Presentation on bhutanese refugee in nepal


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Presentation on bhutanese refugee in nepal

  1. 1. Presented by: Rita Shrestha CINTA/F/0132 University of Ruhuna, Matara Bhutanese Refugee in Nepal
  2. 2. Overview Background of the study ( Historical background of Bhutan and Nepal’s relation)  Push and Pull factors for migration( What led Ethnic Nepalese to migrate to Southern part of Bhutan)  Seeing self and others (Economically emerging Lhotsampas as threat to existing dominant Drukpas)  Bhutan’s Ethno- Nationalization issues  Underlying political issues
  3. 3. Human Rights Problems  Lhotsampas forced to leave the country.  Tag of terrorist movement to Bhutan People’s Party  Violation of Human Rights by burning the houses of Lhotsampas and committing insane crimes like rape and torture.  Local officials took advantage of the climate of repression to coerce ethnic Nepalese to sell their land below its fair value and to emigrate.
  4. 4. Crackdown on Ethnic Nepalese in Bhutan  Series of repressive citizenship law and “ Bhutanization” Politics.  “ one people, one nation”  Ethno- nationalization  Denationalization of Lhotsampas
  5. 5. Anti- National  Protests and demonstrations by activists like Tek Nath Rizal  Many activists and leaders arrested and imprisoned for being anti- nationalist.  Threat to revoke citizenship
  6. 6. A Bhutanese refugee looks from a bamboo hut in the Ti Mai camp, Nepal. Photograph: Desmond Boylan/Reuters
  7. 7. Exodus  Lhotsampas fled to Nepal and in some parts of India.  Government of Bhutan met its target to reduce its southern population by third.  UNHCR( United Nations Human Commission Rights) and Government of Nepal  Refugee camps in Nepal under UNHCR guidelines
  8. 8. Refugee Camps in Nepal
  9. 9. Ethnic Nepalese Women’s Status in Bhutan  Citizenship crisis to divorced and widowed women in Bhutan.  Polygamy as a source of domestic violence.  Cases of rapes and tortures by government authorities.
  10. 10. Women’s status in refugee camps  Failed to ensure the refugee women’s independent access to aid.  Discrimination against women in refugee registration.  Non- registration of Ration cards in Women’s names.  Gender Based violence in refugee camps.
  11. 11. Hopes Dashed  Despite of many rounds of high level meetings with the government authorities of Nepal and Bhutan the way out for refugees seems blur  UNHCR’s resettlement program for Bhutanese refugee  Bhutan’s Gross national happiness a myth
  12. 12. References  Castles, S. (2010). Understanding Global Migration: A Social Transformation Perspective. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. 36(10), 1565-1586.  Hear, N.V. (2010). Theories of Migration and Social Change. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. 36(10), 1531-1536  Hutt, L. (2005). The Bhutanese Refugees: Between verification, Repatriation and Royal Realpolitik. Peace and Democracy in South Asia. 1(1).  Human Rights Watch. (2003). Trapped by Inequality: Bhutanese Refugee Women in Nepal.  Khanal, K.P. (1998). Human Rights and Refugee Problems in South Asia: The Case of Bhutanese Refugees. Contributions to Nepalese Studies. 25(2), 143- 161.  Lee, E.S. (1996). A Theory of Migration. Demography. 3(1), 47-57.  Nah, L. (2005). Migration in Flight: Conflict induced internal displacement of Nepalis in Northeast India. Peace and Democracy in South Asia. 1(1).
  13. 13. References  Rozsa, L. (2000). Spite, Xenophobia, and Collaboration between Hosts and Parasites. Blackwell Publishing. 91(2), 396-400.  Sahehyan, I., Gleditsch, K.S. (2006). Refugees and the Spread of Civil War. The MIT Press. 60(2), 335-366.  Sinha, A.C. (1995). Bhutan in 1994: Will the Ethnic Conflict be Resolved?. University of California Press. 35(2), 166-170.  Weiner, M. (1992).Security, Stability, and International Migration. MIT Press, 17(3), 91-126.  Weiner, M. (1996).Ethics, National Sovereignty and the control of Immigration. The Centre for Migration Studies of New York. Inc. 30(1), 171-197.  Weiner, M. (1996). Bad Neighbors, Bad Neighborhoods: An Inquiry into the causes of Refugee Flows. The MIT Press. 21(1), 5-42.