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    T&d T&d Document Transcript

    • Search Project Report - Training Need / Identification and Importance of Training for EmployeesOur Sitemap TRAININGHome EFFECTIVENESS -Physics Projects 5p/TrainingChemistry Projects The game of economic competition has new rules. Firms should be fast and responsive. This requiresBiology Projects responding to customers needs for quality, variety, customization, convenience and timeliness. MeetingScience Projects these new standards requires a workforce that is technically trained in all respects. It requires people who are capable of analyzing and solving job related problems, working cooperatively in teams and changing hats and shifting from job to job as well. Training has increased in importance in todays environment where jobs are complex and change. Rapidly. Companies that pay lip-service to the need for training, by lazily setting aside a few hours a year, will soon find themselves at the receiving end when talented employees leave in frustration and other employees find it difficult to beat rivals with new products, sophisticated designs and improved ways of selling. To survive and flourish in the present day corporate-jungle, companies should invest time and money in upgrading the knowledge and skills of their employees constantly. For, any company that stops injecting itself with intelligence is going to die. The purpose of this chapter is make the student understand the basic principles, areas, and methods of training currently in use in the corporate circles.
    • Need for TrainingAfter employees have been selected for variouspositions in an organization, training them for thespecific tasks to which they have been assignedassumes great importance. It is true in manyorganizations that before an employee is fitted into aharmonious working relationship with other employees,he is given adequate training. Training is the act ofincreasing the knowledge and skills of an employee forperforming a particular job. The major outcome oftraining is learning. A trainee learns new habits, refinedskills and useful knowledge during the training thathelps him improve performance. Training enables anemployee to do his present job more efficiently andprepare himself for a higher-level job. The essentialfeatures of training may be stated thus: Increases knowledge and skills for doing a particular job; it bridges the gap between job needs and employee skills, knowledge and behaviors Focuses attention on the current job; it is job specific and addresses particular performance deficits or problems Concentrates on individual employees; changing what employees know, how they work, their attitudes toward their work or their interactions with their co-workers or supervisors Tends to be more narrowly focused and oriented toward short-term performance concerns.Training is needed to serve the following purposes: Newly recruited employees require training so as to perform their tasks effectively. Instruction, guidance, coaching help them to handle jobs competently, without any wastage. Training is necessary to prepare existing employees for higher-level jobs (promotion). Existing employees require refresher training so as to keep abreast of the latest developments in job operations. In the face of rapid technological changes, this is an absolute necessity.
    • Training is necessary when a person moves from one job to another (transfer). After training, the employee can change jobs quickly, improve his performance levels and achieve career goals comfortably Training is necessary to make employees mobile and versatile. They can be placed on various jobs depending on organizational needs. Training is needed to bridge the gap between what the employee has and what the job demands.Training is needed to make employees more productiveand useful in the long-run.Training is needed for employees to gain acceptancefrom peers (learning a job quickly and being able to pulltheir own weight is one of the best ways for them togain acceptance).ImportanceTraining offers innumerable benefits to both employeesand employers. It makes the employee more productiveand more useful to an organization. The importance oftraining can be studied under the following heads:Benefits to the business:Trained workers can work more efficiently. They usemachines, tools, and materials in a proper way. Wastageis thus eliminated to a large extent.There will be fewer accidents. Training improves theknowledge of employees regarding the use of machinesand equipment. Hence, trained workers need not be putunder close supervision, as they know how to handleoperations properly.Trained workers can show superior performance. Theycan turn out better performance. They can turn outbetter quality goods by putting the materials, tools andequipment to good use.Training makes employees more loyal to anorganization. They will be less inclined to leave the unitwhere there are growth opportunities
    • Benefits to the employees:Training makes an employee more useful to a firm.Hence, he will find employment more easily.Training makes employees more efficient and effective.By combining materials, tools and equipment in a rightway, they can produce more with minimum effort.Training enables employees to secure promotionseasily. They can realise their career goals comfortably.Training helps an employee to move from oneorganization to another easily. He can be more mobileand pursue career goals actively.Employees can avoid mistakes, accidents on the job.They can handle jobs with confidence. They will bemore satisfied on their jobs. Their morale would behigh.Thus, training can contribute to higher production,fewer mistakes, greater job satisfaction and lowerlabour turnover. Also, it can enable employees to copewith organizational, social and technological change.Effective training is an invaluable investment in thehuman resources of an organization.Learning Principles: The Philosophy of TrainingTraining is essential for job success. It can lead tohigher production, fewer mistakes, greater jobsatisfaction and lower turnover. These benefits accrue toboth the trainee and the organization, if managersunderstand the principles behind the training process.To this end, training efforts must invariably followcertain learning-oriented guidelines.ModellingModeling is simply copying someone elses behavior.Passive classroom learning does not leave any room formodeling. If we want to change people, it would be agood idea to have videotapes of people showing thedesired behavior. The selected model should provide theright kind of behavior to be copied by others. A greatdeal of human behaviour is learned by modelling others.Children learn by modelling parents and older children,they are quite comfortable with the process by the timethey grow up. As experts put it. "managers tend to
