HYDROELECTRICITY
Hydroelectricity is the term referring
to electricity generated by hydropower;
the production of electric...
GENERAL METHODS
Conventional (dams)
Most hydroelectric power comes from
the potential energy of dammed water
driving a wat...
SIZES AND CAPACITIES OF HYDROELECTRIC FACILITIES
Micro
Micro hydro is a term used for hydroelectric
power installations th...
DISADVANTAGES
Ecosystem damage and loss of land
Large reservoirs required for the
operation of hydroelectric power station...
NARMADA BACHAO ANDOLAN

Narmada Bachao Andolan (NBA) is a social
movement consisting
of adivasis, farmers, environmentalis...
HISTORY OF THE DAM PROJECT
Post-1947, investigations were carried out
to evaluate mechanisms for using water
from the Narm...
FORMATION OF THE NARMADA BACHAO
ANDOLAN
There were groups such as Gujarat-based
(Action Research in Community Health and
D...
SUPREME COURT’S DECISION
The Supreme Court's decision is still pending,
seeking stoppage of construction of the Sardar
Sar...
RAIN WATER HARVESTING
Rainwater harvesting is the
accumulation and deposition
of rainwater for reuse before it
reaches the...
WATERSHED MANAGEMENT
Watershed management is the study of the 
relevant characteristics of a watershed aimed at 
the susta...
At this point, the company is involved in six major projects
affecting over 180 villages in Madhya Pradesh, North Gujarat,...
Water is a limited resource. 
What each of us does in the 
world, how we live, does make 
a difference. As we learn the 
v...
NAME : VAANI BESWAL
CLASS : X

SECTION : A

REGISTRATION NUMBER : 240/04
SUBJECT : ECONOMICAL
DEVELOPMENT
TOPIC : GROUNDWA...
HISTORY (1950-1980)
The first comprehensive groundwater bore
database was assembled by the Geological
Survey of Victoria i...
CURRENT SCENARIO OF GROUNDWATER
The Active Groundwater Level Network contains water levels and well
information from more ...
DEPLETION AND OVERUSE OF
Groundwater is the largest source of
GROUNDWATER In
usable, fresh water in the world.
usable, fre...
NAME : VAANI BESWAL
CLASS : X

SECTION : A

REGISTRATION NUMBER : 240/04
SUBJECT : BIOLOGY
TOPIC : WATER RECYCLING
Step One

Raw sewage is 99.9% water.
Large objects such as sticks and
rags are removed from raw sewage
as it passes throug...
How is water recycled?
Treatment of wastewater is actually a remarkably simple
process that utilizes very basic physical, ...
Step Three

Air is mixed with the partially
treated wastewater so that
microorganisms can survive to
consume organic mater...
USAGE OF RECYCLED WATER.
Using reclaimed water for non-potable uses
saves potable water for drinking, since less
potable
w...
NAME : VAANI BESWAL
CLASS : X

