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# DCA- Basic Fundamental, My computer, Desktop, History of computer

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### DCA- Basic Fundamental, My computer, Desktop, History of computer

1. 1. 2013 FundamentalDCA-T K I By- Ritesh Khetan Fundamental- DCA-T By- Ritesh Khetan E T KHETAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER EDUCATION & TALLY ACADEMY +91- 8349 333 666 RITESH KHETAN [Pick the date] RITESH KHETAN A-5/3, SECTOR-1, SHANKAR NAGAR, RAIPUR
2. 2. COMPUTER FUNDAMENTAL BY RITESH KHETAN- 8349 333 666 FUNDAMENTAL OF COMPUTER Computer = Compute + -er x.kud / la?kud = x.kuk + djus okyk What is a Computer? Computer is a machine capable of solving problems and manipulating data. It accepts data, processes the data by doing some mathematical and logical operations and gives us the desired output. The definition of computer can be traced under its name also: COMPUTER C- Common U- Used for O- Operating T- Trade/ technical M- Machine E- Educational and P- Particularly R- Research Let us begin with the word ‘compute’. It means ‘to calculate’. We all are familiar with calculations in our day today life. We apply mathematical operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, etc. and many other formulae for calculations. Simpler calculations take less time. But complex calculations take much longer time. Ex- 87819812822218 x 18218799218 Another factor is accuracy in calculations. So man explored with the idea to develop a machine which can perform this type of arithmetic calculation faster and with full accuracy. This gave birth to a device or machine called ‘computer’. The first recorded use of the word “computer” was in 1613 in a book called “The young men gleanings” by English writer Richard Braithwait. It referred to a person who carried out calculations, or computations, and the word continued with the same meaning until the middle of the 20th century. From the end of the 19th century the word began to take on its more familiar meaning, a machine that carries out computations The computer we see today is quite different from the one made in the beginning. The number of applications of a computer has increased, the speed and accuracy of calculation has increased. You must appreciate the impact of computers in our day to day life. Reservation of tickets in Air Lines and Railways, payment of telephone and electricity bills, deposits and withdrawals of money from banks, business data processing, medical diagnosis, weather forecasting, etc. are some of the areas where computer has become extremely useful. However, there is one limitation of the computer. Human beings do calculations on their own. But computer is a dumb machine and it has to be given proper instructions to carry out its calculation. Before we go ahead we must know the journey of computer. I must say you will find it a bit interest. So let’s ride in History.
3. 3. COMPUTER FUNDAMENTAL BY RITESH KHETAN- 8349 333 666 History of computer could be traced back to the effort of man to count large numbers. This process of counting of large numbers generated various systems of numeration like Babylonian system of numeration, Greek system of numeration, Roman system of numeration and Indian system of numeration. Out of these the Indian system of numeration has been accepted universally. It is the basis of modern decimal system of numeration (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9). You should know computer solves all calculations based on decimal system. But you will be surprised to know that the computer does not understand the decimal system and uses binary system of numeration for processing. We will briefly discuss some of the pathbreaking inventions in the field of computing devices. HISTORY OF COMPUTER Calculating Machines: ABACUS: The first calculating device called Sumerian ABACUS was developed by the Egyptian and Chinese people designed around 2500 B.C. The word ABACUS means calculating board. It consisted of sticks in horizontal positions on which were inserted sets of pebbles. A modern form of ABACUS is given in Fig. It has a number of horizontal bars each having ten beads. Horizontal bars represent units, tens, hundreds, etc. You may see this in slates of kids. Napier’s bones: English mathematician John Napier built a mechanical device for the purpose of multiplication in 1617 A D. The device was known as Napier’s bones. Slide Rule: English mathematician Edmund Gunter developed the slide rule. This machine could perform operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. It was widely used in Europe in 1620. It was also carried on five Apollo Space missions including the moon mission. Pascal's Adding and Subdirectory Machine: Pascaline or Pascal’s Calculator was invented by Mr. Blaise Pascal in 1642. Addition and subtraction were carried out by using a series of very light rotating wheels. His system is still used today in car odometers which track a car’s mileage. The machine consisted of wheels, gears and cylinders.
