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A study to increase penetration level and brand loyalty among existing consumers of an organization
 

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Project MBA 4th sem Sikkim Manipal University

Project MBA 4th sem Sikkim Manipal University

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    A study to increase penetration level and brand loyalty among existing consumers of an organization A study to increase penetration level and brand loyalty among existing consumers of an organization Document Transcript

    • A Project Report on “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” Submitted by RITESH KHETAN ROLL NO- XXXXXXXXXX Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business Administration (MARKETING) Sikkim Manipal University, DE XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXX Session: FALL 2013
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” DECLARATION I, RITESH KHETAN, hereby declare that the project report entitled “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” is the record of authentic work carried by me during the academic year 2012-13 in SINGHAL INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES LTD. This project is the result of original research work carried by me and the same has not been previously submitted for any examination of this university or any other university. SIGNATURE Name: RITESH KHETAN Enrollment no: XXXXXXXXXX 2|P ag e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” BONAFIDE CERTIFICATION Certified that this project report titled “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” is the bonafide work of RITESH KHETAN who carried out the project work under my supervision. SIGNATURE SIGNATURE HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT SMU-DE Learning Centre, FACULTY INCHARGE SMU-DE Learning Centre, EXAMINERS CERTIFICATION 3|P ag e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” This is to certify that RITESH KHETAN student of MBA IV semester, Sikkim Manipal University, DE Learning Center, Platinum College, Aashirwad tower, Jaisthambh chowk, Raipur has submitted the project entitled Strategies for increasing the occupancy rate of the hotel for the partial fulfilment of the award of MBA IV semester and has completed this project in scheduled time. We approve the sincere work done on this project and project report. INTERNAL EXAMINER EXTERNAL EXAMINER ACKNOWLEDGEMENT During the course of this project, valuable assistance and guidance has been rendered to me by various persons. 4|P ag e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” I wish to record my thanks to all staff of M.B.A. Department for their assistance and co-operation, in particular, to as my guide for making all efforts in bringing out this paper expeditiously and in excellent form. I take this opportunity to express my sincerest thanks for their unstinting help and efforts in completing this project successfully. I sincerely thanks to my respondents who were given their precious time to fill the questionnaire which helped me to reach to the conclusions. (RITESH KHETAN) M.B.A. IVth sem. Roll No: XXXXXXXXXX Contents Chapter 1- Introduction. .................................................................... 6 5|P ag e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” Chapter 2- Aims and Objectives of the Study. .................................. 14 Chapter 3- Literature Review ........................................................... 19 Chapter 4- Methodology used Data Collection Method ................................ 23 Research Tools Used ..................................... 25 Sampling Methodology ................................. 27 Validity of Data ............................................. 37 Chapter 5- Data Analysis and Interpretation. .................................. 51 Chapter 6- Recommendations and Conclusion. ............................... 53 Chapter 7- Limitations of the Study ................................................. 59 Chapter 8 : Bibliography .................................................................. 62 Chapter 1- Introduction. 6|P ag e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” After the economic reforms of 1991-92, major fiscal incentives provide After the economic reforms of 1991-92, major fiscal incentives provided by the Government of India and the State Governments, like, liberalization of external trade, elimination of duties on imports of information technology products, relaxation of controls on both inward and outward investments and foreign exchange, setting up of Export Oriented Units (EOU), Software Technology Parks (STP), and Special Economic Zones (SEZ), has enabled India to flourish and acquire a dominant position in world’s IT scenario. In order to alleviate and to promote Indian IT industry, the Government of India had set up a National Task Force on IT and Software Development to examine the feasibility of strengthening the industry. Venture capital has been the main source of finance for software industry around the world. In line with the international practices, norms for the operations of venture capital funds have also been liberalized to boost the industry. 7|P ag e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” The Government of India is also actively providing fiscal incentives and liberalizing norms for FDI and raising capital abroad. While the underlying theme of 2010 was that of steady recovery from recession, thanks to the accelerated recovery in emerging markets, worldwide spending in IT products and services increased significantly in 2011. In 2011, India’s growth has reflected new demand for IT goods and services, with a major surge in the use of private and public cloud and mobile computing on a variety of devices and through a range of new software applications. High inflow of FDI in the IT sector is expected to continue in coming years. The inflow of huge volumes of FDI in the IT industry of India has not only boosted the industry but the entire Indian economy in recent years. Foreign direct investment (FDI) inflow rose by more than 100 per cent to US$ 4.66 billion in May 2011, up from US$ 2.21 billion a year ago, according to the latest data released by the Department of Industrial Policy and 8|P ag e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” Promotion (DIPP). This is the highest monthly inflow in 39 months. Foreign technology induction is also encouraged both through FDI and through foreign technology collaboration agreements. India welcomes investors in Information Technology sector. Greater transparency in policies and procedures has made India an investor friendly platform. A foreign company can hold equity in Indian company’s upto 100%. COMPANY PROFILE Singhal Information Technology Ltd. is a company eastablished to nurture the IT sector. Singhal is a company by dynamic industrial professionals. Head office of the company situated in A-530, Chirivali Complex, Borivali, Mumbai. The present case is about a leading IT company where the technology services division of SINGHAL Information Technology Ltd. is a global provider of consultancy, IT services, R & D, infrastructure outsourcing and business process services. Technology driven business solutions by SINGHAL Ltd. meet the strategic objectives of Fortune 1000 customers. With over 30 9|P ag e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” years in the Information Technology business, SINGHAL Ltd. is the world’s largest R & D outsourcing service provider and one of the pioneers in the remote delivery of software services. Key benchmark of the company includes end to end services, an adaptive, knowledge driven engagement model and an obsessive focus on quality