Mal Lee


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Opening keynote at the 2009 Research Into Teaching with Whole class Interactive Technologies (RITWIT) conference.

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Mal Lee

  1. 5. The IWB Developments in their Holistic Context - in Schools and Education Authorities, Historically and Geographically Mal Lee Broulee, Australia
  2. 6. The Interactive Whiteboard Revolution 1 The second revolutionary instructional technology 200 plus years after the first The Teaching Board Harbinger of a fundamental change in teaching We’re not there yet but .......
  3. 7. The Interactive Whiteboard Revolution 2 Finally a digital instructional technology acceptable to all Facilitating the digital shift - profound historic implications Catalytic impact upon development of digital schools Shift from traditional to digital operational mode - with associated implications
  4. 8. The Interactive Whiteboard Revolution 3 A work in progress - yet at the beginning of change A small but crucial part of the total educative process
  5. 9. The Macro Imperative Necessity of researching the use of classroom digital instructional technology in its macro context - historically and globally, within the wider school community and education authority The vital and growing interrelatedness of the influences
  6. 10. The Presentation’s Foundations <ul><li>Three recent ACER Press (Australia) publications </li></ul><ul><li>Lee M and Gaffney M, eds, 2008, Leading a Digital School </li></ul><ul><li>Lee M and Winzenried A, 2009, The Use of Instructional Technology in Schools - Lessons to be Learned </li></ul><ul><li>Betcher C and Lee M, 2009, The Interactive Whiteboard Revolution - A teacher’s guide to IWBs </li></ul>
  7. 11. The Presentation’s Foundations <ul><li>One other in the pipeline </li></ul><ul><li>Lee M and Finger G, eds, 2010 release, The Home School Nexus and the development of networked School Communities </li></ul><ul><li>Conference paper - simply amplifies, and provides supporting references for this presentation </li></ul>
  8. 12. Key Nomenclature 1 Instructional Technology “ any device available to teachers for use in instructing students in a more efficient and stimulating manner than the sole use of the teachers voice” (Cuban, 1986) Digital Technology Used in preference to ICT, which as explored in Lee and Winzenried, is now dated, and does not highlight the core digital element
  9. 13. Key Nomenclature 2 Digital Takeoff The rapid surge in the everyday use of digital instructional technologies by a critical mass of the teachers in a school Digital Schools Those schools where the teaching materials, and the administration and communication systems are predominantly digital
  10. 14. Key Nomenclature 3 Digital Toolkit The suite of ever-evolving digital technologies - software and hardware - teachers can use in their teaching
  11. 15. Historical Context - Findings from C20 Teacher use of electronic powered instructional technology throughout the C20 was miniscule - and remains so in the majority of classrooms in the developed and developing world today If teachers don’t use technology..........
  12. 16. Findings from C20 -1 Only two comprehensive studies undertaken of teacher usage of instructional technology Larry Cuban - Teachers and Machines, 1986 Lee and Winzenried - The Use of Instructional Technology in Schools, 2009 Teachers as the gatekeepers of the classroom were largely excluded..........
  13. 17. Findings from C20 -2 Teachers were blamed for the failure to use each of the ‘revolutionary’ instructional technologies from the 1920’s onwards All major instructional technologies developed by private industry - to make a profit Profound impact of the major technology companies - on the choice of instructional technology
  14. 18. Findings from C20 -3 Focus on the technology - not teaching Implementation strategies consistently ineffectual All instructional technology will move through a common, finite life cycle Instructional technology of C20 - with one major exception - was designed for the general consumer or office markets. Teachers had to make do The one exception - the IWB
  15. 19. Findings from C20 -4 All new technology will be used initially to replicate the ways of old Time is needed for new ways to emerge (Naiksbitt 1984) Miniscule recurrent funding Unintended deleterious impact of school-based management (SBM) particularly in mid-sized and small schools
  16. 20. The Pathfinding Schools 1 ‘ Overnight’ achieved total teacher and student use of IWBs and related technology Digital take off Significant student and parent acceptance and excitement For the first time teachers clamoured for an instructional technology Impact of ever rising teacher and student expectations