4. 4. COMPUTER FUNDAMENTAL BY RITESH KHETAN- 8349 333 666 Arithmometer: In 1851, Thomas de clomar released Arithmometer it became the first commercial computing machine. As it was reliable enough for daily office environment. Leibniz’s Multiplication and Dividing Machine: The German philosopher and mathematician Gottfried Leibniz built around 1673 a mechanical device that could both multiply and divide. Babbage’s Analytical Engine: It was in the year 1823 that a famous English man Charles Babbage built a mechanical machine to do complex mathematical calculations. It was called difference engine. Later he developed a general-purpose calculating machine called analytical engine. You should know that Charles Babbage is called The Father of Computer. Why? Because he changed the basic concept of computer. Because Babbage was so far ahead of the times that the technology was not in place to manufacture the parts for his machine so he was only able to build a small model. The same was actually built by his son Henry Babbage & 1888 named The Mill. The first successful demonstration of the same was given in 1906. Mechanical and Electrical Calculator: In the beginning of 19th century the mechanical calculator was developed to perform all sorts of mathematical calculations. Up to the 1960s it was widely used. Later the rotating part of mechanical calculator was replaced by electric motor. So it was called the electrical calculator. The history doesn’t end here. Actually after the analytical engine computer took a rapid change. Now we have a completely different computer with us. Today we have computer everywhere. As mentioned in the introduction it can do arithmetic calculations faster. But as you will see later it does much more than that. It can be compared to a magic box, which serves different purpose to different people. For a common man computer is simply a calculator, which works automatic and quite fast. For a person who knows much about it. Therefore, we may define computer as a device that transforms data. Data can be anything like marks obtained by you in various subjects. It can also be name, age, sex, weight, height, etc. of all the students in your class or income, savings, investments, etc., of a country. Computer can be defined in terms of its functions. It can i) accept data ii) store data, iii) process data as desired, and iv) retrieve the stored data as and when required v) print the result in desired format. You will know more about these functions as.
5. 5. COMPUTER FUNDAMENTAL BY RITESH KHETAN- 8349 333 666 CHARACTERISTICS OF A COMPUTER Let us identify the major characteristics of computer. These can be discussed under the headings of speed, accuracy, diligence, versatility and memory. Speed: As you know computer can work very fast. It takes only few seconds for calculations that we take hours to Complete. Suppose you are asked to calculate the average monthly income of one thousand persons in your Neighborhood. For this you have to add income from all sources for all persons on a day to day basis and find out the average for each one of them. How long will it take for you to do this? One day, two days or one week? Do you know your small computer can finish this work in few seconds? The weather forecasting that you see every day on TV is the results of compilation and analysis of huge amount of data on temperature, humidity, pressure, etc. of various places on computers. It takes few minutes for the computer to process this huge amount of data and give the result. You will be surprised to know that computer can perform millions (1,000,000) of instructions and even more per second. Therefore, we determine the speed of computer in terms of microsecond (10-6 part of a second) or nano-second (10-9 part of a second). From this you can imagine how fast your computer performs work. Accuracy: Suppose someone calculates faster but commits a lot of errors in computing. Such result is useless. There is another aspect. Suppose you want to divide 15 by 7. You may work out up to 2 decimal places and say the Dividend is 2.14. I may calculate up to 4 decimal places and say that the result is 2.1428. Someone else may go up to 9 decimal places and say the result is 2.142857143. Hence, in addition to speed, the computer should have accuracy or correctness in computing. The degree of accuracy of computer is very high and every calculation is performed with the same accuracy. The accuracy level is determined on the basis of design of computer. The errors in computer are due to human and inaccurate data. Diligence: A computer is free from tiredness, lack of concentration, fatigue, etc. It can work for hours without creating any error. If millions of calculations are to be performed, a computer will perform every calculation with the same accuracy. Due to this capability it overpowers human being in routine type of work. Versatility: It means the capacity to perform completely different type of work. You may use your computer to prepare payroll slips. Next moment you may use it for inventory management or to prepare electric bills and if you are getting boar just play games on your computer on different screen or listen songs simultaneously with your work. No Feeling: It does not have feelings or emotion, taste, knowledge and experience. Thus it does not get tired even after long hours of work. It does not distinguish between users.
6. 6. COMPUTER FUNDAMENTAL BY RITESH KHETAN- 8349 333 666 Power of Remembering: Computer has the power of storing any amount of information or data. Any information can be stored and recalled as long as you require it, for any numbers of years. It depends entirely upon you how much data you want to store in a computer and when to lose or retrieve these data. No IQ: Computer is a dumb machine and it cannot do any work without instruction from the user. It performs the instruction at tremendous speed and with accuracy. It is you to decide what you want to do and in what sequence. So a computer cannot take its own decision as you can. Storage: The Computer has an in-built memory where it can store a large amount of data. You can also store data in secondary storage devices such as floppies, which can be kept outside your computer and can be carried to other computers. GENERATIONS OF COMPUTER FIRST GENERATION (1951-1958) You know that the evolution of computer started from 16th century and resulted in the form that we see today. The present day computer, however, has also undergone rapid change during the last fifty years. This period, during which the evolution of computer took place, can be divided into five distinct phases known as Generations of Computers. Each phase is distinguished from others on the basis of the type of switching circuits used. First Generation Computers First generation computers used Thermion valves. These computers were large in size and writing programs on them was difficult. Some of the computers of this generation were: ENIAC: It was the first electronic computer built in 1946 at University of Pennsylvania, USA by John Eckert and John Mauchy. It was named Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC). The ENIAC was 30_ 50 feet long, weighed 30 tons, contained 18,000 vacuum tubes, 70,000 registers 10,000 capacitors and required 150,000 watts of electricity. Today your favorite computer is many times as powerful as ENIAC, still size is very small. EDVAC: It stands for Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer and was developed in 1950. The concept of storing data and instructions inside the computer was introduced here. This allowed much faster operation since the computer had rapid access to both data and instructions. The other advantages of storing instruction were that computer could do logical decision internally. Other Important Computers of First Generation: EDSAC: It stands for Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computer and was developed by M.V. Wilkes at Cambridge University in 1949.