in every aspect of service deliverer. At SINGHAL technologies knowledge management initiative has its roots in a quality assurance system that the company developed over a decade ago. Through this case we present the practice of KM initiative at SINGHAL Ltd. which strengthens individuals, teams, organizations and communities across the globe. What is impacting his business further is a drop in revenues from the hotel's restaurants and bars as people cut discretionary spending. For Le Meridien in Delhi, this June was one of the worst with occupancy dropping 15% over last year and average room rates falling 20%. The economic meltdown in India has left many hospitality players in Ahmedabad under declining occupancy rates, said a report in Business Standard. While major IT Industry have been banking on corporate meetings and business travellers in 10 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” Ahmedabad, the market gloom has instead pulled down occupancy rates in city. "There are no new corporate projects being announced in Gujarat in the recent times. Business travel has taken a hit in the state and to add to that, the hospitality industry is in the middle of an off-season till October," said Girish Ganeshan, General Manager, Hyatt Ahmedabad, the only other five star hotel in the city with 178 rooms which is running at a less than 50 per cent occupancy rate, stated the report. Similarly, Bhagwati Banquets and IT Industry, which has hotel properties in Ahmedabad, Surat and Rajkot, has seen an impact of around 15 per cent on its occupancy rates. "Corporates are on a cost cutting spree. Usually occupancy rates in the current period range around 55-60 per cent. However, there has been a severe drop in business as well as leisure travel due to economic gloom especially post rupee depreciation. This has impacted occupancy rates in the industry by around 10-15 per cent, which have now come down to 45 per cent," said Narendra Somani, Chairman & Managing Director, Bhagwati Banquets & IT Industry Limited. 11 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” With the USD 23 billion software services sector pushing the Indian economy skywards, more and more IT professionals are flocking to Indian metro cities. ‘ Hotel Industry in India’ is set to grow at 15% a year. This figure skyrocketed in 2010, when Delhi hosted the Commonwealth Games. Already, more than 50 international budget hotel chains are moving into India to stake their turf. WHY IS THIS PROBLEM SIGNIFICANT / NEED FOR THE STUDY If you don't use the correct figures in any problem the outcome will not be correct. Any of the wrong figures will throw off the true answer. This is true on any type of problem solving. Gather facts, use only facts to have a correct outcome. TOOLS / TECHNIQUES TO BE USED FOR DATA ANALYSIS: Data analysis techniques include univariate analysis (such as analysis of single-variable distributions), bivariate analysis, and more generally, multivariate analysis. Multivariate analysis, broadly speaking, refers to all statistical methods that simultaneously analyze multiple measurements on each individual or object under investigation (Hair et al., 1995); as such, many 12 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” multivariate techniques are extensions of univariate and bivariate analysis. The diagram presented below as Figure 4 proposes an approach to decide when a specific type of data analysis technique is appropriate. Each data analysis technique is later defined in the glossary (Section 7). 13 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” Chapter 2- Aims and Objectives of the Study. The research aims to achieve the following objectives: 1- Identifying the factors that affect hotel occupancy rates. 2- Analyzing the factors that affect hotel occupancy rates. 3- Classifying the affecting factors according to their importance. 4- Providing recommendations to assist employees in determining factors that affect the occupancy rates and suggesting some solutions. Research importance: IT Industry industry is one of the modern industries in Arab countries because hotel chains started paying more attention to it because, just like any other industry, it is subject to quality standards in service, efficiency and continued development to maintain a competitive status. This forces IT Industry to think seriously to exploit their full potential and absorption capacity due to the high completive activity of the market. Therefore, the research importance comes from the study and analysis of the most important factors that affect the occupancy rates in IT Industry which positively or 14 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” negatively affect IT Industry profitability rates in order to diagnose them and find appropriate solutions. The ISSPP utilized a multi-case study methodology that employed purposive sampling in selecting schools in each country. Study sites were selected using, whenever possible, evidence o student achievement that exceeded expectations on standardized tests, principals’ exemplary reputations, and other indicators of site-specific success. In other words, ‘successful’ principals were selected based on a range of evidence indicating that their schools had been successful under their leadership. Thus, the project rests upon an a priori and mainly circumstantial argument that if school improvement (however measured) had occurred during a principals’ term, s/he may have had some hand in making it possible. Our primary objectives were to determine, in each case, whether key participants – teachers, support staff, parents, students and the principals themselves – believed the principal had played a key role in a school’s success and, if so, what was it about principal traits, attitudes, beliefs, behavior which had made it happen. 15 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” Primary data were then gathered from interviews with each school’s principal, teachers, support staff, parents and students employing a common, semi-structured interview protocol developed specifically for the ISSPP and used in every case. Essentially, the interview protocols were derived from the four research projects described in the theoretical framework, focusing particularly on the four core leadership practices identified by Leithwood and Riehl (2005): 1) setting directions; 2) developing people; 3) redesigning the organization; and 4) managing the instructional program. About 20% of teachers were randomly selected for interviews, but parents and students were largely selected on a volunteer basis. For the purpose of triangulation, secondary data were also obtained from official school documents, minutes of meetings, press reports, historical sources and ethnographic notes made during visits by the research teams. Interviews were fully or partially transcribed, coded and then analyzed specifically in relation to the key questions noted above and more generally in terms of the theoretical framework. 16 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” Figure 4. Decision Tree for Choosing Best Form of Data Analysis It should be noted that when selecting a data analysis technique, a researcher should make sure that the assumptions related to the technique are satisfied (i.e., normal distribution, independence among observations, linearity, and lack of multi-collinearity between the independent variables, etc.). Structured Equation Modeling, SEM, can be applied as a preferred substitute for many of the techniques in the diagram, in some cases providing additional statistics and examinations. For a detailed discussion refer to Gefen, Straub, and Boudreau (2000) and to Gefen (2003). 