    • manage as they were managed"MotivationFor learning to take place, intention to learn isimportant. When the employee is motivated, he paysattention to what is being said, done and presented.Motivation to learn is influenced by the answers toquestions such as: How important is my job to me?How important is the information? Will learning helpme progress in the company? etc. People learn morequickly when the material is important and relevant tothem. Learning is usually quicker and long-lasting whenthe learner participates actively. Most people, forexample, never forget how to ride a bicycle becausethey took an active part in the learning process.ReinforcementIf a behavior is rewarded, it probably will be repeated.Positive reinforcement consists of rewarding desiredbehaviors. People avoid certain behaviors that invitecriticism and punishment. A bank officer would want todo a postgraduate course in finance, if it earns himincrements and makes him eligible for furtherpromotions. Both the external rewards (investments,praise) and the internal rewards (a feeling of pride andachievement) associated with desired behaviors compelsubjects to learn properly. To be effective, the trainermust reward desired behaviors only. If he rewards poorperformance, the results may be disastrous: goodperformers may quit in frustration, accidents may go up,and productivity may suffer. The reinforcementprinciple is also based on the premise that punishment isless effective in learning than reward. Punishment is apointer to undesirable behaviors. When administered, itcauses pain to the employee. He mayor may not repeatthe mistakes. The reactions may be mild or wild. Actiontaken to repeal a person from undesirable action ispunishment. If administered properly, punishment mayforce the trainee to modify the undesired or incorrectbehaviors.FeedbackPeople learn best if reinforcement is given as soon aspossible after training. Every employee wants to knowwhat is expected of him and how well he is doing. If heis off the track, somebody must put him back on therails. The errors in such cases must be rectified
    • immediately. The trainee after learning the rightbehaviour is motivated to do things in a right way andearn the associated rewards. Positive feedback (showingthe trainee the right way of doing things) is to bepreferred to negative feedback (telling the trainee thathe is not correct) when we want to change behaviour.Spaced PracticeLearning takes place easily if the practice sessions arespread over a period of time. New employees learnbetter if the orientation programme is spread over a twoor three day period, instead of covering it all in one day.For memorizing tasks, massed practice is usually moreeffective. Imagine the way schools ask the kids to saythe Lords prayer aloud. Can you memorise a long poemby learning only one line per day? You tend to forgetthe beginning of the poem by the time you reach the laststanza. For acquiring skills as stated by Mathis andJackson, spaced practice is usually the best. Thisincremental approach to skill acquisition minimises thephysical fatigue that deters learning.Whole LearningThe concept of whole learning suggests that employeeslearn better if the job information is explained as anentire logical process, so that they can see how thevarious actions fit together into the big picture. Abroad overview of what the trainee would be doing onthe job should be given top priority, if learning has totake place quickly. Research studies have also indicatedthat it is more efficient to practice a whole task all atonce rather than trying to master the variouscomponents of the task at different intervals.Active PracticePractice makes a man perfect: so said Bacon. To be aswimmer, you should plunge into water instead ofsimply reading about swimming or looking at films ofthe worlds best swimmers. Learning is enhanced whentrainees are provided ample opportunities to repeat thetask. For maximum benefit, practice sessions should bedistributed over time.Applicability of TrainingTraining should be as real as possible so that traineescan successfully transfer the new knowledge to their
    • jobs. The training situations should be set up so thattrainees can visualise - and identify with - the types ofsituations they can come across on the job.EnvironmentFinally, environment plays a major role in training. It isnatural that workers who are exposed to training incomfortable environments with adequate, well spacedrest periods are more likely to learn than employeeswhose training conditions are less than ideal. Generallyspeaking, learning is very fast at the beginning.Thereafter, the pace of learning slows down asopportunities for improvement taper off.Areas of TrainingThe Areas of Training in which training is offered maybe classified into the following categories.KnowledgeHere the trainee learns about a set of rules andregulations about the job, the staff and the products orservices offered by the company. The aim is to makethe new employee fully aware of what goes on insideand outside the company.Technical SkillsThe employee is taught a specific skill (e.g., operating amachine, handling computer etc.) so that he can acquirethat skill and contribute meaningfully.Social SkillsThe employee is made to learn about himself andothers, and to develop a right mental attitude towardsthe job, colleagues and the company. The principalfocus is on teaching the employee how to be a teammember and get ahead.TechniquesThis involves the application of knowledge and skill tovarious on-the-job situations.In addition to improving the skills and knowledge ofemployees, training aims at moulding employeeattitudes: When administered properly, a training
    • programme will go a long way in obt8ining employeeloyalty, support and commitment to company activities.Types of TrainingThere are many approaches to training. We focus hereon the types of training that are commonly employed inpresent-day organisations.Skills training: This type of training is most commonin organisations. The process here is fairly simple. Theneed for training in basic skills (such as reading,writing, computing, speaking, listening, problemsolving, managing oneself, knowing how to learn,working as part of a team, leading others) is identifiedthrough assessment. Specific training objectives are setand training content is developed to meet thoseobjectives. Several methods are available for impartingthese basic skills in modern organisations (such aslectures, apprenticeship, on-the-job, coaching etc.).Before employing these methods, managers should: explain how the training will help the trainees in their jobs. relate the training to the trainees goals. respect and consider participant responses and use these as a resource. encourage trainees to learn by doing. give feedback on progress toward meeting learningobjectives. Refresher training: Rapid changes in technology may force companies to go in for this kind of training. By organising short-term courses which incorporate the latest developments in a particular field, the company may keep its employees up-to- date and ready to take on emerging challenges. It is conducted at regular intervals by taking the help of outside consultants who specialise in a particular descriptive. Cross-functional Training: Cross-functional Training involves training employees to perform operations in areas other than their assigned job.
