The black buck, himalayan blue sheep, asiatic elephant and the gigantic dolphin.
the Himalayan brown bear, desert fox and hornbill and wild Asiatic buffalo. (rare species)
Andaman teal, mithun in Arunachal Pradesh, Nicobar pigeon and Andaman wild pig,
Social studies geo ppt.
Social StudiesSocial StudiesChapter 2- GeogrpahyChapter 2- GeogrpahyForest And Wildlife ResourcesForest And Wildlife ResourcesBy Rithesh Darish-10-vThe Indian High School, Dubai
Contents-1~Introduction~Flora and Fauna In INDIA~Vanishing Forests~Do you know???~Types Of Species~Asiatic Cheetah~Impact of Humans in transformingthe NATURE
Contents-2~Do you know???~Forest And Wildlife ConservationStrategy~Project Tiger~Types Of Forests And WildlifeResources
Contents-3- Role of community in conservation- Photograph
Introduction• The planet Earth is the house of millions of living organismsstarting from microorganisms like bacteria to a huge tree likebanyan and elephants.• The biosphere is full of biodiversity.• Human beings along with other organisms form a complex webof ecosystem which is mutually exclusive and all organismsdepend upon each other for their existence. For example, theplants, animals and microorganisms recreate the quality of theair we breathe, the water we drink and the soil that producesour food without which we cannot survive.• Forests play a key role in the ecological system as these arealso the primary producers on which all other living beingsdepend.
Flora And Fauna InINDIAIndia is a land of diverse flora and fauna which isaround 8% of the world’s total species. Look aroundyou and you will see marvel of biodiversity (estimatedto be 1.6 million). This is possibly twice or thrice thenumber yet to be discovered. You have alreadystudied in detail about the extent and variety offorest and wildlife resources in India. You may haverealized the importance of these resources in ourdaily life.These diverse flora and fauna are so wellintegrated in our daily life that we take thesefor granted. But, lately, they are under greatstress mainly due to insensitivity to ourenvironment.
Vanishing forestsThe dimensions of deforestation in India are staggering. Theforest cover in the country is estimated at 637, 293 sq. km.,which is 19.39% of the total geographical area. (dense forest11.48% ; open forest 7.76% ; and mangrove 0.15%). According tothe state of forest report (1999), the dense forest cover hasincreased by 10.098 sq. km. since 1997. However, thisapparent increase in the forest cover is due to plantation bydifferent agencies. The state of forest report does notdifferentiate between natural forests and plantations.Therefore, these reports failed to deliver accurate informationabout actual loss of natural forests.
Did you know???About 47,000 species of flora and over81,000 species of fauna are found inIndia. Of this estimated 47,000 plantspecies, about 15,000 flowering speciesbelong to IndiaDo you know that among the largeranimals in India, 79 species of mammals,44 of birds, 15 of reptiles and 3 ofamphibians are threatened? Nearly 1500plant species are considered endangered.Flowering plants and vertebrate animalshave recently become extinct at a rateestimated to be 50 to 100 times theaverage expected natural rate.
Types of SpeciesThe international union for conservation of nature and natural resourceshave given us a classification of existing plants and animal kingdom basedon their characteristics and the threat they are facing due to humanintervention and many other specific factors causing their loss:- Normal Species: species whose population levels are considered to benormal for their survival, such a cattle, Sal, pine, rodents, etc.- Endangered Species: these are species which are in danger ofextinction. The survival of such species is difficult if the negativefactors that have led to a decline in their population continue to operate.The examples of such species are black buck, crocodile, etc.- Vulnerable Species: These are species whose population has declinedto levels from where it is likely to move into the endangered category inthe near future if the negative factors continue to operate. Theexamples of such species are blue sheep, Asiatic elephant, Gangeticdolphin, etc.
-Rare Species: Species with smallpopulation may move into the endangeredor vulnerable category if the negativefactors affecting them continue tooperate. The examples of such species arethe Himalayan brown bear, wild Asiaticbuffalo, desert fox and hornbill, etc.
-Endemic Species: These are specieswhich are only found in some particularareas usually isolated by natural orgeographical barriers. Examples of suchspecies are the Andaman teal, Nicobarpigeon, Andaman wild pig, mithun inArunachal Pradesh.
