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  • 1. 1 “A STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE PERCEPTION OF WORKING MOMS TOWARDS SELECTING BRANDS FOR BABY ACCESSORY PRODUCTS”
  • 2. 2 INTRODUCTION Brands have always played a crucial role in the marketing of products and services. It is generally acknowledged that consumers base their buying decisions not only on rational considerations regarding, for instance, the price-quality ratio, but also to a great extent on their subjective estimations and associations. The value added to a product by its brand, which is usually referred to as “brand images,” comprises both brand reputation (the long-term overall impressions of price and quality aspects of a brand) and brand image (e.g. a brand’s personality and the associations it evokes). In accordance with the new research report "Indian Baby Care Market to 2013", baby accessory product market in India has experienced surprising growth over the past few years due to changing mindset and increasing penetration of baby accessory products. Rising income level, better product availability and increasing awareness have significantly transformed the baby accessory products industry landscape. India has emerged as the most preferred market for the companies involved in baby accessory product manufacturing and marketing, says RNCOS (Market Research and Information Analysis Company) report. The growing segment of population in the age group of 0-4 years has been providing tremendous opportunities as compared to any other baby product market worldwide. The ranges of accessory products vary from clothing, baby toiletries, skin care products to baby food products etc. While India represents huge growth opportunities, there are certain challenges for the Indian industry. The Indian baby accessory product market is restricted to just urban areas, despite accounting for majority sales, the urban areas are still under penetrated as compared to other developed and developing markets in the western countries. Products like soap and massage oil have high penetration with year round usage. "Indian Baby Care Market to 2013" is an
  • 3. 3 exhaustive research and objective analysis on the growing baby care products market in India. The report also evaluates the factors critical to the success of baby care products market in India and deeply analyzed the market trends. Detailed data and qualitative analysis help investors to understand the latest trends in the baby accessory product industry. The report also provides the segment-wise analysis, forecast and information of emerging areas. The extent of the information covered in the report helps in understanding the market dynamics and the corresponding factors responsible for transformation of the industry. According to our new research report “Indian Baby Care Market Analysis”, the Indian baby care market has substantially grown over the past few years and caught the attention of international players. It showed impressive performance last year (2010), which indicates to the nonexistence of economic slowdown effects. Aggressive marketing strategies and consumer acceptance of branded premium baby care products (especially in baby food and skin care segments) will enable the industry to register a CAGR of more than 11% during 2010-2013. Phusit Wonglorsaichon and Paitoon Sathainrapabayut (2008) related to Brand Perception & Brand of Baby Accessory Products in Working Moms’ Perspective is relatively giving some kind of insights about how working mothers are taking this baby care products brand. Previously, Most of the Indian people have been changed attitude toward taking different types of baby accessory brand. These information relative with Indian Department of Provincial Administration that birth rate of India in 2010 seven billionth babies, In 2011 is 8.5 billionth babies. With higher disposable income and with more affluent working parents having their first child related products has been increasing as well. These desires for parents are contributing to baby accessory product producers in positive Ways. According to the Indian market segmentation of baby accessory products there are 4 segments consisted of super premium, premium, standard, and economy markets. The imported products from Bombay, Delhi, and Calcutta are the super premium market. Premium segment has dominated this segmentation. Diapers, clothes, parasols, foot muffs, Rain covers, pram bags, cup holder, baby Beddings, Skincare (Lotus Herbals Kids Sun Block Creme SPF 2. Farlin - Baby Wash Mitten Barbie Conditioning Shampoo – Nourish.) and Bath Baby
  • 4. 4 Powder, Diaper (Garfield Baby Premium Training Pants, Garfield Baby Premium Diapers, Duck - Baby Diapers, Bear Hug - Changing Mat Bella Baby – Happy Diapers ), Baby Wipe, Baby Pant baby jogger valco baby and are in the standard market. The economy market represented with many brands such as Body care, Johnson & Johnson, (Johnson baby powder, baby lotion, baby soap, hair oil, top to toe ) Himalaya etc. According to the competitive market, the producers implement the marketing communication on both above and below the line activities to create the brand Perception to stimulate the customer loyalty. The main customers for the baby accessory products are separated into two groups. Firstly, the end-users are the babies who are unable to make the decision to buy which brand. They are not affected by any marketing communication programs and they do not perceive the brand of their uses. Opposite to the first, the second group is the moms who are the decision makers to purchase products to their baby based on the perception of good quality products and the brand of product. They might not have any loyalty if they think the new one is better than existing products that they used. This study for both above and below the line will differently affect the decision of working moms to buy the products to their babies. Therefore, the marketers of baby accessory products will compare the cost and effectiveness of marketing communication programs to the level of brand perception and brand images of their customers. However “Brand Perception” versus “Brand images” has positive relationship. According to marketing theories brand perception is consumers’ ability to identify the Brand under different condition as reflected by their brand recognition or recall Performance. On the other hand “Brand images” is the added value endowed to products and services. This value may reflected in how consumer think, feel and act with respect to brand marketing communication programs that they perceived from your marketing programs. Consistency of marketing programs with relevant messages will create Brand Attitude toward consumer in positive way.