    • There are many approaches to cross functionaltraining. Job rotation can be used to provide amanager in one functional area with a broaderperspective than he would otherwise have.Departments can exchange personnel for a certainperiod so that each employee understands howother departments are functioning. Highperforming workers can act as peer trainers andhelp employees develop skills in another area ofoperation. Cross functional training provides thefollowing benefits to an organisation (and theworkers as well) (1) Workers gain rich experiencein handling diverse jobs; they become moreadaptable and versatile (2) they can better engineertheir own career paths (3) they not only know theirjob well but also understand how others are able toperform under a different set of constraints (4) Abroader perspective increases workersunderstanding of the business and reduces the needfor supervision (5) when workers can fill in forother workers who are absent, it is easier to useflexible scheduling, which is increasingly indemand as more employees want to spend moretime with their families. Eli Lilly and Company(India), for example, encourages cross-functionalmovements to make the organisation equallyattractive to both specialists and generalists. Team Training: Team training generally coverstwo areas; content tasks and group processes.Content tasks specify the teams goals such as costcontrol and problem solving. Group processesreflect the way members function as a team - forexample how they interact with each other, howthey sort out differences, how they participate etc.Companies are investing heavy amounts,nowadays, in training new employees to listen toeach other and to cooperate. They are usingoutdoor experiential training techniques to developteamwork and team spirit among their employees(such as scaling a mountain, preparing recipes forcolleagues at a restaurant, sailing throughuncharted waters, crossing a jungle etc.). Thetraining basically throws light on (i) how membersshould communicate with each other (ii) how theyhave to cooperate and get ahead (iii) how theyshould deal with conflict-full situations (iv) howthey should find their way, using collectivewisdom and experience to good advantage.
    • Creativity training: Companies like Mudra Communications, Titan Industries, Wipro encourage their employees to think unconventionally, break the rules, take risks, go out of the box and devise unexpected solutions. Postpone judgment: Dont reject any idea Create alternative frames of referenceBreak the boundary of thinking Examine a different aspect of the problem Make a wish list of solutions Borrow ideas from other fields Look for processes to change or eliminate Think up alternative methods Adopt another persons perspective Question all Assumptions.In creativity training, trainers often focus on threethings:(a) Breaking away: In order to break away fromrestrictions, the trainee is expected to (i) identify thedominant ideas influencing his own thinking (ii) definethe boundaries within which he is working (iii) bringthe assumptions out into the open and challengeeverything(b) Generate new ideas: To generate new ideas, thetrainee should open up his mind; look at the problemfrom all possible angles and list as many alternativeapproaches as possible. The trainee should allow hismind to wander over alternatives freely. Expose himselfto new influences (people, articles, books, situations),switch over from one perspective to another, -arrangecross fertilization of ideas with other people and use
    • analogies to spark off ideas.(c) Delaying judgement: To promote creative thinking,the trainee should not try to kill off ideas too quickly;they should be held back until he is able to generate asmany ideas as possible. He should allow ideas to grow alittle. Brainstorming (getting a large number of ideasfrom a group of people in a short time) often helps ingenerating as many ideas as possible without pausing toevaluate them. It helps in releasing ideas, overcominginhibitions, cross fertilising ideas and getting away frompatterned thinking. Diversity Training: Diversity training considers all of the diverse dimensions in the workplace race, gender, age, disabilities, lifestyles, culture, education, ideas and backgrounds - while designing a training programme. It aims to create better cross-cultural sensitivity with the aim of fostering more harmonious and fruitful working relationships among a firms employees. The programme covers two things: (i) awareness building, which helps employees appreciate the key benefits of diversity, and (ii) skill building, which offers the knowledge, skills and abilities required for working with people having varied backgrounds. Literacy Training: Inability to write, speak and work well with others could often come in the way of discharging duties, especially at the lower levels. Workers, in such situations, may fail to understand safety messages, appreciate the importance of sticking to rules, and commit avoidable mistakes. Functional illiteracy (low skill level in a particular content area) may be a serious impediment to a firms productivity and competitiveness. Functional literacy programmes focus on the basic skills required to perform a job adequately and capitalise on most workers motivation to get help in a particular area. Tutorial programmes, home assignments, reading and writing exercises, simple mathematical tests, etc., are generally used in all company in-house programmes meant to improve the literacy levels of employees with weak reading, writing or arithmetic skills.