Extinct Species: These are species whichare not found after searches of known orlikely areas where they may occur. Aspecies may be extinct from a local area,region, country, continent or the entireearth. Examples of such species are theAsiatic cheetah, pink head duck.
Impact of human beings intransforming the NatureImpact of human beings in transforming nature into a store house offorest and animal resource such as wood, leaves, fodder, fuel wood, barks,rubber, dyes, organic manure and medicinal plants on one hand and animal skin,hair, hide, milk (dairy farm) meat, animals used in agricultural and transportactivities.One of the historical factors causing damage to our forest resource was duringBritish time when they started expanding commercial agriculture, miningactivity, railways and roadways to exploit Indian resources. It continued toexpand even after independence as our population grew over a period of time.Data given shows the zone. Between 1951 and 1980, according to the forestsurvey of India, over 26,200 sq. km of forest area was converted intoagricultural land all over India. Substantial parts of the tribal belts, especiallyin the north-eastern and central India, have been deforested or degraded byshifting cultivation, a type of slash and burn agriculture.
Tribal girls using bamboosaplings in a nursery atMukhali near SalientValleyTribal women sellingminor forest produceLeaf litter collection bywomen folk
Another biggest factor contributed significantly to the loss offlora and fauna, have been developmental projects such as big housingprojects of private builders like D.L.F. or Omaxe, multipurpose rivervalley projects like Tehri Dam, big thermal power projects likeBadarpur in Delhi. Since 1951, over 500 sq. km. of forest was clearedfor river valley projects. Clearing of forests is still continuing withprojects like the Narmada Sagar Project in Madhya Pradesh, whichwould inundate 40,000 hectares of forests. Mining is anotherimportant factor behind deforestation. The buxa tiger reserved inwest Bengal is seriously threatened by the ongoing dolomite mining. Ithas disturbed the natural habitat of many species and blocked themigration route of several others, including the great Indian elephant.Many ecologists and environmentalists have the opinion that over-grazing and fuel wood cutting and collection in the forest area havealso degraded our forest resources. Though, there may be somesubstance in their argument, yet, the fact remains that a substantialpart of the fuel-fodder demand is met by lopping rather than byfelling entire trees. The forest ecosystems are repositories of someof the country’s most valuable forest products, minerals and otherresources that meet the demands of the rapidlyexpanding industrial-urban economy.
Forest and WildlifeConservation StrategyConservation stand as for active and judicious utilization of naturalresources. It also preserves the ecological diversity and life supportsystems teased on water, soil and air. Genetic diversity of plants andanimals for their better growth and breeding conservation is necessary.The way our Biodiversity has declined over the years it is but natural toevolve a conservation strategy in India where it can become a mass-movement. For example, in agriculture we are still dependent on traditionalcrop varieties. Fisheries too are heavily dependent on the maintenance ofaquatic biodiversity.A national level wildlife protection program came into being in the year1960s and 1970s as demanded by conservation of that time. Setting up ofnational park and wildlife sanctuary were one of the steps in this direction.
The Indian wildlife Act was implemented in 1972, with variousprovisions for protecting habitants.An all-India list of protected species was also published. Thethrust of the programme was towards protecting the remainingpopulation of certain endangered species by banning hunting,giving legal protection to their Habitats, and restricting trade inwildlife, subsequently, central and many states governmentsestablished national parks and wildlife sanctuaries about whichyou have already studied.The central government also announced several projects forprotecting specific animals, which were gravely threatened,including the tiger, the one-horned rhinoceros, the Kashmir stag,three types of crocodiles- fresh water crocodiles, salt watercrocodiles and the GharialsGharials, the Asiatic lion, and others. Mostrecently, the Indian elephant, black buck (chinkra), the greatIndian bustard (godawan) and the snow leopard, etc. have beengiven full or partial legal protection againsthunting and tradethroughout India.
National ParkDachigamJim CorbettSariska DudwaRanthambor ShivpuriKanhaKanheriPocharamGuindyBandipurPeriyarRajdewraSimlipalSunder BansManosKazirangaINDIA
ProjectTigerTiger is one of the key wildlife speciesin the faunal web. In 1973, the authorities realized that the tiger populationhad dwindled to 1,8271,827 from an estimated 55.00055.000 at the turn of thecentury. The major threats to tiger population are numerous, such aspoaching for trade, shrinking habitat, depletion of prey base species, growinghuman population, etc. the trade of tiger skins and the use of their bones intraditional medicines, especially in the Asian countries left the tigerpopulation on the verge of extinction. Since India and Nepal provide habitatto about two-thirds of the surviving tigerpopulation in the world, these two nationsbecame prime targets foe poaching and illegaltrading.