7. 7. COMPUTER FUNDAMENTAL BY RITESH KHETAN- 8349 333 666 UNIVAC-1: Ecker and Mauchly produced it in 1951 by Universal Accounting Computer setup. Limitations of First Generation Computer: Followings are the major drawbacks of First generation computers. 1. The operating speed was quite slow. 2. Power consumption was very high. 3. It required large space for installation. 4. The programming capability was quite low. SECOND GENERATION COMPUTERS (1959-1964) Around 1955 a device called Transistor replaced the bulky electric tubes in the first generation computer. Transistors are smaller than electric tubes and have higher operating speed. They have no filament and require no heating. Manufacturing cost was also very low. Thus the size of the computer got reduced considerably. It is in the second generation that the concept of Central Processing Unit (CPU), memory, programming language and input and output units were developed. The programming languages such as COBOL, FORTRAN were developed during this period. Some of the computers of the Second Generation were 1. IBM 1620: Its size was smaller as compared to First Generation computers and mostly used for scientific purpose. 2. IBM 1401: Its size was small to medium and used for business applications. 3. CDC 3600: Its size was large and is used for scientific purposes. THIRD GENERATION COMPUTERS (1965-1970) The third generation computers were introduced in 1964. They used Integrated Circuits (ICs). These ICs are popularly known as Chips. A single IC has many transistors, registers and capacitors built on a single thin slice of silicon. So it is quite obvious that the size of the computer got further reduced. Some of the computers developed during this period were IBM-360, ICL-1900, IBM-370, and VAX-750. Higher level language such as BASIC (Beginners All purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) was developed during this period. Computers of this generation were small in size, low cost, large memory and processing speed is very high. FOURTH GENERATION COMPUTERS (1970- ONWARDS) The present day computers that you see today are the fourth generation computers that started around 1975. It uses large scale Integrated Circuits (LSIC) built on a single silicon chip called microprocessors. Due to the development of microprocessor it is possible to place computer’s central processing unit (CPU) on single chip. These computers are called microcomputers. Later very large scale Integrated Circuits (VLSIC) replaced LSICs. Thus the computer which was occupying a very large room in earlier days can now be placed on a table. The personal computer (PC) that you see in your school is a Fourth Generation Computer.
8. 8. COMPUTER FUNDAMENTAL BY RITESH KHETAN- 8349 333 666 FIFTH GENERATION COMPUTER (PRESENT AND BEYOND) ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE The computers of 1990s are said to be Fifth Generation computers. The speed is extremely high in fifth generation computer. Apart from this it can perform parallel processing. The concept of Artificial intelligence has been introduced to allow the computer to take its own decision. It is still in a developmental stage. BASIC COMPUTER OPERATION A computer performs basically five major operations or functions irrespective of their size and make. These are 1) it accepts data or instructions by way of input, 2) it stores data, 3) it can process data as required by the user, 4) it gives results in the form of output, and 5) it controls all operations inside a computer. We discuss below each of these operations. 1. Input: This is the process of entering data and programs in to the computer system. You should know that Computer is an electronic machine like any other machine which takes as inputs raw data and performs some Processing giving out processed data. Therefore, the input unit takes data from us to the computer in an organized manner for processing. 2. Storage: The process of saving data and instructions permanently is known as storage. Data has to be fed into the system before the actual processing starts. It is because the processing speed of Central Processing Unit (CPU) is so fast that the data has to be provided to CPU with the same speed. Therefore the data is first stored in the storage unit for faster access and processing. This storage unit or the primary storage of the computer system is designed to do the above functionality. It provides space for storing data and instructions. The storage unit performs the following major functions: • All data and instructions are stored here before and after processing. • Intermediate results of processing are also stored here. 3. Processing: The task of performing operations like arithmetic and logical operations is called processing. The Central Processing Unit (CPU) takes data and instructions from the storage unit and makes all sorts of calculations based on the instructions given and the type of data provided. It is then sent back to the storage unit. 4. Output: This is the process of producing results from the data for getting useful information. Similarly the output produced by the computer after processing must also be kept somewhere inside the computer before being given to you in human readable form. Again the output is also stored inside the computer for further processing. 5. Control: The manner how instructions are executed and the above operations are performed. Controlling of all operations like input, processing and output are performed by control unit. It takes care of step by step processing of all operations inside the computer.