    • Training MethodsTraining methods are usually classified by the locationof instruction. On the job training is provided when theworkers are taught relevant knowledge, skills andabilities at the actual workplace; off-the-job training, onthe other hand, requires that trainees learn at a locationother than the real work spot. Some of the widely usedtraining methods are listed below.1. Job Instruction Training (JlT)The JIT method (developed during World War II) is afour-step instructional process involving preparation,presentation, performance try out and follow up. It isused primarily to teach workers how to do their currentjobs. A trainer, supervisor or co-worker acts as thecoach. The four steps followed in the JIT methods are: 1. The trainee receives an overview of the job, its purpose and its desired outcomes, with a clear focus on the relevance of training. 2. The trainer demonstrates the job in order to give the employee a model to copy. The trainer shows a right way to handle the job. 3. Next, the employee is permitted to copy the trainers way. Demonstrations by the trainer and practice by the trainee are repeated until the trainee masters the right way to handle the job. 4. Finally, the employee does the job independently without supervision.Merits:• Trainee learns fast through practice and observation.• It is economical as it does not require any specialsettings. Also, mistakes can be corrected immediately.• The trainee gains confidence quickly as he does thework himself in actual setting with help from
    • supervisor.• It is most suitable for unskilled and semi-skilled jobswhere the job operations are simple; easy to explain anddemonstrate within a short span of time.Demerits: • The trainee should be as good as the trainer if thetrainer is not good, transference of knowledge and skillswill be poor.• While learning, trainee may damage equipment, wastematerials, cause accidents frequently,• Experienced workers cannot use the machinery whileit is being used for training.2. Coaching:Coaching is a kind of daily training and feedback givento employees by immediate supervisors. It involves acontinuous process of learning by doing. It may bedefined as an informal, unplanned training anddevelopment activity provided by supervisors and peers.In coaching, the supervisor explains things and answersquestions; he throws light on why things are done theway they are; he offers a model for trainees to copy;conducts lot of decision making meetings with trainees;procedures are agreed upon and the trainee is givenenough authority to make divisions and even commitmistakes. Of course, coaching can be a taxing job in thatthe coach may not possess requisite skills to guide thelearner in a systematic way. Sometimes, doing a fulldays work may be more important than putting thelearner on track.When to use coaching usefully? Coaching could be putto good use when: an employee demonstrates a new competency an employee expresses interest in a different job within the organisation an employee seeks feedback an employee is expressing low morale, violating
    • company policies or practices or having performance problems an employee needs help with a new skill following a formal training programme.Effective working, obviously, requires patience andcommunication skills. It involves: explaining appropriate ways of doing things making clear why actions were taken stating observations accurately offering possible alternatives / suggestions following up3. Mentoring :Mentoring is a relationship in which a senior managerin an organisation assumes the responsibility forgrooming a junior person. Technical, interpersonal andpolitical skills are generally conveyed in such arelationship from the more experienced person. Amentor is a teacher, spouse, counsellor, developerr ofskills and intellect, host, guide, exemplar, and mostimportantly, supporter and facilitator in the realisationof the vision the young person (protege) has about thekind of 1ife he wants as an adult.The main objective is to he1p an employee attainpsychological maturity and effectiveness and getintegrated with the organisation. In a work situation,such mentoring can take place at both formal andinformal levels, depending on the prevailing workculture and the commitment from the top management.Formal mentoring can be very fruitful, if managementinvests time and money in such relationship buildingexercises. Career functions: Career functions are those aspects of the relationship that enhance career advancement. These include:1. Sponsorship: Where mentors actively nominate a junior person (called mentee) for
    • promotions or desirable positions.2. Exposure and visibility: Where mentors offer opportunities for mentees to interact with senior executives, demonstrate their abilities and exploit their potential.3. Coaching: Mentors help mentees to analyse how they are doing their work and to define their aspirations. Here mentors offer practical advice on how to accomplish objectives and gain recognition from others.4. Protection: Mentors shield the junior person from harmful situations/seniors.5. Challenging assignments: Mentors help mentees develop necessary competencies through challenging job assignments and appropriate feedback. Mentors create opportunities clients to prove their worth to demonstrate clearly what they have to offer. Psychological functions: Psychological functions are those aspects that enhance the mentee’s sense of competence, and identify effectiveness in a professional role. These include:6. Role modeling: Mentors offer mentees a pattern of values and behaviours to imitate7. Acceptance and confirmation: mentors offer support, guidance and encouragement to mentees so that they can solve the problems independently and gain confidence in course of time. Mentors also help people to learn about the organisations culture and understand why things are done in certain ways.8. Counseling: Mentors help mentees work out their personal problems, learn about what to do and what not to do, offer advice on what works and what doesnt, and do everything to demonstrate improved performance and prepare themselves for greater responsibility.9. Friendship: Mentors offer practical help and