“Project Tiger” one of the well-publicizedwildlife campaigns in the world, was launched in1973. initially, it showed success as the tigerpopulation went up to 4,002 in 1982 and4,334 in 1989. but in 1993, the population ofthe tiger had dropped to 3600. there are 27tiger reserves in India covering an area of37,761 sq. km. tiger conservation has beenviewed not only as an effort to save anendangered species, but when equal importanceas a means of preserving biotypes of sizeablemagnitude.Corbett national park in, Uttaranchal, Sunder bans national park in WestBengal, Bandhavgarh national park in Madhya Pradesh, Sariska WildlifeSanctuary in Rajasthan, Manas Tiger Reserve in Assam and Periyar TigerReserve in Kerala in Kerala are some of the tiger reserves of India.
Types Of Forests AndWildlife ResourcesThe forests and wildlife found in the country are being controlled andmanaged by the govt. through forest department. It is ratherdifficult to regulate and manage. Our forest wildlife resource withoutstudying them properly for which they are categories in the followingmanner:(I) Reserved forests: More then half of the total forest land has beendeclared reserved forest. Reserved forests are regarded as the mostvaluable as far as the conservation of forest and wildlife resourcesare concerned.(II) Protected forests: Almost one-third of the total forest area isprotected forest, as declared by the Forest Department. This forestland are protected from any further depletion.
(III) Unclassed forest: These are other forests and waste landsbelonging to both government and private individuals and communities.Reserved and protected forests are also referred to as permanentforest estates maintained for the purpose of producing timber andother forest produce, and for protective reasons.Madhya Pradesh has the largest area under permanent forests,constituting 75 per% of its total area. Jammu and Kashmir, AndhraPradesh. Uttaranchal, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, andMaharashtra have large percentages of reserved forests of its totalforests are there whereas Bihar, Haryana, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh,Orrisa and Rajasthan have a bulk of it under protected forests. AllNorth-eastern states and parts of Gujarat have a very highpercentage of their forests as un-classed forests managed by localcommunities.
Role Of Community InConservationMany local and traditional communities are living amidst forest areafor centuries with perfect understanding of the habitat. Over the yearsthey have evolved their over-conservation methods to protect wildlifeand plants. In some areas they are co-protecting and co-coordinating withgovt. official in this regard to secure their livelihood.In Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, villagers have fought against miningby citing the Wildlife Protection act. In many areas, villagers themselvesare protecting habitats and explicitly rejecting government involvement.The inhabitants of five villages in the Alwar district of Rajasthan havedeclared 1,200 hectares of forest as the Bhairodev Dakav ‘Sonchuri’,declaring their own set of rules and regulations which do not allowhunting, and are protecting the wildlife against any outsideencroachments.
In Uttaranchal state, deforestation has been a grim problemcausing lots of ecological imbalance, then came a local residentand conservationist called S.L. Bahuguna who started ChipkoMovement.It has been a successful community based afforestationprogramme. Attempts to revive the traditional conservationmethods or developing new methods of ecological farming arenow widespread. Farmers and citizens’ groups like Beej BachaoAndolan in Tehri and Navdanya have shown that adequatelevels of diversified crop production without the use ofsynthetic chemicals are possible and economically viable.
• In India joint forest management (JFM) programme furnishes agood example for involving local communities in the managementand restoration of degraded forests. The programme has been informal• existence since 1988 when the state of Orrisa passed the firstresolution for joint forest management.• JFM depends on the formation of local (village) institutions thatundertake protection activities mostly on degraded forest landmanaged by the forest department.• In return, the members of these communities are entitled tointermediary benefits like non-timber forest produces and share inthe timber harvested by ‘successful protection’. The clear lessonfrom the dynamics of both environmental destruction andreconstruction in India is that local communities everywhere haveto be involved in some kind of natural resource management.• But there is still a long way to go before local communities are atthe centre-stage in decision-making. Accept only those economic ordevelopmental activities, that are people centric, environment-friendly and economically rewarding.