Linux● Refers to the family of Unix- like computer operating systems using the Linux kernel.● Linux is the leading server OS, accounting for more than 50% of installations● Desktop use of Linux has increased in recent years, partly owing to the popular Ubuntu, Fedora, and openSUSE distributions and the emergence of netbooks and smartphones.
Unix● The Unix operating system was conceived and implemented in 1969 at AT&Ts Bell Laboratories Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie,Douglas McIlroy, and Joe Ossanna.● It was first released in 1971 and was initially entirely written in assembly language.● Later, in a key pioneering approach in 1973, Unix was re- written in the programming language C by Dennis Ritchie.
GNUThe GNU Project, started in 1983by Richard Stallman, had the goal ofcreating a "complete Unix-compatiblesoftware system" composed entirelyof free software.Work began in 1984. Later, in 1985,Stallman started the Free SoftwareFoundation and wrote the GNU GeneralPublic License (GNU GPL) in 1989.By the early 1990s, many of theprograms required in an operatingsystem (such aslibraries,compilers, text editors, a Unixshell, and a windowing system) werecompleted.
MINIXMINIX is an inexpensive minimal Unix-like operating system, designed foreducation in computer science, writtenby Andrew S. Tanenbaum.In 1991 while attending the University ofHelsinki, Torvalds, curious about theoperating systems and frustrated by thelicensing of MINIX limiting it to educationaluse only (which prevented any commercialuse), began to work on his own operatingsystem which eventually became the Linuxkernel.
Current DevelopmentTorvalds continues to direct thedevelopment of the kernel.Stallman heads the Free SoftwareFoundation, which in turnsupports the GNU components.Linux vendors and communitiescombine and distribute thekernel, GNU components, andnon-GNU components, withadditional package managementsoftware in the form of Linuxdistributions.
CommunityA distribution is largely driven by its developerand user communities.Some vendors develop and fund theirdistributions on a volunteer basis.In many cities and regions, local associationsknown as Linux Users Groups (LUGs) seek topromote their preferred distribution and byextension free software.They hold meetings and provide freedemonstrations, training, technical support, andoperating system installation to new users.Vibrant Gujarat Linux User Group:http://groups.google.com/group/vglug/
Programming on LinuxFor building both Linux applications and operating system programs is found within the GNU toolchain, which includes the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) and the GNU build system.Amongst others, GCC provides compilers for Ada, C, C++, Java, and Fortran. Proprietary compilers for Linux include the Intel C++ Compiler, Sun Studio, and IBM XL C/C++ Compiler. Most distributions also include support for PHP, Perl, Ruby, Python and other dynamic languages.A number of Java Virtual Machines and development kits run on Linux, including theoriginal Sun Microsystems JVM (HotSpot).The two main frameworks for developing graphical applications are those of GNOME and KDE.There are a number of Integrated development environments available including Anjuta, Code::Blocks, Eclipse, Geany,KDevelop, Lazarus, MonoDevelop, NetBeans, Qt Creator and Omnis Studio while the long-established editors Vim and Emacs remain popular.
Advantages of Linux● Low Cost: You don’t need to spend time and money to obtain licenses since Linux and much of its software come with the GNU General Public License.● Stability: Linux doesn’t need to be rebooted periodically to maintain performance levels.● Performance: Linux provides persistent high performance on workstations and on networks.● Network Friendliness: Linux was developed by a group of programmers over the Internet and has therefore strong support for network functionality; client and server systems can be easily set up on any computer running Linux.● Flexibility: Linux can be used for high performance server applications, desktop applications, and embedded systems.● Compatibility: It runs all common Unix software packages and can process all common file formats.
Advantages of Linux● Choice: The large number of Linux distributions gives you a choice.● Fast and easy installation: Most Linux distributions come with user- friendly installation and setup programs.● Full use of Hardisk: Linux continues work well even when the hard disk is almost full.● Multitasking: Linux is designed to do many things at the same time; e.g., a large printing job in the background won’t slow down your other work.● Security: Linux is one of the most secure operating systems. “Walls” and flexible file access permission systems prevent access by unwanted visitors or viruses.● Open Source: If you develop software that requires knowledge or modification of the operating system code, Linux’s source code is at your fingertips.
UbuntuUbuntu Linux is now perhapsthe best-known and mostpopular distribution of Linux.It is well designed, easy-to-useand has advanced the use ofLinux as a desktop operatingsystem more than any otherdistribution.
Red HatRed Hat Linux has been aroundfor a while and has acquired areputation for consistency andreliability.It may not be the easiest touse or the most cutting-edgedistribution, but it provides thetype of high-quality supportthat is valued by companies,which made it the de-factostandard in corporate America.
FedoraFedora Core is a Linuxdistribution sponsored by RedHat.The objectives of Fedora Linuxdiffer from those of Red Hat inthat Fedora engages the OpenSource community and is moreexperimental in nature.
MandrivaMandriva Linux has been verypopular among new and homeusers.Installation is particularly user-friendly, and it runs by defaultthe KDE Windows-likegraphical desktopenvironment.
SuSESuSE Linux is a seriousalternative for Windows users,with solid, user-friendlyinstallation and configurationtools.Its popularity is held back alittle only by somewhat “un-Linux like” business practices,such as not providing ISOinstallation images for freedownload.
KnoppixKnoppix provides an excellentrun-from-CD solution, with itspowerful hardware detectionfeatures and pain-free set-up. If desired, the system can beoptionally installed on the harddisk to improve performance.It also comes with plenty ofsoftware.