SECTION : A

REGISTARTION NUMBER :
240/04
SUBJECT : CHEMISTRY
TOPIC : HARDNESS AND
SOFTNESS...
HARDNESS OF WATER
Hard water is water that has
high mineral content (in contrast with
"soft water").
Hard drinking water i...
SOFTNENIG OF WATER
Water softening is the
removal
of calcium, magnesium, and
certain other metal cat
ions in hard water. T...
REMOVAL OF HARDNESS FORM WATER
It is often desirable to soften
hard water. Most detergents
contain ingredients that counte...
TEMPORARY HARDNESS is a type
of water hardness caused by the
presence
of dissolved bicarbonate minerals (cal
cium bicarbon...
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  1. 1. HYDROELECTRICITY Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower; the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. It is the most widely used form of renewable energy, accounting for 16 percent of global electricity generation – 3,427 terawatt-hours of electricity production in 2010, and is expected to increase about 3.1% each year for the next 25 years. Hydropower is produced in 150 countries, with the AsiaPacific region generating 32 percent of global hydropower in 2010There are now three hydroelectricity plants larger than 10 GW: the Three Gorges Dam in China, Itapúa Dam across the Brazil/Paraguay border, and Guri Dam in Venezuela. The Gordon Dam in Tasmania is a large hydro facility, with an installed capacity of430 MW.
  2. 2. GENERAL METHODS Conventional (dams) Most hydroelectric power comes from the potential energy of dammed water driving a water turbine and generator. The power extracted from the water depends on the volume and on the difference in height between the source and the water's outflow. This height difference is called the head. The amount of potential energy in water is proportional to the head. A large pipe (the "penstock") delivers water to the turbine. Run-of-the-river Run-of-the-river hydroelectric stations are those with small or no reservoir capacity, so that the water coming from upstream must be used for generation at that moment, or must be allowed to bypass the dam. In the United States, run of the river hydropower could potentially provide 60,000 MW (about 13.7% of total use in 2011 if continuously available). Cross section of a conventional hydroelectric dam
  3. 3. SIZES AND CAPACITIES OF HYDROELECTRIC FACILITIES Micro Micro hydro is a term used for hydroelectric power installations that typically produce up to 100 kW of power. These installations can provide power to an isolated home or small community, or are sometimes connected to electric power networks.  Micro hydro systems complement photovoltaic solar energy systems because in many areas, water flow, and thus available hydro power, is highest in the winter when solar energy is at a minimum. A micro-hydro facility in Vietnam Large Although no official definition exists for the capacity range of large hydroelectric power stations, facilities from over a few hundred megawatts to more than 10 GW are generally considered large hydroelectric facilities. Currently, only three facilities over 10 GW (10,000 MW) are in operation worldwide; Three Gorges Dam at 22.5 The Three Gorges Dam is the GW, Itapúa Dam at 14 GW, and Guri Dam at 10.2 largest operating hydroelectric power station, at22,500 MW GW.
  4. 4. DISADVANTAGES Ecosystem damage and loss of land Large reservoirs required for the operation of hydroelectric power stations result in submersion of extensive areas upstream of the dams, destroying biologically rich and productive lowland and reverie valley forests, marshland and grasslands. The loss of land is often exacerbated by habitat fragmentation of surrounding areas caused by the reservoir. Methane emissions Lower positive impacts are found in the tropical regions, as it has been noted that the reservoirs of power plants in tropical regions produce substantial amounts of methane. According to the World Commission on Dams report, where the reservoir is large compared to the generating capacity and no clearing of the forests in the area was undertaken prior to impoundment of the reservoir, greenhouse gas emissions from the reservoir may be higher than those of a conventional oil-fired thermal generation plant. Hydroelectric power stations that use dams would submerge large areas of land due to the requirement of a reservoir. The Hoover Dam in the United States is a large conventional dammed-hydro facility
  5. 5. NARMADA BACHAO ANDOLAN Narmada Bachao Andolan (NBA) is a social movement consisting of adivasis, farmers, environmentalists, and human rights activists against a number of large dams being built across the Narmada river. The river flows through the states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, and Madhya Pradesh in India. Sardar Sarovar Dam in Gujarat is one of the biggest dams on the river and was one of the first focal points of the movement. Friends of River Narmada is the unofficial website of the NBA. Their mode of campaign includes hunger strikes and garnering support from film and art personalities (notably Bollywood actor Aamir Khan). Narmada Bachao Andolan, with its leading spokespersons Medha Patkar and Baba Amte, received the Right Livelihood Award in 1991. NARMADA BACHAO ANDOLAN LOGO
  6. 6. HISTORY OF THE DAM PROJECT Post-1947, investigations were carried out to evaluate mechanisms for using water from the Narmada River, which flows into the Arabian Sea after passing through the states of Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra. Due to inter-state differences in implementing schemes and sharing of water, the Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal was constituted by the Government of India on 6 October 1969 to adjudicate over the disputes. This tribunal investigated the matters referred to it and responded after more than 10 years. On 12 December 1979, the decision as given by the tribunal, with all the parties at dispute binding to it, was released by the Indian government. As per the tribunal's decision, 30 major, 135 medium, and 3000 small dams, were granted approval for construction including raising the height of the Sardar OVERVIEW OF NARMADA
