Educational assessment


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Assessment for Educational Ability

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Educational assessment

  1. 1. Chapter 6:Assessment of Educational Ability Survey Battery Diagnostic Readiness Cognitive Ability Tests 1
  2. 2. Defining Assessment of Educational AbilitySuch assessment tools are used in the following ways: To determine if students are learning. To assess how well a class, grade, school, school system, or state is learning content knowledge, To assist in the determination of learning problems. To assist in the determination of giftedness. To help determine if a child is ready to move to the next grade level. To help determine readiness and placement in college and graduate school. 2
  3. 3. Tests of Educational Ability (See Underlined Tests Below) TESTS IN THE COGNITIVE DOMAIN ⇓ ASSESSMENT OF ABILITY (All of What One Can Do)( A l⇓⇓A l ⇓ ACHIEVEMENT TESTING ↔ APTITUDE TESTING (Have Learned) (Capable of Learning) S u rve y D iagnos tic R e ad ine s s Intelligence C ognitive Special Multiple Batte ry Te s ts Te s ts Tests Ab ility Aptitude Aptitude 3
  4. 4. Defining Tests of Educational AbilitySurvey Battery Tests: Measure broad content areas.Often used to assess progress in school.Diagnostic Tests: Assess problem areas of learning(e.g., learning disabilities).Readiness Tests: Measure readiness for movingahead in school. Often readiness to enter First grade.Cognitive Abilities Tests: Often based on what haslearned in school. Measure broad range of cognitiveability. Useful in making predictions (e.g., success inschool or in college). 4
  5. 5. Survey Battery Achievement Testing Increasingly important as the result of:  Standards of Learning Tests Given by States  No Child Left Behind  See Box 6.1, p. 109 5
  6. 6. Survey Battery Achievement Testing Helpful in following ways:  Can help a student, his or her parents, and his or her teachers, identify strengths and weaknesses  Classroom, school, or school system profile reports, help teachers, principals, administrators, and the public see how students are doing at all these levels. 6
  7. 7. Types of Survey Battery Achievement Tests: Stanford Achievement Test (SAT10) Most sub-tests in the mid .80s to low .90s using KR-20 internal consistency estimates. Reliability estimates fell for the open-ended sections to mid .50 through the .80s. Sound content, criterion, and construct validity. Offers Individual Profile Sheets, Class Grouping Sheets, Grade Grouping Sheets, and School System Grouping Sheets.  See Figures 6.2 and 6.3, pp. 110 and 11. 7
  8. 8. Types of Survey Battery Achievement Tests: Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS) One of the oldest and best-known achievement tests “M” version for grades K through 8 Sub-tests depending on the grade level: language, reading, vocabulary, listening, word analysis, math, social studies, science and writing assessment. Criticized the test for not measuring “higher-order thinking” Reliability of most subtests in the .80s to .90s and strong content validity. 8
  9. 9. Types of Survey Battery Achievement Tests: Metropolitan (8th ed.) K-12 for a broad range of subjects such as reading, language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies. Multiple choice questions and open-ended items, which are scored a 0 to 3 Some criticism: data too heavily weighted for rural classrooms and under represents urban classrooms Good reliability and validity 9
  10. 10. Diagnostic TestingUsed to assess problems in learningPL 94-142 and IDEIA have made these types oftests crucial Laws assert that individuals (age 2 – 21) who are suspected of having a disability that interferes with learning has right to be tested at school system’s expense Used in development of IEP Students with a disability have the right to an education within the least restrictive environment. 10
  11. 11. Types of Diagnostic Tests:Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT) Good screening test for learning problems. Developed to assess basic reading, spelling, and arithmetic skills. Attempts to eliminate effects of comprehension in determining a learning disability. Individual is asked, one-on-one by the examiner, to “read” (pronounce) words, to spell words, and to figure out a number of math problems. For ages 5 – 75. Internal consistency reliability in .90s. Rationale for content validity and evidence of construct and criterion-related validity. 11
  12. 12. Types of Diagnostic Tests: Key-math,Peabody Individual Achievement testKey Math Diagnostic Test  Assesses students’ understanding of basic mathematics and provides diagnostic information to teachers.  Comprehensive test for learning problems in math.  Takes 35-50 minutes to take.  Reliabilities: 80s and .90s  Evidence of content and construct validity.Peabody Individual Achievement Test  Provides broad academic screening for children K – 12  Median reliability estimates: .94  Shows content, construct, and criterion-related validityOther Diagnostic Tests: Wechsler Individual AchievementTest – Second Edition (WIAT-II), Woodcock-Johnson. 12
  13. 13. Readiness TestingSometimes helpful in deciding whether a childis “ready” to move onto next level (usuallykindergarten or first grade).Some problems: Children’s cognitive functioning changes rapidly at young ages. Cross-cultural biases exist in some of these tests. When English is not first language children will tend not to do as well on these tests. 13
  14. 14. Types of Readiness Tests: Metropolitan Readiness Test, sixth edition (MRT6)  Assesses beginning educational skills for preschoolers, kindergarteners, and first graders.  Composite reliability estimates: .90s  Subtest reliability: .53 through .80s  Some question its validity 14