9. 9. COMPUTER FUNDAMENTAL BY RITESH KHETAN- 8349 333 666 TYPES OF COMPUTERS When most people hear the word "computer" they think of a personal computer such as a desktop or laptop computer. However, computers come in many shapes and sizes, and they perform many different functions in our daily lives. When you withdraw cash from an ATM, scan groceries at the store, or use a calculator, you're using a type of computer. Desktop Computers Many people use desktop computers at work, home, school, or the library. They can be small, medium, or large in style, and usually sit on a desk. Once you add a monitor, mouse, and a keyboard, you have what is typically known as a desktop computer. Most desktop computers are easy to upgrade and expand, or add new parts. Another benefit of desktop computers is the cost. If you compare a desktop and a laptop with the same features, you will most likely find that the desktop computer is priced lower. Some desktop computers have a built-in monitor to save space. These are often called all-in-one desktop computers. Laptop Computers The second type of computer that you may be familiar with is a laptop computer or laptops as they are often referred to. Laptops are battery or AC-powered personal computers that are more portable than desktop computers, allowing you to use them almost anywhere. Since a laptop is smaller than a desktop, it's more difficult to access the internal components. That means you may not be able to upgrade them as much as a desktop. However, it's usually possible to add more RAM or a bigger hard drive. A laptop computer is sometimes called a notebook computer because of its size. Servers A server is a computer that "serves up" information to other computers on a network. Many businesses have file servers that employees can use to store and share files. A server can look like a regular desktop computer, or it can be much larger. Servers also play an important role in making the internet work: they are where web pages are stored. When you use your browser to click a link, a web server delivers the page you requested. Other Types of Computers Today, there lots of everyday devices that is basically specialized computers, even though we don't always think of them as computers. Here are a few common examples:  Tablet Computers: These use a touch-sensitive screen for typing and navigation. Since they don't require a keyboard or mouse, tablet computers are even more portable than laptops. The i Pad is an example of a tablet computer. Mobile Phones: Many mobile phones can do a lot of things a computer can do, such as browsing the internet or playing games. These phones are often called smartphones. Ex- Samsung Galaxy series.
11. 11. COMPUTER FUNDAMENTAL BY RITESH KHETAN- 8349 333 666 PARTS OF A COMPUTER The basic parts of a desktop computer are the computer case, monitor, keyboard, mouse, and power cord. Each part plays an important role whenever you use a computer. Central Processing Unit Case The computer case is the metal and plastic box that contains the main components of the computer. Sometimes it is also called Cabinet or System Unit. It houses the motherboard, central processing unit (CPU), the power supply, and more. Computer cases come in different shapes and sizes. A desktop case lies flat on a desk, and the monitor usually sits on top of it. A tower case is tall and sits next to the monitor or on the floor. The front of the case usually has an on/off switch, Audio Jack, USB (Universal Serial Bus) Ports, Microphone Jack, DVD/CD player etc. Most of the personal computers you can purchase today include tower cases, rather than desktop cases; however, some computers are being made with all of the internal components built into the monitor, which completely eliminates the tower duly known as All – in – One Computers. Back of Computer Case On the back of the computer case are connection ports that are made to fit specific devices. That varies from computer to computer, and many companies have their own special connectors for the specific devices. Some of the ports may be color coded to match a color on the device, which will help you determine which port is used with a particular device Mother Board Mother board sometimes alternatively known as the main board, system board, planar board or logic board. It holds many of the crucial electronic components of the system, such as the central processing unit (CPU) and memory, and provides connectors for other peripherals. A motherboard contains significant sub-systems such as the processor and other components. This board is the "mother" of all components attached to it, which often include sound cards, video cards, network cards, hard drives, or other forms of persistent storage.