  17. 21. The Pathfinding Schools 2 Impact of critical mass of IWBs and teachers using them Catalytic influence on emergence of digital schools Evident globally
  18. 22. Key Historic Phases 1995 - 2002 ‘Ramping Up’ 2003 - 2009 ‘Digital Take Off’
  19. 23. 1995 - 2002 Ramping Up 1 Educational potential of the digital and ‘Net apparent to prescient leaders National productivity, vision of digital future and implementation of comprehensive school, education authority and national strategies Schools - 1995 - ‘telecommunication deserts’ Initial investment in school network infrastructure
  20. 24. 1995 - 2002 Ramping Up 2 Surge in domestic use of all manner of digital technologies - ‘Net Generation’ acquiring ICT competencies in home Pioneering education authorities begin to exert control over technology corporation Embryonic digital classroom technologies evolve
  21. 25. 2003 - 2009 Digital Take Off - of the proactive 1 ‘ Triple Convergence’ - Friedman - Confluence of key technological developments Networks in place Maturation and affordability of key digital classroom technologies - IWB, data projectors Maturation and affordability of ‘digital toolkit’ Web 2.0 evolves
  22. 26. 2003 - 2009 Digital Take Off - of the proactive 2 High level recognition of the impact of quality teachers - and importance of teacher acceptance of technology Pathfinding school and education authority leadership Significant supplementary funding Youth embrace the use of digital in their lives
  23. 27. Evolution of IWBs 1 First Smart Technologies IWB sold 1991 Initial Smart and Promethean IWBs sold to universities Built upon teaching board operational principles 1998 - Smart Notes 2.0 released Dependence on affordable, efficient data projectors for front projection IWBs Relative maturation and affordability achieved around 2002 -2003
  24. 28. Evolution of IWBs 2 Contrast between ‘teaching’ and ‘presentation’ boards Sustained commitment by ‘teaching board’ providers to education Industry ‘shake-out’ Emergence of IWBs as classroom digital integrators - from mid 2000s Evolution of digital teaching hubs - using ever expanding digital toolkit Emergence of global IWB teaching software industry - driven by Uk investment
  25. 29. Historic Growth of IWBs
  26. 30. IWBs of Late Market dominance of quality teaching boards Proven longevity, reliability of IWB technology - 10 year plus lifespan Low cost of ownership increasingly evident Contrast between ‘license free’ IWB software and upgrades and PC software Benefits of strong market competition Continued dominance of front projection IWBs - with emerging alternatives
  27. 31. IWBs of Late Shift to short throw data projectors - approx 50% by 2012 Regional variability in teacher acceptance of IWB company ‘add ons’ Significance of company IMM teaching resource banks
  28. 32. Proactive – Reactive Scenario 1995 - 2009 Apparently global, with schools, education authorities and nations In reality – points along a continuum – each attribute Many reactive schools, education authorities and developed nations still in mid 90s Difficulty – if not near impossibility – of bridging the divide
  29. 33. Educative Power of Domestic Digital Technology The level of digital instructional technology in the average home has always exceeded that in the average classroom The home – school digital difference has continued to grow since the mid 90s, and will continue into the future The young across the world have embraced digital technologies into their lives The young are developing their digital competencies primarily in the home
  30. 34. Educative Power of Domestic Digital Technology Parents strongly supportive of the use of digital technology in the home Home and the mobile technology provide the young 24/7/365 use of the technology Smart phones/handheld PCs fast providing globally ‘ubiquitous’ computing Classroom use of Smartphones/handheld PCs banned in the vast majority of schools globally
  31. 35. Educative Power of Domestic Digital Technology Parents and students increasingly embraced collaborative and networked mode Educational bureaucracies retaining hierarchical mode
  32. 36. Educative Power of Domestic Digital Technology ‘ It’s when a technology becomes normal, then ubiquitous, and finally so pervasive as to be invisible, that the really profound changes happen, and for young people today, our new social tools have passed normal and are heading to ubiquitous, and invisible is coming (Shirky, 2008, p105)’
  33. 37. Historical Context - Reflection Questions/Comments Observations requiring clarification or substantiation Where do you see need for more research?