  15. 15. Types of Diagnostic Tests: Gesell School Readiness TestAssesses personal and social skills, neurological andmotor growth, language development, and adaptivebehavior.Arnold Gesell spent years examining the normaldevelopmentAs far as Gesell was concerned, “achievement” wasmore than how one scores on a reading or math test.Questionable Reliability and ValidityRead box 6.4, p. 118 15
  16. 16. Types of Diagnostic Tests: Kindergarten Readiness TestUsed to determine if a child is ready tobegin kindergarten.Covers Reasoning, Language, Auditoryand Visual Attention, Numbers, FineMotor Skills, and several other cognitiveand sensory-perception areas.Questionable reliability and validity. 16
  17. 17. Cognitive Ability TestsAssesses what an individual is capable of doingShould not be confused with intelligence tests.Often look more like achievement tests—butmeasure broad content areas.Good for identifying students not succeeding inschool due to: learning disabilities Motivation problems at home or school self-esteem issues. 17
  18. 18. Cognitive Ability Tests: The Cognitive Ability TestConstructed with two models of intelligence: Vernon’s hierarchy of abilities Cattell’s fluid and crystallized abilities.Provides verbal, quantitative, and nonverbal reasoningabilities scores. Composite score also calculatedUses standard score with mean of 100 and standarddeviation of 16, percentile ranks, and staninesGood reliability estimates: .80s & .90sOffers rationale for content validity but difficult to defendthis type of test as it is used to measure future. Goodconcurrent validity. 18
  19. 19. Types of Cognitive Ability Tests: Otis-Lennon School Ability TestK – 12Verbal, quantitative, and non-verbal sectionsRaw scores converted to stanines, percentilerank, a standard score called the schoolability index, and normal curve equivalents(NCEs) by age or grade.Questionable content validity. Although fairconcurrent validity and fairly good reliability. 19
  20. 20. Types of Cognitive Ability Tests: College Admissions ExamsACT:  Most Popular  Designed to assess educational development and ability to complete college level work  Covers four skill areas, including: English, math, reading, and science.  Scores range from 1 – 36, (M = 18, SD = 5).  Mean for college bound students about 21  Composite score has reliability estimate of .96  Predictive validity: is .43 with first year GPA. 20
  21. 21. Types of Cognitive Ability Tests: College Admissions ExamsSAT  Areas assessed: critical reading, mathematics, and writing, which includes an essay.  All three sections range from 200 to 800. Can compare today’s means to past group which mean was set at 500.  Can look at a percentile score which compares examinee to students who took the test within past three years.  On writing section  multiple choice subscore between 20 and 80  writing subscore between 2 and 12 based on written essay evaluated by two or three readers.  Predictive validity correlations for combined math and verbal scores range from .44 to .61 as predictor of college grades. 21
  22. 22. Types of Cognitive Ability Tests:College Admissions Exams GRE General Test:  Three sections: verbal reasoning, quantitative reasoning, and analytical writing.  Verbal and quantitative scores range: 200-800. Has floating mean and SD. Percentiles compare students within recent years.  For analytical writing. Scores ranked from 0 to 6 by two evaluators (Mean has been 4.2, SD: 1.0). GRE Subject Tests.  Biochemistry, cell and molecular biology; biology; chemistry; computer science; literature in English, mathematics; physics; and psychology.  Scored like General Test  Correlations with grad grades: .27 and .51; .43 to .58 when combined with undergraduate grades. 22
  23. 23. Types of Cognitive Ability Tests:College Admissions Exams Miller Analogy Test:  120 analogies measure analytical abilities through assessing one’s capability of finding relationships between ideas, general knowledge, and word fluency.  Mixed predictive validity (one study, .23 with grad GPA) LSAT:  Assesses acquired reading and verbal reasoning skills  Predictive validity estimates average at .39, and when combined with GPA, increase to .50 MCAT:  Assesses physical sciences, biological sciences, verbal reasoning, and a writing sample.  Predictive validity estimates range from .62 to .65 for the first two years of medical school. 23
  24. 24. The Role of Helpers in the Assessment of Educational AbilitySchool counselors, school psychologists, learning disabilitiesspecialists, and school social workers are members of theschool’s special education team.School psychologists and learning disability specialists aretesting experts who assess for learning problems.Clinical and counseling psychologists do additional assessmentsor to act as a second opinion to the school’s assessment.School counselors often only testing expert who is permanentlyhouse in school. Can consult with teacher and disaggregatedata to find students with learning problems.Licensed professionals often need to consult with schools abouttheir clients. 24
  25. 25. Final Thoughts on Assessment of Educational AbilityDown side: Teachers forced to teach to tests—not allowed to be creative. Testing leads to labeling. Some tests (e.g., readiness tests and cognitive ability tests) are a mechanism for majority children to move ahead and keep minority children down. Testing causes competitions and peer pressureUp side: Tests allow us to identify children, classrooms, schools, and schools systems, which are performing poorly. Testing allows us to identify children with learning problems. Testing allows a child to be accurately placed in grade level. Testing helps children identify what they are good at and helps to identify weak areas they can focus upon 25