17 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” EXPECTED RESULTS OF THE STUDY The project aims at improving the knowledge in the areas of sustainable development, natural resources exploitation, technology transfer and business regulation and administration. The project will support co-operation, mutual cross-fertilization including cultural integration, capacity building and know how exchange between institutions of higher education in a perspective of mutual interest. A preliminary stage of co-operation regards mobility, student exchanges double titles, and common research activities and mobility to be further enhanced in the short, medium and long term. Medium term results will be enhanced human capital skilled to cope with emerging social, economic and environmental issues. Teachers and students mobility in this project covers mainly technology and focused humanities. The participant institutions will review their curriculum designs in order to be able to recognise study and stages abroad, bringing new perspectives in existing curricula. 18 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” Chapter 3- Literature Review Peter Drucker defines KM as “the discipline of enabling individuals, teams and entire organizations to collectively and systematically capture, store, create, share and apply knowledge to better achieve their objectives (Young, 2008). Useful knowledge leads to better strategy, practices, methods and approach and answers the how and why questions. Bellinger, 2004 defines knowledge as the appropriate collection of information, so that its intent is useful to the users. This definition answers the questions as to who, what, how and why an organization will benefit from KM strategies. Knowledge can be categorized into two types: tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge (Marwick, 2001). Tacit knowledge can be defined as already known facts, experience, value and beliefs. Explicit knowledge is characterized by some type of artifact such as a codified document, manual or procedure and is easily disseminated (Stenmark, 2000). According to McNabb, KM is a blue print for innovation. 19 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” Effective management of organizational knowledge is believed to be linked with competitive advantage and is considered critical to the success of an organization (Nonaka, 1994; Spender and Grant,1996). O’Dell and Grayson (1998) define knowledge management as a conscious strategy of getting the right knowledge to the right people at the right time and helping people share and put information into action in ways that will strive to improve organizational performance. Whereas Beckman (1997) refers to KM as formalization of and access to experience, knowledge and expertise that create new capabilities, enable superior performance, encourage innovation and enhance customer value. Quintas et al., (1997) suggest that human resources, processes and IT are critical to KM. Holsapple and Joshi (2000) on the other hand, highlighted a range of factors that can influence the success of KM initiatives which include: culture (Leonard, 1995; Szulanski, 1996), technology (Anderson, 1996), leadership (Anderson, 1996), organizational adjustments (Szulanski, 1996) and employee motivation ((Szulanski, 1996). 20 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” According to the Ernst & Young Hospitality Investment Survey, which surveyed more than 300 investors and industry executives worldwide, capitalization rates for hotel properties are expected to stabilize and possibly even increase over the short-tomid-term in the US. Even with the dramatic shift in the debt markets over the last few months, hotel industry sector fundamentals continue to be strong. Hospitality Industry in India The history of the hotel industry is as old as the history of tourism and travel industry. In fact, both are two sides of the same coin. Both are complementary to each other. Hotel is an establishment which provides food, shelter and other amenities for comfort and convenience of the visitors with a view to make profit (Chakravarti, B.K). Hotel is a commercial establishment and intends to provide visitors with lodging, food and related services with a view to please them so as to build goodwill and to let them carry happy memories. Ernst & Young survey reveals likely targets for 21 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” hospitality investment in 2008. Brian Tress of Ernst & Young's Hospitality Advisory Services Group In general, a "hotel" is defined as a public establishment offering visitors against payment two basic services i.e. accommodation and catering (Ghosh, Biswanath). However, during the last few years great changes have taken place in the scope of hotel industry. During 6th century BC, IT Industry were known as "inns" or "dharamshalas" and were providing only food and overnight stay facilities. At that point of time the standard of an inn was quite normal with earth or stone floor, common bedroom and simple food. As travel became easier, inns grew in size and number. The spirit of competition raised the standard of inns. Industrial revolution and trade expansion resulted into increase in the number of visitors crossing international border. In this era, room furnishing and catering received greater attention. Emphasis was made on accommodation with spacious assembly hall and dinning hall for organising functions and parties etc. But the real growth of the modern IT Industry started in the last decade 22 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” Chapter 4- Methodology used Methodology means the total work criteria for the project and survery. This methodology consists of some extra topics as under Data Collection Method Data collection is the process of gathering and measuring information on variables of interest, in an established systematic fashion that enables one to answer stated research questions, test hypotheses, and evaluate outcomes. The data collection component of research is common to all fields of study including physical and social sciences, humanities, business, etc. While methods vary by discipline, the emphasis on ensuring accurate and honest collection remains the same. The aim of this study is to identify the critical factors that ensure the effectiveness of knowledge management (KM) initiatives before, during and after their implementation, within the context of Indian based IT company. Management of personnel within IT companies remains a complex and difficult issue. 23 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” Nevertheless, Indian IT organizations are increasingly becoming aware of the potential of the tacit knowledge held by their employees and the need to manage it (Carrillo and Chinowsky, 2006). Although employees play a vital role in ensuring the successfulness of an organization, the significance of employees-related practices in providing effective KM solutions within IT firms, particularly in relation to rewards and encouragement for KM has received a lack of coverage in the literature . This paper, therefore considers the impact of employees on KM initiatives at SINGHAL Ltd. 24 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” Research Tools Used The Average Daily Rate, or ADR, is a hospitality industry metric measuring the average amount paid per room over the total rooms occupied over that period. For example, if a hotel earned $100,000 in a year with 500 rooms occupied, its ADR would be $100,000/500 or $200. ADR excludes rooms used for "house" purposes (those occupied by hotel employees) and usually complimentary rooms, depending on the hotel. The ADR is useful to measure a property's financial performance, as well as to compare the hotel's performance to its competitors. However, ADR does not provide an adequate snapshot for a hotel's performance and should be used along with Occupancy and Revenue Per Available Room (RevPAR) to make a more accurate judgment on a hotel's performance. For example, a hotel may have a high ADR, but low occupancy rates, meaning that the hotel is not very profitable. Quantitative research is concerned with testing hypotheses derived from theory and/or being able to estimate the size of a phenomenon of interest. Depending on the research question, participants may be randomly assigned to different treatments. 