12. 12. COMPUTER FUNDAMENTAL BY RITESH KHETAN- 8349 333 666 Central Processing Unit A central processing unit (CPU), also referred to as a central processor unit, is the hardware within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetical, logical, and input/output operations of the system. The term has been in use in the computer industry at least since the early 1960s. Two typical components of a CPU are the arithmetic logic unit (ALU) and the control unit (CU), Short for Arithmetic Logic Unit, ALU is one of the many components within a computer processor. The ALU performs mathematical, logical, and decision operations in a computer and is the final processing performed by the processor. After the information has been processed by the ALU, it is sent to the computer memory. In some computer processors, the ALU is divided into two distinct parts, the AU and the LU. The AU performs the arithmetic operations and the LU performs the logical operations. Speed of a CPU is measured in GHz (Giga hertz). Speed of a computer depends on the speed of its CPU. Generally speed of an Intel Pentium Chips may be between 500 MHz and 933 MHz, 10GHz, 2.0GHz, 3.0GHz or more. Memory Memory is also a main component of a computer. Memory is a place to store Data, instructions and information temporarily. This is also known as Primary Storage. It is made of chips and attached with any circuit of mother board. Random Access Memory (RAM) It is also referred to Primary Memory of Computer. RAM contains Memory Chips which is read through processor. When a computer is started the information or file are transferred to RAM and remains till you use it. Some other program and Data also load during the process on RAM. Until the data is not removed processor
13. 13. COMPUTER FUNDAMENTAL BY RITESH KHETAN- 8349 333 666 analyzes it. Depending on capacity of RAM you can run many programs simultaneously among them the program you use get visible on screen. Most of the RAM is Temporary. As soon as you shut down your computer they loss their contents. This is why we need to save any file in any of the drives of computer. Saving is the process used for copy the contents of RAM in any Hard disk. Size of a RAM is measured in GB (Giga Byte) Read Only Memory (ROM) ROM is a storage media which is used in computer and other electronic machines. Data in ROM cannot be modified or can be modified slowly or very difficultly. It is stable and don’t loss its components when computer is shut down. Chip of ROM contains permanent Data, instructions and information. For example, it contains Input/Output system with series of instructions, by which operation system and other files load on starting of computer. ROM Chip contains data for booting also. Expansion Slots or Cards Expansion slot is a circuit which is used to fix Circuit board in Mother Board. The circuit board is useful to expand the capacity of computer and adding some new equipment. Ports Ports is a connector point attached in rare side of Case. External devices like Monitor, Mouse, Printer, Keyboard etc are attached with system unit by using this ports only. Power Supply (SMPS) Power supply converts A.C. to D.C. Power of a SMPS is measured in Watts. An average computer uses about 250 watts. It contains a fan also which is controls the temperature of CPU. Monitor CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) TFT (Thin Film Tube) LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) LED (Light Emitting Diode)
14. 14. COMPUTER FUNDAMENTAL BY RITESH KHETAN- 8349 333 666 UPS (Uninterruptable Power Supply) Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS), acts as a surge protector and also provides temporary power if there is a power cut. UPS is not like inverter it is gives a backup power to complete the running work and shut it down. The front of UPS contains 3 mini bulbs (Power, charging & emergency) & an on/off switch. In the rear side it contains sockets for screen, CPU etc. The world's largest UPS, the 46 MW, Battery Electric Storage System (BESS), in Fairbanks, Alaska, powers the entire city and nearby rural communities during outages. Keyboard The keyboard is one of the primary ways we communicate with the computer and enter data. There are many different types of computer keyboards such as wired, wireless, multimedia, and more. Although there may be differences in the location of some keys or features, keyboards are very similar and allow you to accomplish basically the same tasks. Mouse Mouse is a pointing device. It lets you point to objects on the screen, click on them, and move them. Traditionally, a mouse connects to the computer using a USB or PS/2 connection. However, you can also buy a wireless mouse, which works using Bluetooth. Touch Pad Track Ball Mouse Optical Mouse
15. 15. COMPUTER FUNDAMENTAL BY RITESH KHETAN- 8349 333 666 Challenge!  Think about the desktop computers you've seen at work, school, the library, a store, or a friend's house. What did they look like? Were they all-in-one, or did they have a separate tower?  Review the Parts of the Keyboard interactive of this lesson. Are there any keys that you haven't used before?  If you're using a mouse, flip it over to see whether it's optical or mechanical.  Is your monitor LCD, LED, or CRT?  If your monitor has control buttons, try adjusting the brightness and contrast. TYPES OF COMPUTER Now let us discuss the varieties of computers according to their processor. Although they belong to the fifth generation they can be divided into different categories depending upon the size, efficiency, memory and number of users. Broadly they can be divided it to the following categories. 1. Microcomputer: Microcomputer is at the lowest end of the computer range in terms of speed and storage capacity. The microcomputers are built of 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit chips microprocessor chips. Microcomputers are computers that have a microprocessor as a CPU and are often personal computers. 2. Mini Computer: A computer of medium power, more than a microcomputer but less than a mainframe. It supports more than one user at a time as 4 to 200 users simultaneously. The mini computer is used in multi-user system in which various users can work at the same time. It possesses large storage capacity and operates at a higher speed. They are also used as servers in Local Area Networks (LAN). 