    • support to mentees so that they can indulge in mutually satisfying social interactions (with peers, subordinates, bosses and customers)Mentoring in India is based on the time-honoured guru-shishya relationship where the guru would doeverything to develop the personality of the shishya,offering emotional support, and guidance. Companieslike TISCO, Neyveli Lignite Corporation, Polaris,Coca-Cola India have used mentoring systems to goodeffect in recent times (Economic Times, 25 Oct., 2002).Organisations like General Electric, Intel, Proctor &Gamble have given a lot of importance to mentoringprogrammes, going even gone to the extent ofpenalising senior managers if they fail to developleadership skills among subordinates. Of course,mentoring is not without its problems. Mentors who aredissatisfied with their jobs and though who teach ornarrow or distorted view of events may not help aproteges development. Not all mentors are wellprepared to transfer their skills and wisdom to theirjunior colleagues. When young people are bombardedwith conflicting viewpoints - about how things shouldgo - from a series of advisors, they may find it difficultto get ahead with confidence. Mentoring can succeed if(i) there is genuine support and commitment from topmanagement (ii) mentors take up their job seriously andtransfer ideas, skills and experiences in a systematicway and (iii) mentees believe in the whole process andcarry out things in an appropriate manner.4. Job Rotation :This kind of training involves the movement of traineefrom one job to another. This helps him to have ageneral understanding of how the organisationfunctions. The purpose of job rotation is to providetrainees with a larger organisational perspective and agreater understanding of different functional areas aswell as a better sense of their own career objectives andinterests. Apart from relieving boredom, job rotationallows trainees to build rapport with a wide range ofindividuals within the organisation, facilitating futurecooperation among departments. The cross-trainedpersonnel offer a great amount of flexibility fororganisations when transfers, promotions orreplacements become inevitable.Job rotation may pose several problems, especiallywhen the trainees are rolled on various jobs at frequent
    • intervals. In such a case, trainees do not usually staylong enough in any single phase of the operation todevelop a high degree of expertise. For slow learners,there is little room to integrate resources properly.Trainees can become confused when they are exposedto rotating managers, with contrasting styles ofoperation. Todays managers commands may bereplaced by another set from another manager! Further,job rotation can be quite expensive. A substantialamount of managerial time is lost when trainees changepositions, because they must be acquainted withdifferent people and techniques in each department.Development costs can go up and productivity isreduced by moving a trainee into a new position whenhis efficiency levels begin to improve at the prior job.Inexperienced trainees may fail to handle new tasks inan efficient way. Intelligent and aggressive trainees, onthe offer hand, may find the system to be thoroughlyboring as they continue to perform more or less similarjobs without any stretch, pull and challenge. To get thebest results out of the system, it should be tailored to theneeds, interests and capabilities of the individualtrainee, and not be a standard sequence that all traineesundergo.5 Apprenticeship TrainingMost craft workers such as plumbers and carpenters aretrained through formal apprenticeship programmes.Apprentices are trainees who spend a prescribed amountof time working with an experienced guide, coach ortrainer. Assistantships and internships are similar toapprenticeships because they also demand high levels ofparticipation from the trainee. An internship is a kind ofon-the-job training that usually combines job trainingwith classroom instruction in trade schools, colleges oruniversities. Coaching, as explained above, is similar toapprenticeship because the coach attempts to provide amodel for the trainee to copy. One importantdisadvantage ofthe apprenticeship methods is theuniform period of training offered to trainees. Peoplehave different abilities and learn at varied rates. Thosewho learn fast may quit the programme in frustration.Slow learners may need additional training time. It isalso likely that in these days of rapid changes intechnology, old skills may get outdated quickly.Trainees who spend years learning specific skills mayfind, upon completion of their programmes, that the jobskills they acquired are no longer appropriate.