  34. 38. Geographical Context Industry data courtesy Colin Messenger, Futuresource Regional sales of IWBs Percentage of nations’ classrooms with IWBs Projected sales of IWBs globally to 2012
  35. 39. Significant Developments UK and Mexico - national government involvement US, Aust, NZ – no national government involvement 4% takeoff Global spread and diversity Low SE Asia figures Low Canadian and European sales 30 plus nations at tender stage
  36. 40. Research and Global Context Perceived inclination for researchers to extrapolate globally from own local context Strongly apparent in US instructional technology research for decades - increasingly evident in UK research Marked inclination not to seek out, or to acknowledge significant developments elsewhere in world Significance of national, very often regional context Where the development transcends all national boundaries
  37. 41. School Context - Solution Simultaneous, multi-faceted, and sustained addressing of a suite of nine human and technological variables Focus on enhancing teaching Human change paramount Solutions context specific Onus on each school Relative ease of achieving total teacher usage at school level
  38. 42. The Nine Variables Teacher Acceptance Working with the givens Teacher training and development support Nature and availability of technology Appropriate content and software Infrastructure Finance School and Education Authority Leadership Implementation
  39. 43. Teacher Acceptance Invariably disenfranchised Gatekeepers to the classroom Educational value Assists their teaching Comfortable to use
  40. 44. Working with the givens Teach classes – not individuals Manage classes Teach within classrooms – with limitations Crowded curriculum Limited teaching time Use of tools within classroom
  41. 45. Teacher training and teacher development support Fundamental importance Nature Expectations Normalised into all operations Resourced Sustained
  42. 46. Nature and availability of the technology Assists teaching – does not oblige change Integration with teaching Operates within givens Comfortable and reliable Enhances efficiency Affordable History of ‘making do’ Continuing shortcomings
  43. 47. Appropriate content/software Current situation Confluence of ‘recent’ developments Availability of quality ‘IWB’ IMM teaching applications UK stimulated global ‘IWB’ IMM teaching software IWB industry resource banks Proactive – reactive ‘Net access continuum
  44. 48. Infrastructure Centrality Importance of total class broadband access Reliability and 100% ‘uptime’ Future proofed Appropriate support Digital integration
  45. 49. Finance Commitment Pathfinders – including low SES Re-prioritising Total cost of ownership Paper-based mode of funding Appropriate networked model of funding required
  46. 50. Leadership Fundamental importance Historic shortcomings Inadequate development Architects of digital school Taking prime responsibility
  47. 51. Implementation Historic pattern Deleterious impact of discrete ICT plans Importance of holistic, integrated whole school development strategy and planning On-going refinement, measurement and evaluation
  48. 52. A 10 th variable? – Information Services and Management May not be critical, but vital Apparent in all case studies Growing importance Centrality to lesson collaboration, asset management and enhanced efficiency
  49. 53. Additional Reasons for IWB Acceptance Graduated teacher take up Builds on the known Ability to be securely installed in every teaching room, K-12 Excitement and attraction in use Responsiveness to on-going change and enhancement Facility to use with full spectrum of teaching situations – from individual to large group Scant cost to classroom teacher
  50. 54. IWB Impact – at school level 1 Rapid teacher, student and parent acceptance – and excitement when implemented wisely Student attraction Enhanced student attendance, and student behaviour Digital integrator Ever rising teacher and student expectations Paper to digital shift
  51. 55. IWB Impact – at school level 2 Enhanced teacher collaboration Enhanced teacher efficiency Catalytic impact of a critical mass of digital users on shift to digital schooling Whole school normalisation of the digital
  52. 56. Impact on Student Attainment 1 You know as well as me Plethora of factors at play Growing challenge of digital integration Well covered by Balanskat, Blamire & Kefala (2006) Enhanced student attainment within basic skills tests in low attaining schools Challenge of upper quartile/high SES Probably increased coverage of teaching program
  53. 57. Impact on Student Attainment 2 Marzano Claim
  54. 58. The School Context – Reflecton Questions/Comments Where do you see the need for more research?
  55. 59. Laud the achievement of IWBs Celebrate the progress made – so recently and rapidly Compliment the teachers’ embracing digital technology Recognise the historic/revolutionary change to digital teaching materials Highlight the advanced teacher efficiency and productivity emanating from their use Celebrate youth’s digital competency Laud the attainments of pathfinder schools and education authority leaders
  56. 60. Laud the achievement of IWBs Recognise we are at the dawn of the 2 nd great instructional technology
  57. 61. Laud the achievement of IWBs Appreciate the educational and historical significance of this Becta conclusion; This sharp rise in the use of ICT resources in the curriculum has been driven to a large extent by the adoption of interactive whiteboards (IWBs) and related technologies. Interactive whiteboards are a popular technology, in heavy demand by schools and practitioners. They offer transparent benefits to learning and teaching. That is, it is easy for institutions and teachers to recognise how IWBs enrich and enhance learning and teaching – something which may not always be so immediately transparent to practitioners in the case of other technologies’ (Becta, 2007 p66)
  58. 62. Contact Details Mal Lee [email_address] Skype: malcolmrlee +61 2 44 717 947 PO Box 5010 Broulee Australia 2537
  59. 63. A word from ACER Press