3. Mainframes: A large digital computer serving 100 or sometimes thousands of users and occupying a special air-conditioned room. In some ways, mainframes are more powerful than supercomputers because they support more simultaneous programs. But supercomputers can execute a single program faster than a mainframe. Mainframes use proprietary operating systems, most of which are based on Unix, and a growing number on Linux. Mainframes are so called because the earliest ones were housed in large metal frames. Example of mainframes are DEC, ICL and IBM 3000 series. 4. Supercomputer: The fastest type of computer. Supercomputers are very expensive and are employed for specialized applications that require immense amounts of mathematical calculations. For example, weather forecasting requires a supercomputer. One of the ways in which supercomputers are built is by interconnecting hundreds of microprocessors other uses of supercomputers include animated graphics, fluid dynamic calculations, nuclear energy research, and petroleum exploration. Examples of supercomputers are CRAY YMP, CRAY2, NEC SX-3, CRAY XMP and PARAM from India. China’s Tianhe-2 is the Fastest super computer in the world
16. 16. COMPUTER FUNDAMENTAL BY RITESH KHETAN- 8349 333 666 HARDWARE & SOFTWARE All types of computers consist of two basic parts:  Hardware is any part of your computer that has a physical structure or a device that you can touch and feel. Ex- Mouse, Keyboard, Motherboard etc.  Software is any set of instructions that tells the hardware what to do. It is what guides the hardware and tells it how to accomplish each task. Some examples of software are web browsers, games, and word processors such as Microsoft Word. Ex- Microsoft Word, Operating systems A computer uses basically 4 types of software: 1. System Software: System software co-ordinate between Users, applications software and Hardware storage devices (i.e. Communication, Printers, Readers, Displays, Keyboard) of computer. 2. Application Software: Helps user in doing computer related one or more works. This special Application consist Office automation Software, Business Software, Medical Software, Databases, Computer Games etc. Ex- Tally etc 3. Programming Software: This is used to program new software. It provides tools for computer programs and software write for programmer. These tools consist of Text Editor, Compilers, Interpreters, Linkers, Debuggers and many other tools.
19. 19. COMPUTER FUNDAMENTAL BY RITESH KHETAN- 8349 333 666 INPUT / OUPUT DEVICES In this paper we will be discussing various input and output devices used with the computer. Also the paper discusses in detail the legacy form of input and output devices used to the latest devices that has revolutionized the way an end user interacts with the computer as well. INPUT DEVICES Introduction Input devices are hardware devices that are used to enter data into the computer. There are different types of input devices like:  Keyboard  Pointing devices- Mouse, Trackball, Touchpad, Joy stick  Scanner  Barcode Reader  Microphone  Optical Mark Reader  Magnetic strip Reader Graphics table  MIDI devices  Finger printer reader  Digital Camera etc. Keyboard A flat board with grids of buttons which are programmed to input characters into the computer. Keyboards can be classified into different categories based on their layout, connection type, form factor etc. The most common keyboard layout is QWERTY which has been adopted from the typewriter. A standard keyboard includes about 100 keys, each of which sends a different signal to the CPU. It is connected to the computer through a PS/2 or an USB port. Wireless keyboards use wireless technologies to communicate. Most commonly used technologies are: Infrared, Radio frequencies and Bluetooth Touch screen Touch screens are touch sensitive displays which can detect location of touches within the touch sensitive display. There are three basic systems that are used to recognize a person's touch:  Resistive  Capacitive  Surface acoustic wave
21. 21. COMPUTER FUNDAMENTAL BY RITESH KHETAN- 8349 333 666 Output Devices Printer Computer printer is used to get hard copy of any document stored in electronic form. There are three broad categories of printer: Dot matrix printer, Inkjet printer, Laser printer etc. Dot matrix printer: In dot matrix printer the print head with umpteen numbers of pins runs on page and prints by impact, striking an inked cloth ribbon against the paper, much like a typewriter. This is done by several tiny pins, aligned in a column, striking an ink ribbon positioned between the pins and the paper, creating dots on the paper. Example- Printers at Railway booking counter Inkjet printer: An inkjet printer is any printer that places extremely small droplets of ink onto paper to create an image. It is used for color printing & printing cost is high in compare to other printers like Laser. Ink cartridges - Depending on the manufacturer and model of the printer, ink cartridges come in various combinations, such as separate black and color cartridges, color and black in a single cartridge or even a cartridge for each ink color. The cartridges of some inkjet printers include the print head itself. Laser Printer: Laser printers are commonly used in offices for bulk printing. Because faster in terms of output and cost per page is cheap. These are best for Black printing. They have in built memory also. It can store incoming data stream in printer memory and process for printing. Many heavy-duty printers are network capable. Networked PCs can print directly from these printers without requiring the printer to be connected to any PC. These printers can also send, receive fax and make photocopies. Some printers also have Scanner, Fax and copier functions inbuilt. These are known as MFD or multi-functional devices also as per there working capability. 3D Printer: A 3D printer is a device that allows physical output of the digital material that has been drawn on the computer. This is the latest printing technology. Research is going on 3D printer technology. Projector A projector takes a video signal from computer video output and projects the corresponding image on a projection screen using a lens system. All video projectors use a very bright light to project the image. Video projectors are widely used for conference room presentations, classroom training, and home theatre applications Surface Computing