    • 6 Committee AssignmentsIn this method, trainees are asked to solve an actualorganisational problem. The trainees have to worktogether and offer solution to the problem. Assigningtalented employees to important committees can givethese employees a broadening experience and can helpthem to understand the personalities, issues andprocesses governing the organisation. It helps them todevelop team spirit and work unitedly toward commongoals. However, managers should very well understandthat committee assignments could become notorioustime wasting activities. The above on-the-job methodsare cost effective. Workers actually produce while theylearn. Since immediat.e feedback is available, theymotivate trainees to observe and learn the right way ofdoing things. Very few problems arise in the· case oftransfer of training because the employees learn in theactual work environment where the skills that are learntare actually used. On-the-job methods may causedisruptions in production schedules. Experiencedworkers cannot use the facilities that are used intraining. Poor learners may damage machinery andequipment. Finally, if the trainer does not possessteaching skills, there is very little benefit to the trainee.Off-the-Job MethodsUnder this method of training, the trainee is separatedfrom the job situation and his attention is focused uponlearning the material related to his future jobperformance. Since the trainee is not distracted by jobrequirements, he can focus his entire concentration onlearning the job rather than spending his time inperforming it. There is an opportunity for freedom ofexpression for the trainees. Off-the-job training methodsare as follows:a. Vestibule training: In thismethod, actual work conditions are simulated in aclassroom. Material, files and equipment - those that areused in actual job performance are also used in thetraining. This type of training is commonly used fortraining personnel for clerical and semi-skilled jobs.The duration of this training ranges from a few days to afew weeks. Theory can be related to practice in thismethod.b. Role playing: It is defined as a method of human
    • interaction that involves realistic behaviour inimaginary situations. This method of training involvesaction, doing and practice. The participants play the roleof certain characters, such as the production manager,mechanical engineer, superintendents, maintenanceengineers, quality control inspectors, foreman, workersand the like. This method is mostly used for developinginterpersonal interactions and relations.c. Lecture method: The lecture is a traditional anddirect method of instruction. The instructor organizesthe material and gives it to a group of trainees in theform of a talk. To be effective, the lecture mustmotivate and create interest among the trainees. Anadvantage of lecture method is that it is direct and canbe used for a large group of trainees. Thus, costs andtime involved are reduced. The major limitation of thelecture method is that it does not provide for transfer oftraining effectively.d. Conference/discussion approach: In this method, the trainer delivers a lecture and involves the trainee in a discussion so that his doubts about the job get clarified. When big organisations use this method, the trainer uses audio-visual aids such as black boards, mockups and slides; in some cases the lectures are videotaped or audio taped. Even the trainees presentation can be taped for self confrontation and self-assessment.The conference is, thus, a group-centered approachwhere there is a clarification of ideas, communication ofprocedures and standards to the trainees. Thoseindividuals who have a general educational backgroundand whatever specific skills are required such as typing,shorthand, office equipment operation, filing, indexing,recording, etc. - may be provided with specificinstructions to handle their respective jobs.e. Programmed instruction: This method has become popular in recent years. The subject matter to be learned is presented in a series of carefully planned sequential units. These units are arranged from simple to more complex levels of instruction. The trainee goes through these units by answering questions or filling the blanks. This method is, thus, expensive and time-consuming.Behaviourally Experienced Training
    • Some training programmes focus on emotional andbehavioural learning. Here employees can learn aboutbehaviour by role-playing in which the role playersattempt to act their part in respect of a case, as theywould behave in a real-life situation. Business games,cases, incidents, group discussions and shortassignments are also used in behaviourally-experiencedlearning methods. Sensitivity training or laboratorytraining is an example of a method used for emotionallearning. The focus of experiential methods is onachieving, through group processes, a betterunderstanding of oneself and others. These arediscussed elaborately in the section covering ExecutiveDevelopment Programmes.Evaluation of a Training ProgrammeThe specification of values forms a basis for evaluation.The basis of evaluation and the mode of collection ofinformation necessary for evaluation should bedetermined at the planning stage.The process of training evaluation has been defined asany attempt to obtain information on the effects oftraining performance and to assess the value of trainingin the light of that information. Evaluation helps incontrolling and correcting the training programme.Hamblin suggested five levels at which evaluation oftraining can take place, viz., reactions, learning, jobbehaviour, organisation and ultimate value.1. Reactions: Trainees reactions to the overall usefulness of the training including the coverage of the topics, the method of presentation, the techniques used to clarify things, often throw light on the effectiveness of the programme. Potential questions to trainees might include: (i) What were your learning goals for the programme? (ii) Did you achieve them? (iii) Did you like this programme? (iv) Would you recommend it to others who have similar learning goals? ( v) what suggestions do you have for improving the programme? (vi) Should the organisation continue to offer it?2. Learning: Training programme, trainers ability and trainees ability are evaluated on the basis of quantity of content learned and time in which it is learned and learners ability to use or apply the