25 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” If this is not feasible, the researcher may collect data on participant and situational characteristics in order to statistically control for their influence on the dependent, or outcome, variable. If the intent is to generalize from the research participants to a larger population, the researcher will employ probability sampling to select participants. Typical quantitative data gathering strategies include:  Direct occupancy observation.  Observing and recording well used instruments (e.g., counting the number of customers at specified times of the day).  Obtaining relevant data from management information systems.  26 | P a g e MBA Administering surveys with closed-ended questions RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” Sampling Methodology This research includes a review of KM literature, which provides an understanding of KM issues in general and different types of factors that determine KM initiative’s success in particular. The present research utilized ten qualitative interviews with KM Managers operating within the field of KM practices. The analysis of the interviews has resulted in the formulation of a number of key conclusions related to KM issues about SINGHAL Ltd. which takes a high-level view of the people-related KM issues. 1. Background SINGHAL Information Technology Ltd. was founded in 1945 and manufactured a variety of consumer and electronics products. In 1980, A Ltd. entered the information technology field. Based near Bangalore, India, SINGHAL Technologies now serves more than 300 clients including such companies as Cisco, Sony, IBM and Ericsson. About half of its work relates to regarding IT development in which SINGHAL helps companies to run their IT system and rest of the work relates to engineering involving the design of software products that their clients will use internally. 27 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” Over the last five years SINGHAL technologies has experienced impressive growth capitalization. in revenue, profitability and market SINGHAL growth is the result of single-minded focus on customer satisfaction, quality, developing people and providing innovative value for money knowledge-enabled software solutions. Once employees start understanding what was happening in their projects, they understood the process of acquiring knowledge and began using it to improve the quality. At SINGHAL, knowledge management initiatives are strategic and operational which has resulted for the company to acquire the capability of increasing productivity, relations and quality across the globe. 2. KM Journey at SINGHAL LTD. Faced with the new challenges, SINGHAL technologies has realized the fact that employees are the human capital and the only asset to meet the competitive edge on the global economy and renewed focus on human resource strategies that can ensure retention, commitment, as well as continued growth and effectiveness of the personnel. But question arises how can we enhance the effectiveness of employees? 28 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” The growth of international business has drawn increasing interest in knowledge management in the context of a revolutionary organizational change process because it is one of the most common phenomena in this universe. Therefore, it is not change which is new to business and industry, but it is the speed of change that is challenging for the contemporary skills of people to manage and adapt to changing environments not only efficiently but also effectively. It is essentially a matter of concern for the winning organizations to choose appropriate strategies not only for retaining talented people with them but also to create opportunities for enhancing the effectiveness of their workforce. KM initiative is one of the basic activities as well as one of the ultimate objectives in the efforts of organizations to maintain their existence. The reason for this is that through successful KM programme employees are more compatible, satisfied and productive, work with a sense of greater loyalty and responsibility to fulfill the requirements of clients. 29 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” Objectives The main objective of the Hotel Occupancy Survey is to ascertain the behaviour of a series of variables which allow us to describe the basic characteristics of the hotel sector. Statistical unit This statistic is monthly and the data refers to the activity carried out by the hotel establishments situated within the national territory. The population object of the study is constituted by all the hotel establishments existing within the national territory, registered as such in the corresponding Tourist Offices of the Autonomous Communities. 30 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” A hotel establishment is understood to beall units that render hotel accommodation services (hotel, apartment hotel, motel, hostel, B&B, boarding house, guest house), situated in the same geographic location and in which one or more persons work on behalf of the same company. Hotel establishments are classified according to their category, gold and silver, and within these by the number of stars. The category of the establishment is assigned by the Tourist Offices of the Autonomous Communities and varies from one autonomous community to another. Definitions A hotel establishment open for the season is understood to be that establishment in which the month of reference is included within its opening period. Estimated vacancies The number of vacancies estimated by the survey of the hotel establishments open for the season.The number of vacancies is equal to the number of fixed beds in the establishment. Extra 31 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” beds are not included and double beds are considered as two vacancies. Travellers All persons who stay for one or more consecutive nights in the same accommodation. Travellers are classified by their country of residence, and people residing in Spain are classified by the Autonomous Community they usually live in. The chapter is divided in two sections. The first section highlights some of the limitations of this research. The second section discusses few suggestions and directions for future research focusing on the subject matter for reducing the effect of the limitations. Average Stay This variable is an approximation to the number of days which, on average, the travellers stay at the establishments, and is calculated as the quotient between the overnight stays and the number of travellers. Level of occupancy by rooms 32 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” The ratio, as a percentage, between the average daily number of rooms occupied in the month and the total number of rooms available. Level of occupancy by vacancies Ratio, as a percentage, between the total number of overnight stays and the product of the vacancies, including extra beds, by the days the overnight stays refer to. Extra beds are those that do not have a fixed nature and are not included in the vacancies declared officially by the establishment but do appear in the directory. Estimates VARIABLES USED E = number of