22. 22. COMPUTER FUNDAMENTAL BY RITESH KHETAN- 8349 333 666 Microsoft Surface Microsoft Surface is a touch-based graphical user interface. The system is composed of a horizontal touch screen under a coffee table-like surface, with cameras mounted below to detect the user interaction. All interface components such as dialogs, mouse pointer, and windows, are replaced with circles and rectangles outlining "objects" that are manipulated via drag and drop. GPS The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a constellation of 27 Earth-orbiting satellites developed and implemented by the U.S. Military. Global Positioning System satellites transmit signals to equipment on the ground. GPS receivers passively receive satellite signals; they do not transmit. GPS receivers require an unobstructed view of the sky, so they are used only outdoors and they often do not perform well within forested areas or near tall buildings. GPS operations depend on a very accurate time reference, which is provided by atomic clocks at the U.S. Naval Observatory. Each GPS satellite has atomic clocks on board. Eyeglass Eyeglass monitor projects a high resolution color video image that appears in the person's line of sight in a viewing angle comparable to a 72 inch monitor from 10 feet away. Optical techniques are used to present the image in distance focus. Most of the eyeglass and head-mounted displays can receive inputs from various sources. These displays are used for various purposes such as entertainment, medical, surveillance etc
23. 23. COMPUTER FUNDAMENTAL BY RITESH KHETAN- 8349 333 666 STORAGE DEVICE Alternatively referred to as storage, storage media, or storage medium, a storage device is a hardware device capable of holding information. There are two types storage devices used in computers; a primary storage device such as computer RAM and a secondary storage device such as a computer hard drive. The secondary storage could be a removable, internal, or external storage. Ex- Pen drive, Floppy Disk etc. When saving anything on the computer, you will be asked for the storage location, which is where you want to save the information. By default most of the information you save will be saved to your computer hard drive, however, if you want to move the information to another computer you would want to save it to a removable storage device such as a Jump drive. Without a storage device, you and your computer would not be able to save any settings or information and would be considered a dumb terminal. Below, are some additional examples of storage devices that are used with a computer. Tip: Keep in mind that although these drives do send and receive information, they are not considered an input or output device. Floppy Disk A Floppy Disk, or FDD or FD for short, is a computer disk that enables a user to save data to removable diskettes. Floppy disk runs through Floppy Disk drive. 8" disk drives were first made available in 1971, the first real disk drives used were the 5 1/4" floppy disk drives, which were later replaced with 3 1/2" floppy disk drives. Today, because of the limited capacity and reliability of floppy diskettes many computers no longer come equipped with floppy disk drives and are being replaced with CD-R, other writable discs, and flash drives. Compact Disc Known by its abbreviation, CD, a compact disc is a polycarbonate with one or more metal layers capable of storing digital information. The most prevalent types of compact discs are those used by the music industry to store digital recordings and CD-ROMs used to store computer data. Both of these types of compact disc are read-only, which means that once the data has been recorded onto them, they can only be read, or played. CD-Rs are a low cost solution for backing up software. Each CD-R often only costs a few bucks (around Rs.10) and are capable of holding up to 650 MB (74 minutes of music) or 700MB (80 minutes of music). Although these are still a very popular solution for backing up data, more users are turning to USB thumb drives to backup and transfer their data.
24. 24. COMPUTER FUNDAMENTAL BY RITESH KHETAN- 8349 333 666 Recordable DVD drives Alternatively referred to as a DVD writer, recordable DVD drives are disc drives capable of creating DVD discs. There are many different competing standards for creating DVD discs. For example, DVD-R- Digital Versatile Disc-Recordable DVD-RW- Digital Versatile Disc-Read/Write DVD+R- Digital Versatile Disc-Recordable DVD+R DL (DVD+R9)- Short for Digital Versatile Disc-Recordable Dual Layer. DVD-RAM - Short for Digital Versatile Disc-Random Access Memory Jump Drive Alternatively referred to as a USB flash drive, data stick, pen drive, keychain drive and thumb drive, a jump drive is a portable drive that is often the size of your thumb that connects to the computer USB port. Today, flash drives are available in sizes such as 256MB, 512MB, 1GB, 5GB, and 16GB, 32 GB and more and are an easy way to transfer and store information. Hard drive Alternatively referred to as a hard disk drive and abbreviated as HD or HDD, the hard drive is the computer's main storage media device that permanently stores all data on the computer. As per user convenient it can partitioned i.e. Disc (D), Disc (E) etc. The hard drive was first introduced on September 13, 1956 and consists of one or more hard drive platters inside of air sealed casing. Tape A magnetically thin coated piece, plastic wrapped around wheels capable of storing data. Tape is much less expensive than other storage mediums but commonly a much slower solution that is commonly used for backup. Today, tape has mostly been abandoned for faster and more reliable solutions like disc drives, hard drives, and flash drives.