  • 5. 5 Brand Perception = Brand Awareness and Brand images = Brand Value REVIEW OF LITERATURE Reilly, M.D. (1982), Working wives and convenience consumption, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 8 No. 4, pp. 407-18. Nickols, S.Y. and Fox, K.D. (1983), Buying time and saving time: strategies for managing household production, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 10, pp. 197-208. According to (Gate, 1987Aker, & 1996, Buzzel), Brand awareness and brand perceived quality as the significant factors to create and maintain brand equity. There are positive relationship among brand awareness, perceive quality and brand equity. (Rossiter and Percy, 1987) stated that Brand awareness was defined as the consumers’ ability to identify or recognize the brand. Murphy, 1990 in addition said that, The American Association defines a brand as “a name, term, sign, symbol or design, or a combination of them intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors. “A brand is thus a product or service that adds dimensions that differentiate it in some way from other products or services designed to satisfy the same need. These differences may be functional, rational, or emotional or intangible related to what the brand represents. Aake, 1991, brand is the image that consumers have in mind. It is also the unique characteristics that have been developed all the time in order to differentiate actual products from the competitors .
  • 6. 6 (Aaker, 1991) said that, It refers to the strength of a brand presence in consumer’s minds. Brand awareness has several levels starting from the less recognition of the brand to dominance Perceived quality was evaluated and decided by consumers. According to (Aaker, 1991 and Kapferer, 1992), the valuation of brand has been studied for different approaches, for example, marketing, premium pricing market value, customer factors, replacement cost perspective. According to the valuation based on consumer factors, the measurement of customers’ preference and attitude can be used to valuate the brand equity. Childers, T.L. and Akshay, R.R. (1992) refers that, the influence of familial and peer-based reference groups on consumer decisions, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 19 No. 2, pp. 198- 211. (Keller, 1993) point that. Brand recall refers to consumer’s ability to retrieve the brand from the memory. Dobscha, S. (1993) in their research, Women and the environment: applying eco-feminism to environmentally related consumption, Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 20, pp. 36-40. (Lassar et al, 1995). According to the second perspective, the premise of customer-based brand equity models is that the power of brand lies in what customers have responded, seen, read, heard, learned, thought and felt about the brand over time. In other words, the power of brand lies in the minds of existing or potential customers and what they have experienced directly and indirectly about the brand. The customer-based brand equity finally drives the financial return to the company. Belch, G.E. and Belch, M.A. (1995), Introduction to Advertising and Promotion: An Integrated Marketing Communications Perspective, 3rd ed., Irwin, Boston, MA.
  • 7. 7 (Urde, 1994 and Aaker, 1996), Regarding recent concept of marketing communication, two- way communication as well as one way communication is a key determinant of brand strategies to stimulus the brand orientation process. Court, M. (1997), “Who does what at your place? Women educational leaders’ experiences of gender-segregated work, Women in Management Review, Vol. 12 No. 1, pp. 17-29 Another study by Chernev (1997) analyzed the effect of common features on brand choice and the moderating role of attribute importance. It is argued that when brand attributes differ in importance, with the best value on the most important attribute, thus further polarizing brands’ choice shares. (Motameni & Shahrkhi, 1998) Brand equity increased the discounted future cash flows and revenue comparing to the same product did not have the brand name. Candel, M.J.J.M. (2001), Consumers’ convenience orientation towards meal preparation: conceptualisation and measurement, Appetite, Vol. 36, pp. 15-28. Duncan (2002) explained that marketing communication is a process for managing the customer relationship that affects brand value lastly. Puth G, Mostert P, and Ewing M. (2002), Consumer Perceptions of Mentioned Product and Brand attributes in Magazine Advertising: Journal of Product & Brand Management, Vol.8 No.1, 1999 A study by Voss and Parasuraman (2003), the purchase preference is primarily determined by price than quality during pre- purchase evaluation. Given explicit quality information, price had no effect on pre-purchase or post-consumption quality perceptions. Instead, post consumption quality evaluations had a favorable impact on price evaluations.