establishments open during the month, existing in the directory ET = number of establishments existing in the directory e = number of establishments that respond to the survey (incidents 1 and 2) e’ = number of establishments that answer the monthly survey (with incidents 1 and 2 in the monthly questionnaire) 33 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” c = number of sample establishments that are closed within their opening period (incident 3) c’ = number of establishments that are closed within their opening period (with incident 3 in the monthly questionnaire) P = number of vacancies according to the directory N’= number of supplementary vacancies used H = number of rooms according to the directory V = number of travellers checked in VM = number of travellers checked in during the whole month N = number of occupied vacancies (overnight stays) NM = number of occupied vacancies (overnight stays) during the whole month B = number of occupied rooms T = employed personnel AC = percentage of employed personnel dedicated to accommodation activities ES = average stay BD = number of occupied double rooms BI = number of occupied single rooms GP = level of occupancy by vacancies GH = level of occupancy by rooms D = number of days of the reference month (28, 29, 30, 31) 34 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” dm = number of days the establishment has been open during the reference month M = price of the room according to the different rates A = percentage of implementation of the different rates considering the total number of occupied rooms I1 = percentage of establishments that have a website / web page 16 I2 = percentage of establishments that use the Internet as a means to contract their services I3 = percentage of establishments that use the Internet to advertise their establishment I4 = percentage of occupied rooms booked using the Internet THE SUB INDICES USED ARE: I = establishment j = province K = category (5, 4, 3, 2, 1 gold: 3, 2 and 1 silver) m = modality (professional situation, place of residence, month, etc.) t= rate: 1 (normal), 2(weekend), 3 (tour operator), 4 (companies), 5 (groups), 6 (others) 35 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” The following two groups of estimates will be obtained: 1.- Estimators using the week: these will only be used for establishments with 1 and 2 gold stars, 1 and 2 silver stars and non-comprehensive categories in Galicia, for the dissemination and calculation of interannual rates. 2.- Estimators with monthly totals and with dm: calculated for all provinces with establishments with 3, 4 and 5 gold stars and comprehensive strata in 36 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” Validity of Data KM Journey of SINGHAL Information Technology Ltd. Implementation of KM initiatives is not an easy task at SINGHAL Ltd. It is a long journey in order to innovate faster, speed up response to workplace demands, customer demands that leads to increased productivity and workforce competence. At SINGHAL knowledge sharing is not only a simple exchange of information but it affects relationships and helps in establishing a culture of sharing and learning from each other. At SINGHAL KM implementation process starts with three phases: Pre-implementation Phase: This is an early phase in which the company diagnoses the areas for implementing content specification ( a way to manage documents and web content); areas for discussion are:  Cultural Analysis for Accepting change  Level of Knowledge examination among employees, units and different departments  Identification of most attractive users for collaboration capabilities  Identification of gaps in existing infrastructure  Analysis of various available and existing technologies. 37 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” Implementation Phase: Under this stage many portal systems incorporate content and document management, providing a way to manage documents and web content. It can include versioning, security, metadata searching and a host of other features while implementing all these contents, the organization work together in a number of areas. It is all about providing the infrastructure of software and collaboration of information/portals which enable employees to work together more effectively. Things which have to be remembered during implementation phase are:  Awareness creation and brand building  Knowledge architecture  Defining and establishing processes for KM  Designing and setting up the KM Portal 2.3. Post-Implementation Phase: After implementation of KM programme at SINGHAL a unique and collaborative environment is found where collaboration technology is integrated for the information to be gathered, organized, classified , accessed, presented and distributed. After implementation of KM process a unified system is 38 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” developed which not only improves project quality but also centralizes knowledge store house for workers. SINGHAL technologies is a global information technology company offering world-class solutions to its customers. The company launched a corporate knowledge strategy in September 2000. Earlier, it had started KM initiatives in isolated pocketsmainly for collaboration, re-use and knowledge sharing in smaller groups within the business units or projects teams. But in current scenario the process of creating, storing and sharing information has continued to grow in the company. SINGHAL started a Knowledge Net (KNET), a Web portal solution using Microsoft® Windows® SharePoint® Services and Microsoft Office SharePoint, Portal Server, unique share point for its document repository, to collate the knowledge gained by its employees so that other employees could access this information easily. Company provides a unified repository of various knowledge artifacts to every department. Another goal is to make it easy to search for and find people with the right knowledge and domain expertise. KNET became an easy-to-access repository for all documents, processes and knowledge artifacts generated by company employees. The portal has helped to reduce time-to- 39 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” market, increase efficiency, and improve collaboration among employees. SINGHAL technologies use KNET portal to create, store and share knowledge. KNET connects people to people, people to content, and people to the organization through the collaboration of individuals, workgroups, and business lines. Effective knowledge management system provides new and innovative processes daily and weekly that make the employees and the organization continuously learning and innovative. KNET is made up of five sub portals and together, these portals are the repositories for all forms of SINGHAL content. Employees have two responsibilities toward KNET: use and contribute: these are 2.3.1. DocKNet : DocKNet is a comprehensive document portal that contains knowledge artifacts relevant to all employees. DocKNet pertains to one of the most convenient ways to communicate containing general and technical information that is accessible to all employees. 2.3.2. KoNnEcT: KoNnEcT is a directory of employees who are experts in various technologies. If someone needs the services of 40 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” an expert in any technology one can go to KoNnEcT, find an expert and post a query to that person. If an expert isn’t found, the query is sent in an email message to the entire company. Replies are captured in a database for future reference. 2.3.3. KNetworks: KNetworks are online discussion forums designed to enable employees to discuss or exchange information on a particular project or technology. Any employee can start a new query or participate in existing discussions. 