay people according to how long, hard, or well they worked Fully realized communism - a society without class divisions or government
  • 30.  Bourgeois hypocrisy – exalt education but persist in material impoverishment of both schools and teachers; denying teachers of role in determination of educational policy Ineptness of educational leaders -> they are not doctors, they are the disease themselves Replace society where owning class exploit propertyless => classless society schools initiative for building new social order School can stand above politics and disinterestedly serve society
  • 31.  School – instrument of state policy; weapon in the hands of the ruling class; Teachers- soldiers in battle for communism
  • 32.  PRAGMATIC + PROGRESSIVE – because it is useful at the moment
  • 33. “From each according to hisability, to each according to his needs.” (Karl Marx)
  • 34.  Aesthetic education – cultivate capability, understanding and appreciation of what is beautiful in life and art; spirituality Physical education – fortify health; increase in labor potential of people = improve moral + improve volitional qualities; harmonious human development Educative work > self-education
  • 35.  Allow students to work on their own Students must feel themselves as a worker in a laboring society
  • 36.  Freedom – born of regulation rather than freedom to criticize Morals – from social-class thinking; let the social class create their own morals rejects a moral education from divine ordinance – cloud mind of the workers and peasants to a sanctioning of the exploiting class old fashioned virtues – bravery, loyalty, steadfastness, disciplin e
  • 37.  Dēmokratiā – Greek; dēmos - people kratos - rule ―Popular‖ Government – government of and by the people
  • 38.  When: Since 400BC Where: Greece
  • 39.  What is the appropriate unit or association within which a democratic government should be established? Given an appropriate association—a city, for example—who among its members should enjoy full citizenship? Assuming a proper association and a proper dēmos, how are citizens to govern?
  • 40.  When citizens are divided on an issue, as they often will be, whose views should prevail, and in what circumstances? If a majority is ordinarily to prevail, what is to constitute a proper majority?
  • 41.  People – unsafe repository of political power; if w/o knowledge and training Way of life – shouldering of power by the people; and not merely a political formula Democracy – not only for the state but also for family, school, other social institutions
  • 42.  Intrinsic worth + unique worth as an individual Individuality – very source of social progress
  • 43.  If school ->regimented -> individuals to a common mold -> status quo Democracy = freedom -> education Freedom -> ensure for the individual to have Opportunity to express his unique personality To be different from his neighbors Right to be free -> right to be different => principal expression = academic freedom & civil liberty
  • 44.  Republic Dialogues
  • 45. None of the things they are to learn, should ever be made a burthen to them, or imposd on them as a task. Whatever is soproposd, presently becomes irksome; the mind takes an aversionto it, though before it were a thing of delight or indifferency. Let a child but be orderd to whip his top at a certain time everyday, whether he has or has not a mind to it; let this be but requird of him as a duty, wherein he must spend so many hours morningand afternoon, and see whether he will not soon be weary of any play at this rate. (John Locke)
  • 46.  not licentious; compulsory education; collective action must be taken => individual -> realize -> intrinsic worth If money & trained personnel = unlimited, everyone; unique talent -> developed to maximum extent
  • 47. A just opportunity to education An equal opportunity to education
  • 48.  Possess intrinsic worth -> government (means) -> realize their worthMeans EndsIndividual State Denial of that intrinsic worthState Individual pluralistic state
  • 49.  state is only one of the several societies w/c provide educational opportunities and in w/c an individual may have membership If state is the ONLY agency –> totalitarian -> tyranny Free to turn to schools maintained by church or other private agencies as alternative to state or public education
  • 50.  Democracy: ensure no barriers between public and private schools arise Socioeconomic class, race, religious creed -> not interrupt free flow of communication Democratic society: exist not only in and by communication; also rated by increase in communication GOOD SOCIETY: number and variety of interests shared both in group and between that group and other groups
  • 51.  Engaging experiences – may be a conventional school setting but students are provided with a choice of their learning Self-direct learning, shared decision- making, individualized project-based work, student-chosen internship in the community
  • 52.  Youth voice is part of educational planning (student councils, student-teacher-administration committees) out of the box of standardized one-size-fits-all education
  • 53.  long term effect – help develop well-informed citizens who work in creating a democratic, vibrant and just, society short term effect – nurtures self- determined and caring individuals who enjoy learning or the sake of it.
  • 54.  Unless democracy is founded on fixed principles and inalienable rights, it will be internally incoherent that it will succumb to whatever group that is able to gain power. Internal contradictionCapability of Depend ongenerating its religious norm?own ethics?
  • 55.  Communication can go on in spite of metaphysical incompatibilities
  • 56. Sources:  education  realism-education-ppt-powerpoint/  manism     characteristics-fascist-philosophy.html  communism/  