  • 8. 8 (Kitchen, Joanne, & Tao, 2004). It is a significant driver of competitive advantage to create the ability of companies to attract, retain, and leverage customers (Duncan & Mulhern, 2004). The marketing communication is considered as the strategic activities for brand managers to build and maintain the brand image of targeted customers. Berger J, Draganska M, and Simonson I. (2005), The Influence of Product Variety on Brand Perception and Choice, Research paper No. 1938, Stanford University (ITC, 2005) According to the improvement of measurement for brand equity, consumer-based brand equity was described for four dimensions; brand awareness, brand association, perceived quality, and brand loyalty. (Kotler & Lane, 2006) Brand perception is consumers’ ability to identify the brand under different conditions, as reflected by their brand recognition or recall performance. (Kotler & Lane, 2006) Perceived quality is another valuation of brand to push the customer to buy products. Brand building has been around for centuries as a means to distinguish the goods of one producer from those of another. (Kotler & Lane, 2006). In the fine arts, branding began with artists signing their works. Brands today play a number of important roles that improve consumers’ lives and enhance the financial value of firms. (Kotler & Lane, 2006). Brand concepts must address customer interests and lifestyles. Factors that affect its brand image and brand perception among marketing communication program that Implementing to the public to create brand perception, brand characteristic, brand image and brand equity. Wonglorsaichon & Sathainrapabayut 388, the marketing program has effect to improve the perceive quality of brand for different customers.
  • 9. 9 RATIONALE OF STUDY This study is focused on baby accessory product in order to realize what working moms think, conceive, feel, and learn upon brands. Brand perception is consumers’ ability to identify the brand under different condition defined by their brand recognition or recall performance. On the other hand brand image is the added value endowed to products and services. The present study will highlight the perception of working moms towards the use of branded baby accessory products. The scope of the study is very wide and it opens the doors for further research to explore the new segment as an opportunity of future market for manufacturers for niche penetration of product to baby segment or it may lead us to think on the pattern of new product development too.
  • 10. 10 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES  The main objective of this research is to study the factors affecting the perception of working moms towards selecting the different brands of baby accessory products.  To study the relationship between brand perception and brand image.  To analyze the relationship between different factors that can affect the perception of working moms towards selecting brand for baby accessory products.  To find out the preference and attitude of working moms towards the usage of branded baby accessory products in comparison to the normal (local) products.
  • 11. 11 RESEARCH METHODOLGY This study is exploratory in nature. Data Collection: Data will be collected both through secondary sources and Primary sources. Secondary data will be collected through literature review and to collect the primary data, structured questionnaires will be developed for study purpose. The Population: The target population will be the working moms who are using branded baby accessory products and are living in Indore. This research is aiming to study working mom perspectives toward local/national/international brands. The Sample Profile During the sample design process the target population is identified, as well as the sampling unit, the size of the sample, and sampling technique. To assess the level of satisfaction of the employees, another survey will be conducted by taking sample. Sample Size: The sample size for the study will be 170 respondents (approx.). The Techniques: In this study, the non probability sampling technique will be used. Data Analyses: Collected data through primary tools will be processed i.e., edited, coded and tabulated for the analysis using MS office software or SPSS. For further analysis of data, different statistical techniques to achieve the said objectives will be used like the t-test, ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) to see the significance difference, Chi-
  • 12. 12 square test for interdependency, correlation to measure the association between variables, Factor Analysis and regression analysis to develop regression equation. If any other technique will be required to achieve the said objectives, it will be decided at the required time. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS  There exists a strong relationship between the factors affecting the perception of working moms towards selecting brand for baby accessory product and the factors that affects the brand image.  Working moms, especially higher middle class, prefer to go for international brands in baby accessory products.  Middle class working moms prefer local and national brand for baby accessory products.  The percentage of usage of national brands in baby accessory products is higher than international brands.