  7. 7. FORMATION OF THE NARMADA BACHAO ANDOLAN There were groups such as Gujarat-based (Action Research in Community Health and Development) and Narmada Asargrastha Samiti (Committee for people affected by the Narmada dam), Madhya Pradesh-based Narmada Ghati Nav Nirman Samiti (Committee for a new life in the Narmada Valley) and Maharashtra-based Narmada Dharangrastha Samiti (Committee for Narmada dam-affected people) who either believed in the need for fair rehabilitation plans for the people or who vehemently PROTEST FOR THE ANDOLAN opposed dam construction despite a resettlement policy. While Medha Patkar established Narmada Bachao Andolan in 1989, all these groups joined this national coalition of environmental and human rights activists, scientists, academics and project-affected people with a non-violent approach.
  8. 8. SUPREME COURT’S DECISION The Supreme Court's decision is still pending, seeking stoppage of construction of the Sardar Sarovar dam. The court initially ruled the decision in the Andolan's favor, thereby effecting an immediate stoppage of work at the dam and directing the concerned states to first complete the rehabilitation and replacement process.[ The Court deliberated on this issue further for several years but finally upheld the Tribunal Award and allowed the construction to proceed, subject to conditions. The court introduced a mechanism to monitor the progress of resettlement pari passu with the raising of the height of the dam through the Grievance Redressal Authorities (GRA) in each of the party states. The court’s decision referred in this document, given in the year 2000 after seven years of deliberations, has paved the way for completing the project to attain full envisaged benefits. The court's final line of the order states, "Every Endeavour shall be made to see that the project is completed as expeditiously as
  9. 9. RAIN WATER HARVESTING Rainwater harvesting is the accumulation and deposition of rainwater for reuse before it reaches the aquifer. Uses include water for garden, water for livestock, water for irrigation, and indoor heating for houses etc.. In many places the water collected is just redirected to a deep pit with percolation. The harvested water can be used as drinking water as well as for storage and other purpose like irrigation. A cistern for rainwater storage
  10. 10. WATERSHED MANAGEMENT Watershed management is the study of the  relevant characteristics of a watershed aimed at  the sustainable distribution of its resources and  the process of creating and implementing plans,  programs, and projects to sustain and  enhance watershed functions that affect  the plant, animal, and humans  within a watershed boundary. Features of a  watershed that agencies seek  to manage include water  supply, drainage, storm water  runoff, water rights, and the overall  planning and utilization of  watersheds. Landowners, land use agencies,  storm water management experts,  environmental specialists, water use surveyors  and communities all play an integral part in the  management of a watershed.
  11. 11. At this point, the company is involved in six major projects affecting over 180 villages in Madhya Pradesh, North Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Maharashtra. The projects are carried out in partnership with non-governmental organizations (NGOs), local community, and government agencies such as NABARD, or directly with state governments. -Increase the groundwater recharge in the watershed area. - Increase water use efficiency in agriculture and domestic sectors by ensuring the adoption of water management techniques.
  12. 12. Water is a limited resource.  What each of us does in the  world, how we live, does make  a difference. As we learn the  value of clean, safe water and  how scarce it truly is, we can  take steps to protect it and to  get it to people who lack access  today. Did you know that nearly  1 billion people, mostly in the  developing world, have no  access to safe water? More  than double this number - about  2.4 billion - have no access to  any form of improved sanitation  facilities. They could use your  help to get it.
  13. 13. NAME : VAANI BESWAL CLASS : X SECTION : A REGISTRATION NUMBER : 240/04 SUBJECT : ECONOMICAL DEVELOPMENT TOPIC : GROUNDWATER
  14. 14. HISTORY (1950-1980) The first comprehensive groundwater bore database was assembled by the Geological Survey of Victoria in the late 1960s, with the introduction of the Groundwater Act 1969. Up until the mid 1980s the bore locations were plotted on map sheets . From the mid 1980s onwards a digital database, compiled from the existing records of all Government bores and private bores, was progressively assembled on mainframe computers. From 1969, a permit to drill groundwater bores was required, and the information captured by the licensing process was added to the database. This included groundwater investigation or observation bores drilled by other government agencies such as the State Rivers and Water Supply Commission and the Soil Conservation Authority and subsequent equivalents, although Section showing Borings at Bung Bong
  15. 15. CURRENT SCENARIO OF GROUNDWATER The Active Groundwater Level Network contains water levels and well information from more than 20,000 wells that have been measured by the USGS or USGS cooperators at least once within the past 13 months. This network includes all of these wells, regardless of measurement frequency, aquifer monitored, or the monitoring objective. COUNTRIES WHICH FACE THE PROBLEM OF DEPLETION OF GROUNDWATER TURKEY- suffers from TURKEY problems related to groundwater very frequently as the water reservoirs aren’t clean. AFRICA-This propose well AFRICAand pump project will provide clean safe drinking water for an entire village of 400 people in Burkina Faso, Africa and 100% of public donations will directly fund this clean water project
