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Components & Types of Assessment methods
Components & Types of Assessment methods
Components & Types of Assessment methods
Components & Types of Assessment methods
Components & Types of Assessment methods
Components & Types of Assessment methods
Components & Types of Assessment methods
Components & Types of Assessment methods
Components & Types of Assessment methods
Components & Types of Assessment methods
Components & Types of Assessment methods
Components & Types of Assessment methods
Components & Types of Assessment methods
Components & Types of Assessment methods
Components & Types of Assessment methods
Components & Types of Assessment methods
Components & Types of Assessment methods
Components & Types of Assessment methods
Components & Types of Assessment methods
Components & Types of Assessment methods
Components & Types of Assessment methods
Components & Types of Assessment methods
Components & Types of Assessment methods
Components & Types of Assessment methods
Components & Types of Assessment methods
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Components & Types of Assessment methods

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  • 1.
    • An individual psychological evaluation including general intelligence, instructional needs, learning strengths and weaknesses, and social emotional dynamics
    • A thorough developmental, social, and academic history based on interviews with parents and student
    • A physical examination including specific assessments that relate to vision, hearing, and health
    • A classroom observation of the student in his or her current educational setting
  • 2.
    • An appropriate educational evaluation
    • A behavioral assessment
    • Speech and language evaluations, when appropriate
    • Physical and/or occupational evaluations, when indicated
    • Interviews with the student/parents and significant others in his or her life
  • 3.
    • OBSERVATIONS
    • Observation: An assessment technique whereby one observes the student in his or her natural environments.
    • Observing the student and his or her environment is an important part of any assessment process.
  • 4.
    • Observations in the classroom and in other settings where the student operates can provide valuable information about:
    • Academic skills
    • Motor skills
    • Communication skills
    • Social skills
  • 5.
    • 1. Nonsystematic observation: Observer simply watches the observer in his or environment and notes the behaviors, characteristics, and personal interactions that seem significant.
    • 2. Systematic Observation: Here, the observer sets out to observe one or more precisely defined behaviors. The observer specifies observable events that define the behavior and then measures the behavior in a certain way.
  • 6.
    • Advantages-Get to see spontaneous behavior
    • Disadvantages-
    • (1) No control over the situations
    • (2) Observer Bias
  • 7.
    • One source of error may come from the observer -- he or she must record accurately, systematically, and without bias.
    • If his or her general impression of the student influences how he or she rates that student in regards to specific characteristics, the data will be misleading and inaccurate.
    • This can be especially true if the student comes from a background that is different from the majority culture.
    • In such cases, it is important that the observer have an understanding of, and a lack of bias regarding, the student's cultural or language group.
  • 8.
    • 1. Anecdotal Recording: The observer describes incidents or behaviors observed in a particular setting in concrete, narrative terms (as opposed to drawing inferences about feelings or motives).
    • This type of record allows insight into cause and effect by detailing what occurred before a behavior took place, the behavior itself, and consequences or events that occurred after the behavior.
  • 9.
    • 2. Event Recording: The observer is interested in recording the number of times a specific behavioral event occurred (such as how many times the student hits or gets out of his or her seat).
    • A tally sheet listing the behaviors to be observed and counted is useful; when the observer sees the behavior of interest, he or she can simply make a tick mark on the sheet.
    • 3. Duration Recording: This method usually requires a watch or clock, so that a precise measurement of how much time a student spends doing something of concern to the teacher or assessment team (e.g., talking to others, tapping, rocking) can be recorded.
  • 10.
    • When observing the child in many different environments, you are conducting an Ecological Assessment
    • Ecological assessment involves directly observing and assessing the child in the many environments in which he or she routinely operates.
    • The purpose of conducting such an assessment is to probe how the different environments influence the student and his or her school performance.
  • 11.
    • Interview: An assessment technique conducted face to face (or by telephone) between an interviewer and an interviewee where recorded responses to questions are obtained.
  • 12.
    • Structured Interview: Interview whereby a predetermined set of questions is asked
    • Unstructured Interview: Interview where predetermined questions are asked
    • Most interviews combine both structured and unstructured interview questions
  • 13.
    • Personal
    • Emotional
    • Flexible
  • 14.
    • Time consuming
    • “ Costly”
    • Rapport between interviewer and interviewee
    • Concerns with student’s language ability
  • 15.
    • Interviewing the student in question, his or her parents, teachers, and other adults or peers can provide a great deal of useful information about the student.
    • Ultimately, an interview should be a conversation with a purpose with questions designed to collect information that relates to the observed or suspected disability of the child
  • 16.
    • Often, an initial part of the assessment process includes examining a student's work, either by selecting work samples that can be analyzed to identify academic skills and deficits, or by conducting a portfolio assessment, where folders of the student's work are examined.
  • 17.
    • Perhaps the most important type of assessment for the classroom teacher is the portfolio assessment.
    • A portfolio is “a purposeful collection of student works that exhibits the student’s efforts, progress, and achievement in one or more areas.”
  • 18.
    • 1. Working portfolio-Teacher, student, and parents all contribute to the portfolio. Both works-in-progress and final product pieces are included.
  • 19.
    • 2. Showcase portfolio-The portfolio houses only the student’s best work and generally does not include works-in-progress. The student manages the portfolio and decides what to place in it.
    • 3. Record keeping or Teacher portfolio-The portfolio houses student test papers and work samples maintained by the teacher. It contains work not selected by the student for inclusion in the showcase portfolio.
  • 20.
    • Test: A set of questions or tasks administered to an individual to determine knowledge or skills. The results are reported in one or more types of scores.
  • 21.
    • A norm-referenced test, also known as an NRT, is designed to compare student performance to that of other students.
    • In special education, almost every norm-referenced test compares an individual student’s score against national averages.
  • 22.
    • Scores on norm-referenced tests are not interpreted according to an absolute standard or criterion (i.e., 8 out of 10 correct) but, rather, according to how the student's performance compares with that of a particular group of individuals.
  • 23.
    • Criterion referenced tests (CRTs) are scored according to a standard, or criterion, that the teacher, school, or test publisher decides represents an acceptable level of mastery.
    • The test giver is interested what the student can and cannot do, rather than how his or her performance compares with those of other people.
  • 24.
    • Mastery- a level of performance on a criterion-referenced test that shows that a student has demonstrated the knowledge, skills, and abilities for a unit of instruction or subject area as defined by a predetermined standard.
    • CRT are more concerned with “describing what a student can do” rather than “comparing” her performance to others.
  • 25.
    • Examples of criterion-referenced questions would be:
    • Does Jane do 8th grade math computation problems with 85% accuracy?
    • Did Joe get 90% of the questions correct on the social studies exam?
    • In criterion-referenced assessment, the emphasis is on passing one or a series of questions.

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