25. 25. COMPUTER FUNDAMENTAL BY RITESH KHETAN- 8349 333 666 Typing Notes EXERCISE 1 asdfg ;lkjh asdfg ;lkjh asdfg ;lkjh asdfg ;lkjh asdfg ;lkjh asdfg ;lkjh asdfg ;lkjh asdfg ;lkjh asdfg ;lkjh asdfg ;lkjh asdfg ;lkjh asdfg ;lkjh asdfg ;lkjh asdfg ;lkjh asdfg ;lkjh asdfg ;lkjh asdfg ;lkjh asdfg ;lkjh EXERCISE 2 ASDFG ASDFG ASDFG ASDFG ;LKJH ;LKJH ;LKJH ;LKJH ASDFG ;LKJH ASDFG ;LKJH ASDFG ;LKJH ASDFG ;LKJH ASDFG ;LKJH ASDFG ;LKJH ASDFG ;LKJH ASDFG ;LKJH ASDFG ;LKJH ASDFG ;LKJH ASDFG ;LKJH ASDFG ;LKJH ASDFG ;LKJH ASDFG ;LKJH ASDFG ;LKJH ASDFG ;LKJH EXERCISE 3 Add As Ha Gas Hag Gola Gall Flash Glass Sad Ask Ass Fall Fad Fad Flag All Lad Lag Dash Data Gash Jag Gag Hall Hash Half Flask Agg Kala Lash Shall Shah Kaka Shad Dalal EXERCISE 4 Qwert poiuy qwert piouy qwert poiuy qwert poiuy qwert poiuy qwert poiuy Qwert poiuy qwert piouy qwert poiuy qwert poiuy qwert poiuy qwert poiuy Qwert poiuy qwert piouy qwert poiuy qwert poiuy qwert poiuy qwert poiuy EXERCISE 5 QWERT POIUY QWERT POIUY QWERT POIUY QWERT POIUY QWERT POIUY QWERT POIUY QWERT POIUY QWERT POIUY QWERT POIUY QWERT POIUY QWERT POIUY QWERT POIUY QWERT POIUY QWERT POIUY QWERT POIUY QWERT POIUY QWERT POIUY QWERT POIUY EXERCISE 6 TO Tie Too Tope Tot Toy Row Rat Out Pity Tri Porter Poor Tree True Pope Tour Rope Yellow Queen Towel Poppet Port Trip Queer Quite Rooty worry Roop Upper Root EXERCISE 7 zxcvb /.,mn zxcvb /.,mn zxcvbn /.,mn zxcvb /.,mn zxcvb /.,mn zxcvb /.,mn zxcvb /.,mn zxcvb /.,mn zxcvbn /.,mn zxcvb /.,mn zxcvb /.,mn zxcvb /.,mn zxcvb /.,mn zxcvb /.,mn zxcvbn /.,mn zxcvb /.,mn zxcvb /.,mn zxcvbn /.,mn EXERCISE 8 ZCVB ?><MN ZXCVB ?><MN ZXCVB ?><MN ZXCVB ?><MN ZCVB ?><MN ZCVB ?><MN ZCVB ?><MN ZXCVB ?><MN ZXCVB ?><MN ZXCVB ?><MN ZCVB ?><MN ZCVB ?><MN ZCVB ?><MN ZXCVB ?><MN ZXCVB ?><MN ZXCVB ?><MN ZCVB ?><MN ZCVB ?><MN
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28. 28. COMPUTER FUNDAMENTAL BY RITESH KHETAN- 8349 333 666 SHORTCUTS FOR WINDOWS SL. NO KEY COMBINATION ACTION DESCRIPTION 1 Alt + Tab Switch program To Jump between different open windows 2 F5 Refresh To Refresh 3 Window + M Minimize All To minimize all open screens 4 F3 Search To open file search 5 Alt + F4 > U Shut down To shut down (almost all window versions) 6 Window + E My Computer To open My Computer 7 Window + R Run To open the RUN option 8 Window > U > U Shut down To shut down your computer (Window XP only) 9 Window > U > R Restart To restart your computer (Window XP only) 10 Window + L Log off To log off your computer 11 Close the window To close selected 12 Alt + F4 Ctrl + Alt + Delete Lock computer To lock your computer 13 Shift + Delete Delete Permanently To delete any object/ file/ folder permanently from computer 14 Alt + Enter Properties Open the properties for the selected object 15 F1 Help To open Microsoft help 16 F2 Rename To rename any selected file