<ul><li>Communism grew out of the socialist movement of 19th-century in Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>German philosophers, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels believed that violent revolution was all but inevitable; They called their theory “scientific socialism,” or COMMUNISM. </li></ul><ul><li>They saw socialism as an intermediate stage of society in which most industry and property were owned in common but some class differences remained. Then they reserved the term communism for a final stage of society in which class differences had disappeared, people lived in harmony, and government was no longer needed. </li></ul>D
<ul><li>In 1917, Vladimir Lenin and his Bolshevik Party seized power in Russia and then there was a shift in the meaning of the word COMMUNISM. </li></ul><ul><li>The Bolsheviks changed their name to the Communist Party and installed a repressive, single-party regime devoted to the implementation of socialist policies. </li></ul><ul><li>The Communists formed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR, or Soviet Union) from the former Russian Empire and tried to spark a worldwide revolution to overthrow capitalism. </li></ul>D
<ul><li>After World War II (1939-1945), regimes calling themselves communist took power in China, Eastern Europe, and other regions. </li></ul><ul><li>This marked the beginning of the Cold War, in which the Soviet Union and the United States, and their respective allies, competed for political and military supremacy. </li></ul><ul><li>These regimes shared certain basic features: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an embrace of Marxism-Leninism, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a rejection of private property and capitalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>state domination of economic activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>absolute control of the government by one party - the communist party. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The party’s influence in society was pervasive and often repressive. It controlled and censored the mass media, restricted religious worship, and silenced political dissent. </li></ul>D
<ul><li>Elimination of the institution of private property, private ownership of means of production, production of private profit. </li></ul><ul><li>They advocate violence to overthrow capitalism. </li></ul><ul><li>Once the working class acquired control over the State, as they were not trained in the art of administration, there was a temporary period of dictatorship to bring resistance of all anti-communists to communism. </li></ul><ul><li>The policy formulation and implementation of economic plans under communism was in the hands of the Communist Party. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Communism is based on common ownership of property. </li></ul><ul><li>During the October Revolution in 1917, the communist Bolshevik Party was able to seize state power in Russia. Following that revolution, Marxism-Leninism emerged as the mainstream tendency of communism in world politics. </li></ul><ul><li>After the Secret Speech of 1956, a new form of Marxism-Leninism, pioneered by Mao Zedong and often known as Maoism outside China, spread worldwide; this ideology stresses the role of the peasant class and careful guerrilla warfare as important agents of the communist revolution. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The idea of a classless, stateless society based on communal ownership of property and wealth stretches far back in Western thought long before The Communist Manifesto. </li></ul><ul><li>Some have traced communist ideas back to ancient times, such as in Pythagoreanism and Plato's or to the early Christian Church, as described in the Acts of the Apostles. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 16th century, the English writer St. Thomas More portrayed a society based on common ownership of property in his treatise Utopia. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Criticism of the idea of private property continued into the Enlightenment era of the 18th century, through such thinkers as the deeply religious Jean Jacques Rousseau. </li></ul><ul><li>Maximilien Robespierre and his reign of terror, was greatly admired among communists. Robespierre was in his turn a great admirer of Rousseau. The Shakers of the 18th century practiced communalism as a sort of religious communism. </li></ul><ul><li>Belief-early communist-like utopias also existed outside of Europe, in Native American society, and other pre-Colonialism societies in the Western Hemisphere. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The rise of Communism in China is largely due to a man named Mao Zedong. He was poorly educated as a child but highly intelligent. Zedong left home and had become a member of the Nationalist Army. He was soon introduced to, and was influenced by the philosophies of Marxism. </li></ul><ul><li>Boxer Rebellion In 1900, China's citizens experienced starvation, extreme poverty, and grief resulting in the loss of many innocent lives. This lead to the acceptance of men like Zedong and the godless Communistic philosophies of Karl Marx. After being under the rule of warlords, Chinese begin joining revolutionary groups & political parties in order to change their country. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Zedong had the support of roughly 85 percent of the nation who were poor farmers. </li></ul><ul><li>He started a society for the study of Marxism, and in 1921 its members started the Chinese Communist Party. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Result of World War II- left many countries in ruins, great masses of countrymen were suffering leading to devastating effects. At such a critical time, an ideal revolution was required and for China. Communism inevitably became the glorious path towards restoration. </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation of a new communistic society required the destruction of the previous anti-communist Guomindang regime. Political aid, along with military support played a significant role of spread of communism. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Mao Zedong, China's dictator, launched and raised the communist government in China, employing many of Stalin's tactics. </li></ul><ul><li>He developed a plan called the Great Leap Forward, which forced collectivization of agriculture and mass industrialization, killed somewhere around 16.5 million to 40 million Chinese from 1957 to 1961. He also ordered the executions of Communist Party members during his tenure. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased health care was given . </li></ul><ul><li>Mao focused mainly on the uprising of the peasant class, as they consisted of 85% of the population </li></ul>
<ul><li>Focus of Mao’s revolution was on the peasants, where new land reforms obtained land from the rich landlords to be given to the poorer peasants. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1945, the majority of power was shifted towards Communist favor. </li></ul><ul><li>Previously arrival of Chiang’s armies (Nationalist) often indicated theft, rape, and murders to common villagers, while Mao’s armies were more educated and trained to protect the needs of the peasants in order to win their support </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Chinese Communist Party was under the leadership of a group called "PRAGMATISTS”. </li></ul><ul><li>The most prominent pragmatist leader, Deng Xiao-Ping had a nationalistic goal of making China economically competitive with the nations of Western Europe and Japan, and ultimately with the United States. </li></ul>
No. CHINA USSR 1 Initial years faced less resistance. Enormous problem in transition from capitalism- socialism. 2 Had experiences of USSR. Being the first faced lots of problems. 3 Adv of winning the civil war before gaining national control. After gaining control plunged into civil war (1918-22). 4 Civil war, world war strengthened . Civil war, world war weakened. 5 Had support &guidance of USSR, Communist leaders. Faced the problems on their own.
6 Initially Marxist & Leninism, Maoism. Marxism, Leninism & Trotskyism of communism. 7 Roots in rural china, peasants. Monarchical transitions. 8 Mao lived for 27 years after coming to power and guided. Lenin disabled and died only a few years after coming into power 9 Party adhered to ideologies and modified. Party dominated the ideologies. 10 Adopted gradual economic reforms. Adopted sudden economic reforms when everything was going out of control 11 Importance to agriculture given from second five year plan.(2% till 1979, 7% now) Initially no investments in agricultural field. 12 Low cultural ®ional differences. High cultural and regional differences. Broke into 17 countries.