    • content learned.3. Job behaviour: This evaluation includes the manner and extent to which the trainee has applied his learning to his job.4. Organisation: This evaluation measures the use of training, learning and change in the job behaviour of the department/organisation in the form of increased productivity, quality, morale, sales turnover and the like.5. Ultimate value: It. is the measurement of ultimate result of the contributions of the training programme to the company goals like survival, growth, profitability, etc. and to the individual goals like development of personality and social goals like maximising social benefit.Methods of EvaluationVarious methods can be used to collect data on theoutcomes of training. Some of these are: Questionnaires: Comprehensive questionnaires could be used to obtain opinions, reactions, views of trainees. Tests: Standard tests could be used to find out whether trainees have learnt anything during and after the training. Interviews: Interviews could be conducted to find the usefulness of training offered to operatives. Studies: Comprehensive studies could be carried out eliciting the opinions and judgements of trainers, superiors and peer groups about the training. Human resource factors: Training can also be evaluated on the basis of employee satisfaction, which in turn can be examined on the basis of decrease in employee turnover, absenteeism, accidents, grievances, discharges, dismissals, etc. Cost benefit analysis: The costs of training (cost of hiring trainers, tools to learn, training centre, wastage, production stoppage, opportunity
    • cost of trainers and trainees) could be compared with its value (in terms of reduced learning time, improved learning, superior performance) in order to evaluate a training programme.Feedback: After the evaluation, the situation should beexamined to identify the probable causes for gaps inperformance. The training evaluation information(about costs, time spent, outcomes, etc.) should beprovided to the instructors, trainees and other partiesconcerned for control, correction and improvement oftrainees activities. The training evaluator should followit up sincerely so as to ensure effective implementationof the feedback report at every stage. Training Programme of CompanyPurpose-To establish and maintain a documented procedure foridentifying and providing training to all the employeesof the organization with essential skill and knowledgeso as to achieve desired quality and productivity goals.Scope-This procedure is applicable to all employees.Companys personnel involved in quality system. Training ProcessTraining is provided both “In House” and through“Outside Agencies” Which could be for an individualor for group of persons as a collective training.Training is conducted either through “PlannedTraining Programme” “Emergent TrainingProgramme” which is organized by the HRDDepartmentPlanned Training-The planned training programme is drawn on annualbasis both for individual and group of persons forcollective training at the beginning of Calendar Year byManager HRD and HRD Executive of factory. Thedepartmental Heads drawn out the training requirementson the training requisition slip and sent it to HID Dept.
    • Training of the senior personnel at Factory Is alsocatered for at Head Office on receipt of requirementfrom HRD Executive.The annual Training Prog. at Head office is approved byfrom Chairman cum Managing Director.Annual training Prog. is prepared on format andcirculated to all heads of department and is updated. Ifrequired in case of additional training needs.Emergent Training –The Emergent training programme is a supplementarytraining programme both for individual and collectivepersons which is imparted during the course of work totake care for unforeseen or uncatered trainingrequirements arisen due to installation of new machine,system, procedure etc.Identification of such training need is done by theconcerned HOD at Head Office and HOD/Supervisor atfactory and accordingly forwards their request. Theprocedure as in case of planned training is followedthere after.Conduct of TrainingHRD Head at HO & HRD (Executive) at factoryensures that identified training in their respective areasis conducted as scheduled. In case of External training, liaison with the agency is done and dates, venue etc. is fixed up and concerned person is intimated through Heads of Department. For In-House training, date/Venue is fixed up with identified faculty and concerned individual is informed through Heads of Department. Besides, necessary resource/infrastructure is also provided for effective training.External Trainers for the Company are: Father Son & Company
    • Skill & Thoughts Logic Consultant Topics covered under Training Programme EFT Act & Scheme ProvisionsRigid and Semi Rigid Packaging Principles of Contract Labour Act Self-motivational & Attitudinal Seminar Organic farming Training about operations in the company. Processing of Rice (value addition In Rice) Knowledge about rice trade Operational and maintenance of dryer & Cleaning Plant Silo storage Techniques Scientific Instrumentation Finished goods quality control Trouble shooting PURPOSE OF PROJECT To know the effectiveness of the training programme conducted by the company. To know whether employees are aware about their responsibilities and authorities or not. To improve Organizational Climate and increase the morale of employees. To know whether training programme is
    • conducted successfully or not. To know about the work culture of the organization.Job satisfactionJob satisfaction is in regard to ones feeling or state ofmind regarding the nature of their work. It can beinfluenced by a variety of factors e.g.: quality of onesrelationships with there supervisor, quality of physicalenvironment in which they work, degree of fulfillmentin there work etc.Locke gives a comprehensive definition of jobsatisfaction as involving cognitive, effective andevaluative reactions or attitudes and states it is "apleasurable or positive emotional state resulting fromthe appraisal of ones job or job experience." Jobsatisfaction is a result of employees perception of howwell their job provides those things that are viewed asimportant.There are three generally accepted dimensions to jobsatisfaction.First, job satisfaction is an emotional response to a jobsituation, as such it cannot be seen; it can only beinferred.Second, job satisfaction is often determined by howwell outcomes meet or exceed expectations. Forexample if organizational participants feel that they areworking more harder than others in the department butare receiving fewer rewards, they will probably have anegative attitude toward the work, the boss or thecoworkers. They will be dissatisfied. On the other hand,if they feel they are being treated very well and arebeing paid equitably, they are likely to have a positiveattitude toward the job. They will be job - satisfied.Third, job satisfaction represents several relatedattitudes. Factors determining job satisfaction• Factors affecting jobs are the main factors of jobsatisfaction, which may be challenging work, rewardsystems, working conditions, colleagues, learning andpersonality. Skill variety autonomy and significance are