2.3.4. Reusable Components: Reusable Components is a highvalue portal, which helps users save a significant amount of time in all aspects of work. Its mission is to help “stop reinventing the wheel.” Within this portal, employees can find items such as ready-to-use templates, best practices, reusable code, tools, and methodologies. The goal of this portal is to minimize time-to market and create corresponding cost savings to their clients. 2.3.5. War Rooms: These virtual workplaces are used for timebound and task-oriented activities like proposal preparation, framework conceptualization etc. It is an invitation-only area and is used for large-scale projects. 41 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” 3. Knowledge Management as a Strategy SINGHAL Ltd. launched a corporate knowledge strategy in September 2000 which enabled individuals, teams and entire organizations to collectively and systematically capture, store, create, share and apply knowledge to better achieve their objectives. One of the main drivers behind an organization-wide knowledge strategy was that SINGHAL Ltd. grew rapidly During its growth period company realized to fulfil the requirements of their project customers demanding shorter time and more information to complete their projects effectively. Through information and knowledge, employees can easily avail much information on KNET and their sub portals which enable employees to deliver accurate information to their clients and in turn deliver cost savings projects to them. Company identified some key drivers for KM and business excellence. These are: 3.1. Organizational values and culture: 42 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” Since its inception, SINGHAL, with its open culture, has believed in cultivating knowledge and expanding its business. Therefore, it has become all the more critical to get knowledge intensive and implement an enterprise wide KM system. SINGHAL has evolved a framework in accordance with its needs to achieve its business vision. It has been designed to build on the existing efforts in the organization and enhance the culture of knowledge sharing and utilization of the most important requisite to build and sustain a KM system, is culture and organizational values. It also requires a strong leadership to bring in cultural changes, set the right direction, and continuously monitor progress. At SINGHAL Ltd. organizational values and culture help in building a competency based knowledge driven organization which further helps in creating new business opportunities. The company has three main drivers for knowledge management framework. First is learning (people build their competency using a mix of tools and processes like E-learning, competency assessment and competency development), second is ‘KEEP’ (knowledge extraction, enhancement and practice). It has four pillars taxonomy (a uniform structure through which knowledge 43 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” can be stored and accessed) IT enablers, practice based offering and knowledge channels. Third and last driver is CARE (Competency Augmentation through Research and Excellence) through which the company leverages expertise knowledge to build up the organization for innovative products and services. 1.2. KM vision and strategy “To be an organization where knowledge capturing and sharing is the way we work, offering customers speed-to-deploy as well as innovative products and services focused on their needs and offering employees an environment of continuous learning and productivity improvements.” At SINGHAL KM vision is broad and consists of 50 knowledge managers and knowledge executives who help in developing knowledge management process. These executives and managers build a KM team to capture the tacit knowledge of employees for bringing improvement in every field of the organization. This KM team provides a platform for the employees to learn from the explicit knowledge while developing a culture of sharing knowledge. 44 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” The Company has following three pillars for KM strategy: 1. Infrastructure (includes technologies, tools and applications). 2. Business Processes (through which the knowledge life cycle is managed). 3. Knowledge management Team (consist of knowledge managers, executives and knowledge workers including subject matter experts and authors, editors, reviewers and users). This KM strategy at SINGHAL Ltd. encompasses best practices for human resource development and organizational development. As per the opinion of the company managers; “Our first action is engagement, getting people to work on a project and derive a steady flow of knowledge from it. Secondly, we look at our effectiveness - are we using the knowledge and avoiding past mistakes. Finally, we distil this knowledge and use it as an edge for SINGHAL Technologies.” They believe that the company is just moving into the third stage and has not yet achieved the full benefits that this edge will provide. Moving aggressively to excel in product quality, business processes and staff development, SINGHAL Technologies has 45 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” established a comprehensive and effective knowledge management program and begins to share its knowledge management expertise with clients who want to develop and benefit from their own knowledge management programs. This unified framework has helped build a cohesive knowledge base across the company and accessible to the entire user community in SINGHAL Ltd. The company has started offering its collaboration and knowledge management solutions and expertise to global corporate enterprises by providing end-to-end collaboration and knowledge management services including KM application development for knowledge portals, expertise management systems, knowledge repositories and executive dashboards through a unique blend of domain knowledge, technology expertise and process excellence. 4. KM Measurements: SINGHAL KM framework continuously ensures the feedback of results into the system and allows system to focus on experience of user’s quality. For KM measurements, the company has four indices as KM contribution index, KM user’s index, engagement index and usage index. The entire indices collectively measure the number of users, level of usage, number of unique users as well as monitor the effectiveness of the whole programme. 46 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” SINGHAL Ltd. has received Information Today’s KM World-KM Reality Award. This award recognizes SINGHAL efforts in building and maintaining a successful corporate-wide knowledge management programme in 2012. Besides, SINGHAL Ltd. has also gained good recognition for its KM initiatives in various external communities like IIM Bangalore and presented ideas in national and international conferences. CONCLUSION SINGHAL identified the key business drivers for implementing KM tools and technologies which are the necessary to capture and leverage employees’ knowledge. Successful KM system increases the productivity and sustainability of the company while developing global knowledge sharing networks and relations. SINGHAL technologies provides effective creativity and innovation promise for sustainability. This case has explored the importance of the cultural and structural dimensions (taxonomy, IT enablers, CARE (Competency Augmentation through Research and Excellence) etc. for leveraging expertise knowledge to build up innovative products and services. 