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Android Overview
Android Overview
Android Overview
Android Overview
Android Overview
Android Overview
Android Overview
Android Overview
Android Overview
Android Overview
Android Overview
Android Overview
Android Overview
Android Overview
Android Overview
Android Overview
Android Overview
Android Overview
Android Overview
Android Overview
Android Overview
Android Overview
Android Overview
Android Overview
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Android Overview

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Theme day presentation @Futurice

Theme day presentation @Futurice

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  • Good stuff - Android does seem too good...
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Transcript

  • 1. Date, time, etc.
  • 2. What is Android? • Android is an open-source mobile platform • Source code available under the Apache license • http://source.android.com/ • Roadmap available: http://source.android.com/roadmap • Google apps not open source (Market, Gmail, Maps) • Built on Linux • Offers full stack: OS, middleware, applications, developer APIs and tools, QEMU-based emulator • Developed by the Open Handset Alliance (OHA) • Includes companies such as Broadcom, Google, HTC, Intel, LG, Marvell, Motorola, Nvidia, Quallcom, Samsung, Sprint, T-Mobile, TI • Strongly driven by Google Date, time, etc.
  • 3. So why is Android interesting • Modern mobile OS that could rival iPhone OS • Many OEMs • Still very young but lots of potential • Platform is developing • Just starting to get momentum • Easy to get started with development • Ready and working store solution Date, time, etc.
  • 4. Date, time, etc.
  • 5. Android timeline • 2005/07 Google acquires Android, Inc. • 2007/11 Android is announced by OHA • Early look SDK made available strait away • 2008/08 Android market announced • 2008/09 First Android device announced: T-Mobile G1 (HTC Dream) • Android SDK 1.0 announced the same day • 2008/10 Source code released to Android Open Source Project • Android Market opened. Free apps only • 2009/02 Android 1.1 released • Paid apps to UK and US Markets • 2009/04 Android 1.5 ”Cupcake” released • 2009/06 Android NDK released. • 2009/09 Android 1.6 ”Donut” released Date, time, etc.
  • 6. Android devices • HTC has multiple models: • HTC Dream, 1st ever Android device • HTC Magic • HTC Hero • HTC Tattoo • ~15 devices on market, and more coming all the time • HTC, Motorola, LG, Samsung, Philips, Huawei, Lenovo and even Dell • Some manufacturers create their own UI layer, e.g. Motorola MOTOBLUR and HTC SenseUI Date, time, etc.
  • 7. Developing for Android • Easy to get started • SDK + Eclipse plugin (ADT). • On-device debugging • Plenty of documentation: http://developer.android.com/ • OpenIntents-project: http://www.openintents.org/en/ • Applications written in Java • Not JME or proper JSE. Java language syntax • Core Android libraries provide most of the functionality in the core Java libraries as well as additional Android-specific libraries • NDK enables compiling native code to be used via Java Native Interface (JNI) • All application are equal • You can even replace the dialer app if you want to Date, time, etc.
  • 8. Android Software Stack Date, time, etc.
  • 9. Dalvik VM • Register based virtual machine • As opposed to normal stack based VMs • Optimized to ensure that a device can run multiple instances efficiently. More info at http://www.dalvikvm.com/ and http://sites.google.com/site/io/dalvik-vm-internals • Uses own bytecode not Java bytecode • No JIT • Android programs are compiled into Dalvik executable files (.dex) which are then zipped into Android packages (.apk). • Dex-files are used to ensure minimal memory footprint. • Uncompressed dex-file is usually still smaller than the same Java code as compressed jar-file. Date, time, etc.
  • 10. Android application framework • Framework services • Activity manager • Views • Notification manager • Content providers • Resource manager • Lots of APIs: telephony, media, sensors, location, WebKit- based browser, Google Maps, P2P & Google Talk,home screen widgets,OpenGL, FreeType,SQLite to name a few Date, time, etc.
  • 11. Main building blocks • Activities • Visible screen of the application • Services • Background services • Content providers • Share data between activities and applications • Intents • Activate services and components • Broadcast receivers • Received and react to broadcasted events • Resources • Support different localizations and form factors easily Date, time, etc.
  • 12. Activity • Foreground activity is a visible screen in the application • Handles user interaction and feedback • Android applications have no exit. Platform handles the lifecycle. • Developer takes care of • onCreate • onStart • onResume • Running • onPause • onStop • onRestart • onDestroy Date, time, etc.
  • 13. Date, time, etc.
  • 14. Service • Used for background processing for other activities • Runs still on the main Activity’s thread • Need to separate to own thread if needed • Communication using e.g. Handlers if in separate threads • Lifecycle differs from Activity • Entire lifecycle vs active lifecycle • onCreate, onStart, onDestroy or • onCreate, onBind, onUnbind, (onRebind), onDestroy • According to starting mechanism. Date, time, etc.
  • 15. Service lifecycle Date, time, etc.
  • 16. Content providers • Store and share data between activities and services • Most content providers use SQLite as the data store • Usage via ContentResolvers and Content URIs: • Single row: content://com.futurice.fututwit/tweets/3815526750 • All rows: content://com.futurice.fututwit/tweets/ Date, time, etc.
  • 17. Intents • Intents are used to activate other activities or services • You specify your intent: ”I want to make a phone call to number 555 2368” • Intent call = new Intent(Intent.ACTION_DIAL, Uri.parse(tel:555- 2368)); • startActivity(call) • Activities mapped to intent with Intent filters in the manifext xml-file • You can provide your own replacements even to platform’s own intent handlers, e.g. Dialer • Promotes loose coupling Date, time, etc.
  • 18. Broadcast receivers • Used to listen to events sent by activities or services • Declared in the manifest as Intent Filter • Extend BroadcastReceiver Date, time, etc.
  • 19. User interface • Is composed of Views and ViewGroups • Uses layouts • Layouts are ViewGroups • Lots of ready-made Views • ListView, TextView, EditText, Buttons, all the usual suspects • Also ready made components to include maps or a browser control in to your application. OpenGL ES can be used as well. • Easy to create custom Views Date, time, etc.
  • 20. User interface continued • Declarative approach using XML preferred over in-code • I18N and L10N is simple using XML resources • ResourceManager matches with dir structure according to precedence • Drawable-fr • Drawable-en-notouch • Drawable-en-port-92dpi • 9-Patch bitmaps • No SVG support! • Animations: • Tweened, declared in XML • Frame-by-frame Date, time, etc.
  • 21. Application data and security • Underlying Linux user account created for each app • Security based on app permissions • Declarative permissions • Signed by developer’s certificate • User approves permissions when installing • Applications are sandboxed • Use Content providers to share data • Store light weight preferences in app dir • For more data SQLite Date, time, etc.
  • 22. Android Market • Since October 2008 • Started with free apps only • In February 2009 paid apps were introduced in UK and US Markets. • Payment via Google Checkout • Paid apps available in 10 countries (not Finland) • $25 registration fee for developers • 70% to developer • Price range: free - $200 (No I Am Rich apps) • 24h money back guarantee! • Ratings, upgrades, stats Date, time, etc.
  • 23. Thank you Date, time, etc.
  • 24. References • Images courtesy of • http://developer.android.com/ • http://bit.ly/JXX97 Date, time, etc.

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