  • 13. 13 REFERENCES Aaker, D.A. 1991. Managing Brand Equity: Capitalizing on the Value of a Brand Name, The Free Press New York, NY. Aaker, D.A. 1996. Measuring brand equity across product and markets, California Management Review, Vol. 38, Spring, No. 3, pp. 102-20. Belch, G.E. and Belch, M.A. 1995. Introduction to Advertising and Promotion: An Integrated Marketing Communications Perspective, 3rd ed., Irwin, Boston, MA Berger J, Draganska M, and Simonson I. 2005. The Influence of Product Variety on Brand Perception and Choice, Research paper No. 1938, Stanford University. Buzzel, R.D. and Gate, B.T. 1987. The PIMS principles:Linking Strategy to Performance, The Free Press, New York, NY. Candel, M.J.J.M. 2001. Consumers’ convenience orientation towards meal preparation: conceptualization and measurement, Appetite, Vol. 36, pp. 15-28. Carrigan M and Szmigin I. 2006. Mother of Invention: Maternal Empowerment and Convenience Consumption, Journal of Marketing, Vol.40 No.9/10, 2006, pp.1122-1142.
  • 14. 14 Childers, T.L. and Akshay, R.R. 1992. The influence of familial and peer based reference groups on consumer decisions, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 19 No. 2, pp. 198-211. Court, M. 1997. “Who does what at your place? Women educational leaders’ experiences of gender- segregated work, Women in Management Review, Vol. 12 No. 1, pp. 17-29. Duncan, T.R. 2002. IMC: Using advertising and promotion to build brands, New York: McGraw-Hill. Duncan, T.R. and Mulhern F. 2004. A white paper on the status, scope and future of IMC, New York:McGraw-Hill. Farquhar,P.H., Han, J.Y. andd Ijiri, Y. 1991, Recognizing and measuring brand assets, No. 91- 119, Marketing Science Institute, Cambridge, MA. Hirschman,E.C. 1993. Ideology in consumer research, 1980 and 1990: a Marxist and feminist critique, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 19 No. 4, pp. 537-56. Kaufman, C.F., Lane, P.M. and Lindquist, J.D. 1991, Exploring more than 24 hours a day: a preliminary investigation of polychromic time use, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 18 No. 3, pp. 392-401. Keller, K.L.1993. Conceptualizing, measuring , and managing customer based brand equity, Journal of Marketing, Vol 57 No.1, pp.1-22. Kitchen, P.J., Brignell, J., and Tao, L. 2004. The emergence of IMC: A theoretical perspective, Journal of advertising research, 44(1), 19-30. Kotler, P. and Lane K. 2006. Marketing Management, Pearson International Edition 2006.
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  • 16. 16 Strober, M. and Weinberg, C. 1977. Working wives and major family expenditure, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 6, pp. 338-48. Thompson, C.J. 1996. Caring consumers: gendered consumption meanings and the juggling lifestyle, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 22 No. 4, pp. 388-407. Urge, Mats 1994. Brand orientation: A strategy for survival, Journal of consumer marketing, 11(3), 18-32. Venkatesh, A. 1980. Changing roles of women: a lifestyle analysis, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 7, pp. 189-97. Trout Jack and Rise A, (1993) The 22 Immutable Laws of Marketing; Harper Business. Dobscha, S.(1993), Women and the environment: applying eco-feminism to environmentally related consumption, Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 20, pp. 36-40. Puth G, Mostert P, and Ewing M. (2002), Consumer Perceptions of Mentioned Product and Brand attributes in Magazine Advertising: Journal of Product & Brand Management, Vol.8 No.1, 1999 (Urde, 1994 and Aaker, 1996).Regarding recent concept of marketing communication, two-way communication as well as one way communication is a key determinant of brand strategies to stimulus the brand orientation process. (Lassar et al, 1995). According to the second perspective, the premise of customer-based brand equity models is that the power of brand lies in what customers have responded, seen, read, heard, learned, thought and felt about the brand over time. In other words, the power of brand lies in the minds of existing or potential customers and what they have
  • 17. 17 experienced directly and indirectly about the brand. The customer-based brand equity finally drives the financial return to the company. Belch, G.E. and Belch, M.A. (1995), Introduction to Advertising and Promotion: An Integrated Marketing Communications Perspective, 3rd ed., Irwin, Boston, MA. Court, M. (1997), “Who does what at your place? Women educational leaders’ experiences of gender-segregated work, Women in Management Review, Vol.12 No. 1, pp. 17- 29