47 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” This case identification of the KM initiatives with respect to KM practices such as content, support and collaboration and effectiveness are the critical success factors of KM practices. In today’s scenario, the organizations are required to manage their knowledge well. Current organizations require more skillful and knowledgeable manpower; this requires KM at the grassroots to manage organizational knowledge resources. This case study has given some worthy thoughts of how organizations should manage the competitive knowledge to ensure organizational effectiveness. WORK DONE Project Preparation consists of all the work necessary to ensure that a proposed project is feasible and appropriate and that it can be successfully implemented. The process ensures the identification and elimination of key risks at the earliest possible time and maximizes development opportunities by ensuring that projects are well conceptualized. Preparation work is social, technical and financial in nature. Typical preparation activities include: the identification of funding sources, 48 | P a g e MBA needs assessments, community and stakeholder RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” consultations, socio-economic studies, the development of project concepts, assessments of site suitability (e.g. topography, geotechnical and environmental conditions, bulk services), land availability negotiations and agreements, participative planning, preliminary design, estimates for capital and operational costs and applications to funders or implementation partners. Most of this work takes place during the pre-feasibility and feasibility phases. Please also refer to the project preparation cycle diagram which illustrates more fully PPT’s systematic approach to project preparation. Systematic and effective Project Preparation is important for a range of reasons outlined below:  Project risks are managed and controlled.  Scarce implementation resources (e.g. capital funding) are optimally utilized and are only allocated to viable projects.  Projects are well conceptualized and planned.  Development is appropriately tailored to local needs and is integrated in nature.  Projects are supported by the key stakeholders (including the community, municipality, funders and implementation partners). 49 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization”  Government and other funders can predict and therefore manage their cash flows by enhancing the predictability of project outcomes and timeframes for implementation. Overnight stays or occupied vacancies An overnight stay or occupied vacancy is understood to be each night that a traveller stays in the establishment. As occurs with travellers, overnight stays are broken down according to place of residence. 50 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” Chapter 5- Data Analysis and Interpretation. The most striking feature of the demand for hotel accommodation is its temporal variability. In an industry characterised by high risk capital investment and heavy fixed costs in property, facilities, staff and equipment, this temporal variability produces a range of problems in resource usage and management, and results in a continuing battle to minimise its impact on the efficiency and profitability of hotel operations (Buttle, 1986; Danielson, 1987; O'Neill and Orr, 1996). 51 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” In this battle an understanding of the nature of the temporal fluctuations in demand in different market segments, and their differential impact on the occupancy performance of IT Industry, are prerequisites for the development of effective management and marketing responses. Two principal temporal patterns of demand are manifest in hotel occupancy data; the seasonal pattern over the course of the year, and the within-week pattern over the course the week. Together, they constitute the two ``fundamental frequencies'' of demand for hotel accommodation, and and for tourism in general. The causes and characteristics of seasonality in tourism have been thoroughly explored, and broad strategies to reduce its impact have been proposed (BarOn, 1975; Witt et al., 1991; McEniff, 1992). In comparison, within-week fluctuations have received relatively little attention. Empirical studies of hotel occupancy have usually focused on the seasonal variation in hotel occupancy levels, with within-week variations being ``filtered'' from the analysis by aggregating occupancy data into monthly occupancy rates. 52 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” Chapter 6- Recommendations and Conclusion. The major objective of the survey was to establish if there is a shared need for a National Property Index. Although it is evident from those interviewed that some form of performance measure and analysis takes place and information gathered from various sources is reliable and adequate, the need for a property index received overwhelming acceptance. Accordingly we can draw the following specific conclusions:  There is a shared need for a property index. The Index should not only cover the entire country but also have regional and sector specific indices.  The property market is well diversified with properties types including Commercial, Residential, Industrial, Agricultural and Recreational.  Support in the development of the Index is evident. This is mainly in the form of providing information, technical support and subscriptions. Donors or sponsors are however lacking. 53 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization”  Some form of performance measurement and analysis takes place but the methods used are traditional and vary from one individual/organization to the next.  The information used to carry out performance measurement is from diverse sources and there is no one common and reliable source.  The preferred method to publish the index is through Newsletter in both hard copy and in electronic format.  There is need for additional services in the form of production real estate research reports, customized portfolio analysis and comparisons between other types of investments. Recommendations From the conclusions we would like to make the following recommendations:  That a National Property Index be developed. The approach to be adopted is participatory with each identified stakeholder being given an opportunity to contribute in a way they are comfortable with. 54 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization”  Efforts be made to look for sponsors or organizations (Investors) that will provide seed money to start the development process. The index is a sustainable venture, which will be able to incur limited costs in terms of data availability and collection, generate income from subscriptions and also other customized services.  A survey should be carried out in the other provinces to establish whether the investors and property consultants located in those areas have a similar need  Explore ways of extending the index to cover the East African Countries.  There is need to carry out an awareness campaign among property owners and property consultants to share information for the purpose of research. Secondly creating awareness through a marketing campaign will have a direct positive impact on the sustainability of the index as it is likely to attract more subscribers. However where information is shared, there must be an assurance of confidentiality. 55 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” The limitations and delimitations sections of your research proposal describe situations and circumstances that may affect or restrict your methods and analysis of research data. Limitations are influences that the researcher cannot control. They are the shortcomings, conditions or influences that cannot be controlled by the researcher that place restrictions on your methodology and conclusions. Any limitations that might influence the results should be mentioned. When considering what limitations there might be in your investigation, be thorough. Consider all of the following:  Occupacy Rates of IT Industry  The nature of self-reporting is independent.  