    • challenging tasks, which provide maximum satisfactionto employees. Many people feel bored if a job is toosimple and routine, but many employees also enjoysimple and routine jobs.• The job characteristics are important factors forproviding satisfaction. Reward systems, equitablerewards, equal pay for equal work, promotion avenues,etc are satisfaction factors. Money is important toemployees having unfulfilled basic needs, i.e. theyrequire more award and recognition.• Fairness in promotion, unbiased attitude ofmanagement, responsibilities and social status are thefactors that are said to be providing satisfaction toemployees.• Working conditions influence employees level ofsatisfaction. Under conducive working condition,people prefer to work hard while in an adverseatmosphere people avoid work. Working condition notonly include physicals of the work but also the workingrelationships in the organization. The physicalconditions, for example, are the light, temperature,willingness, etc. A clerk working under routineconditions likes to work hard in an air - conditionedatmosphere with computer facilities. It increases theworking capacity of the employee. The relationships between the employees and the managers have an important bearing on job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is greater in case the higher authority is sympathetic, friendly and willing to help the employees. Employees feel satisfied when their views are listened to and regarded by their higher authorities Personal attitude and perceptions are the employees angles of satisfaction, which should be taken into consideration while motivating people to arrive at job satisfaction Feedback from the job itself and autonomy are two of the major job-related motivational factors. A recent found that career development was most important to both younger and older employees. Supervision is another moderately important of
    • job satisfaction. There seem to be two dimensions of supervisory style that affect job satisfaction. One is employee centeredness, which is measured by the degree to which a supervisor takes a personal interest and cares about the employee.It commonly is manifested in ways such as checking tosee how well the employee is doing, providing adviceand assistance to the individual, and communicatingwith the associate on a personal as well as an officiallevel . The other dimension is participation or influence,as illustrated by managers who allow their people toparticipate in decisions that affect their own jobs. Inmost case, this approach leads higher job satisfaction. Friendly, cooperative coworkers or team members are a modest source of job satisfaction to individual employees. The group, especially a "tight" team, serves as a source of support, comfort, advice, and assistance to the individual member.Outcomes of job satisfactionTo society as a whole as well as from an individualemployees standpoint, job satisfaction in and of itself isa desirable outcome. It is important to know, if at all,satisfaction relates to outcomes variable. For example,if job satisfaction is high, will the employee performbetter and the organization be more effective? I f jobsatisfaction is low, will there be performance problemsand ineffectiveness? The following sections examinethe most important of these.Satisfaction and performance:Most assume a positive relationship; the research todate indicates that there is no strong linkage betweensatisfaction and performance. Conceptual,methodological, and empirical analyses have questionedand argued against these results.The best conclusion about satisfaction and performanceis that there is, definitely a relationship. Therelationship may even be more complex than others inorganization behavior. For example, there seem to bemany possible-moderating variables, the most importantof which is reward. If people receive reward they feelare equitable, they will be satisfied, and is likely to
    • result in greater performance effort.Satisfaction and turnover:Unlike that between satisfaction and performance,research has uncovered a moderately negativelyrelationship between satisfaction and turnover. High jobsatisfaction will not, in and of itself, keep turnover low,but it does seem to help. On the other hand, if there isconsiderable job dissatisfaction, there is likely to behigh turnover. Obviously, other variables enter into anEmployees decision to quit besides job satisfaction. Forexample, age tenure in the organization, andcommitments to the organization, may playa role. Somepeople cannot see them selves working anywhere else,so they remain regardless of how dissatisfied they feel.Another factor is the general economy, typically therewill be an increase in turnover because will beinglooking for better opportunities with other organization.Satisfaction and absenteeism:Research has only demonstrated a weak negativerelationship between satisfaction and absenteeism. Aswith turnover, many variables enter into the decision tostay home besides satisfaction with the job. Forexample, there are moderating variables such as thedegree to which people that there job are important. Forexample, research among state govt. Employees hasfound those who believed that there was important hadlower absenteeism than did who did not feel this way.Additionally, it is important to remember that althoughjob satisfaction will not necessarily result inabsenteeism, low job satisfaction more likely to bringabout absenteeism. Significance of StudyEvery organization desires that it will growcontinuously and make and retain its position in thecompetitive and continuously changing marketenvironment. For this purpose the employees of theorganization must be skilled and talented. But all theemployees may not have the desired skills. Their skillscan be improved with the help of training programs. Itis an important activity for the origination to conductappropriate and related programme for its employees, sothat may be able to understand the terms required forthe completion of his job. This also helps the employees
    • of the organization to know about his job and organization very well. This also helps in better communication and relation among the organization wants to grow rapidly, then it is essential for it to conduct periodically training programmes for its employees to improve the skills and knowledge. So the top management must concentrate on the training programs and organize them in such a way that maximum number of employees wants to attend these programs. These must be related to employees and their jobs. Back to Main MenuHome| Chemistry Projects| Biology Projects| Physics Projects| Science Projects| HR Projects MBA| Finance Projects MBA| Marketing Projects MBA Website Developed by : Connecting World Team (Private Policy)