  16. 16. DEPLETION AND OVERUSE OF Groundwater is the largest source of GROUNDWATER In usable, fresh water in the world. usable, fresh water in the world. In many parts of the world, especially where surface water supplies are not available, domestic, agricultural, and industrial water needs can only be met by using the water beneath the ground. Groundwater depletion is primarily caused by sustained groundwater pumping. Some of the negative effects of groundwater depletion: Lowering of the Water Table Excessive pumping can lower the groundwater table, and cause wells to no longer be able to reach groundwater. Increased Costs As the water table lowers, the water must be pumped farther to reach the surface, using more energy. In extreme GROUNDWATER PROJECT
  17. 17. NAME : VAANI BESWAL CLASS : X SECTION : A REGISTRATION NUMBER : 240/04 SUBJECT : BIOLOGY TOPIC : WATER RECYCLING
  18. 18. Step One Raw sewage is 99.9% water. Large objects such as sticks and rags are removed from raw sewage as it passes through bar screens. Step Two Next, wastewater is slowed so that settle able organics settle to the bottom while fats, oils, and greases float to the top.
  19. 19. How is water recycled? Treatment of wastewater is actually a remarkably simple process that utilizes very basic physical, biological, and chemical principles to remove contaminants from water. Use of mechanical or physical systems to treat wastewater is generally referred to as primary treatment, and use of biological processes to provide further treatment is referred to as secondary treatment. Advanced secondary treatment usually involves applying chemical systems in addition to biological ones, such as injecting chlorine to disinfect the water. In most of the United States, wastewater receives both primary and secondary treatment. Tertiary treatment methods are sometimes used after primary and secondary treatment to remove traces of chemicals and dissolved solids. Tertiary treatment is expensive and not widely practiced except where necessary to remove industrial contaminants.
  20. 20. Step Three Air is mixed with the partially treated wastewater so that microorganisms can survive to consume organic material in the water. Step Four This is very high quality water. This tank is 12 feet deep, and note that clarity is excellent all the way to the bottom.
  21. 21. USAGE OF RECYCLED WATER. Using reclaimed water for non-potable uses saves potable water for drinking, since less potable water will be used for non-potable uses. It sometimes contains higher levels of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and Oxygen which may somewhat help fertilize garden and agricultural plants when used for irrigation. The usage of water reclamation decreases the pollution sent to sensitive environments. It can also enhance wetlands, which benefits the wildlife depending RECYCLED WATER on that eco-system. For instance, The San Jose/Santa Clara Water Pollution Control Plant instituted a water recycling program to protect the Bay area's natural salt water marshes.
  22. 22. NAME : VAANI BESWAL CLASS : X SECTION : A REGISTARTION NUMBER : 240/04 SUBJECT : CHEMISTRY TOPIC : HARDNESS AND SOFTNESS OF WATER
  23. 23. HARDNESS OF WATER Hard water is water that has high mineral content (in contrast with "soft water"). Hard drinking water is generally not harmful to one's health, but can pose serious problems in industrial settings, where water hardness is monitored to avoid costly breakdowns in boilers, cooling towers, and other equipment that handles water. In domestic settings, hard water is often indicated by a lack of suds formation when soap is agitated in water, and by the formation of lime scale in kettles and water heaters. Wherever water hardness is a concern, water softening is commonly used to reduce hard water's adverse effects. A tap showing calcification left by the use of hard water.
  24. 24. SOFTNENIG OF WATER Water softening is the removal of calcium, magnesium, and certain other metal cat ions in hard water. The resulting soft water is more compatible with soap and extends the lifetime of plumbing. Water softening is usually achieved using lime softening or ion-exchange resins. METHODS :- -Ion exchange resin device -lime softening -Chelating agents -Distillation and rain water Lime scale in PVC pipe
  25. 25. REMOVAL OF HARDNESS FORM WATER It is often desirable to soften hard water. Most detergents contain ingredients that counteract the effects of hard water on the surfactants. For this reason, water softening is often unnecessary. Where softening is practiced, it is often recommended to soften only the water sent to domestic hot water systems so as to prevent or delay inefficiencies and damage due to scale formation in water heaters. A common method for water softening involves the use of ion exchange resins, which replace ions like Ca2+ by twice the number of monocations such as sodium or potassium ions. Hard water is softened and then is used as packaged drinking water.
  26. 26. TEMPORARY HARDNESS is a type of water hardness caused by the presence of dissolved bicarbonate minerals (cal cium bicarbonate and magnesium bicarbonate). When dissolved these minerals yield calcium and magnesium captions (Ca2+, Mg2+) and carbonate and bicarbonate anions (CO32-, HCO3-). The presence of the metal cat ions makes the water hard. However, unlike the permanent hardness caused by sulfate and chloride compounds, this "temporary" hardness can be reduced either by boiling the water, or by the addition of lime (calcium hydroxide) through the softening process of lime softening. Boiling promotes the formation of carbonate from the bicarbonate and precipitates calcium carbonate out of solution, leaving water that is softer upon cooling. PERMANENT HARDNESS is hardness (mineral content) that cannot be removed by boiling. When this is the case, it is usually caused by the presence of calcium sulfate and/or magnesium sulfates in the water, which do not precipitate out as the temperature increases. Ions causing permanent hardness of water can be removed using a water softener, or ion exchange column. Total Permanent Hardness = Calcium Hardness + Magnesium Hardness The calcium and magnesium hardness is the concentration of calcium and magnesium ions expressed as equivalent of calcium carbonate.

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