The instruments I utilized were average calculation method.  The sample collected were used to aggregate the total of occupancy rate of a hotel. The same was also used for the average calculation purpose.  Time constraints. 56 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” In qualitative research certain limitations might mean that the findings cannot be generalized to the larger population. This is especially true when the definition of the population is broad (ex: elderly women) Delimitations are choices made by the researcher which should be mentioned. They describe the boundaries that you have set for the study. This is the place to explain:  The things that you are not doing (and why you have chosen not to do them).  The literature you will not review.  The population you are not studying.  The methodological procedures you will not use. Limit your delimitations to the things that a reader might reasonably expect you to do but that you, for clearly explained reasons, have decided not to do. Delimitations define the parameters of the investigation. In educational research the delimitations will frequently deal with such items as population/sample, treatment(s), setting, and instrumentation. 57 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” As you complete the limitations and delimitations sections on your planning guide, you may want to go back to the Sample Proposals page of this web site, as well as your Reflection: Reviewing Sample Proposals journal for ideas, before you begin writing your own. 58 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” Chapter 7- Limitations of the Study The most obvious limitation of the study is its cross-sectional design. Therefore, firm conclusions about the directions of causality implied in the model cannot be drawn. Thus, relationships among variables must be interpreted with caution. Interpretations of models using structural equation modelling are also not proof of causality. True causal inferences can only be drawn testing models using longitudinal data. This is especially important for a subject like online occupancy behavior that is not static but is a developmental process that changes over time. Since only self-report measures were used, common-method variance and response consistency effects may have biased the observed relationships. However, perceptions of usefulness and ease of use are not objective measures. Because perceptions are necessarily self-reported, such measures are the most effective at measuring these cognitions. Therefore, this is an unavoidable criticism of the study of online occupancy behavior. The data collection was confined to only five relatively large cities of India since constraints were faced during data collection. The replication of the study at different regions of India would enable better generalizability of the findings of the study. At the 59 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” 126 same time data collection during real occupancy experience could have elicited better responses improving findings. The sample for the present study comprised of 509 shoppers of Electronic Gadgets and Home Appliances. This sample is only a very small proportion of the entire population of retail shoppers in the country. Therefore, research studies with much larger sample size would be required to ensure appropriate generalization of the findings of the study. The study was limited to individual occupancy behavior. India being a collectivistic country, most of the occupancy happens in a Hotel set up. Consideration of Hotel occupancy behavior might have revealed interesting findings. The construct of Occupancy orientations was measured through an instrument developed by a researcher in other country. Though the instrument shows scientific reliability and validity, yet this is the first study for which it has been adapted in India and more studies are required before it is established as an acceptable tool for exploring Occupancy orientations. The present study has relied largely on quantitative methodology of data collection (though qualitative methodology was used to a limited extent) and is therefore restrictive. 60 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” Therefore, more of qualitative methodology of data collection should be undertaken in future to provide wider perspective to the present study. For instance, the research design can employ case study methodology or content analysis to provide a holistic picture to the given subject. This study explored Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease of Use as antecedents of Attitude towards using online occupancy. The inherent assumption was that Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease of Use gets derived from a person’s beliefs and values. A more rigorous research design should consider Behavioral, Normative and Control 61 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” Chapter 8 : Bibliography  Alavudeen, A.; Venkateshwaran, N. (2010), Computer Integrated Manufacturing, PHI Learning,  Bynum, Terrell Ward (2008), "Norbert Wiener and the Rise of Information Ethics", John,Information in van Technology den and Hoven, Moral Jeroen; Philosophy, Weckert, Cambridge University Press,  Chaudhuri, P. Pal (2004), Computer Organization and Design, PHI Learning,  Childress, David Hatcher (2000), Technology of the Gods: The Incredible Sciences of the Ancients, Adventures Unlimited Press  Dyché, Jill (2000), Turning Data Into Information With Data Warehousing, Addison Wesley  Han, Jiawei; Kamber, Micheline; Pei, Jian (2011), Data Minining: Concepts and Techniques (3rd ed.), Morgan Kaufman  Kedar, Seema (2009), Database Management Systems, Technical Publications,  Khurshudov, Andrei (2001), The Essential Guide to Computer Data Storage: From Floppy to DVD, Prentice Hall   Lavington, Simon (1980), Early British Computers, Digital Press, Lavington, Simon (1998), A History of Manchester Computers(2nd ed.), The British Computer Society  Lewis, Bryn (2003), "Extraction of XML from Relational Databases", in Chaudhri, Akmal B.; Djeraba, Chabane; Unland, Rainer; Lindner, 62 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-
    • “A Study to increase penetration level and Brand Loyalty among existing consumers of an organization” Wolfgang, XML-Based Data Management and Multimedia Engineering – EDBT 2002 Workshops, Springer,  Pardede, Eric (2009), Open and Novel Issues in XML Database Applications, Information Science Reference  Proctor, K. Scott (2011), Optimizing and Assessing Information Technology: Improving Business Project Execution, John Wiley & Sons  Ralston, Anthony; Hemmendinger, David; Reilly, Edwin D., eds. (2000), Encyclopedia of Computer Science (4th ed.), Nature Publishing Group,  Reynolds, George (2009), Ethics in Information Technology, Cengage Learning,  van der Aalst, Wil M. P. (2011), Process Mining: Discovery, Conformance and Enhancement of Business Processes, Springer,  Wang, Shan X.; Taratorin, Aleksandr Markovich (1999), Magnetic Information Storage Technology, Academic Press,  Ward, Patricia; Dafoulas, George S. (2006), Database Management Systems, Cengage Learning EMEA,  Weik, Martin (2000), Computer Science and Communications Dictionary 2, Springer,  Wright, Michael T. (2012), "The Front Dial of the Antikythera Mechanism", in Koetsier, Teun; Ceccarelli, Marco, Explorations in the History of Machines and Mechanisms: Proceedings of HMM2012, Springer, pp. 279–292, 63 | P a g e MBA RITESH KHETAN (SEM-IV)-