Components & Types of Assessment methods


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Components & Types of Assessment methods

  1. 1. <ul><li>An individual psychological evaluation including general intelligence, instructional needs, learning strengths and weaknesses, and social emotional dynamics </li></ul><ul><li>A thorough developmental, social, and academic history based on interviews with parents and student </li></ul><ul><li>A physical examination including specific assessments that relate to vision, hearing, and health </li></ul><ul><li>A classroom observation of the student in his or her current educational setting </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>An appropriate educational evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>A behavioral assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Speech and language evaluations, when appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Physical and/or occupational evaluations, when indicated </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews with the student/parents and significant others in his or her life </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>OBSERVATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Observation: An assessment technique whereby one observes the student in his or her natural environments. </li></ul><ul><li>Observing the student and his or her environment is an important part of any assessment process. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Observations in the classroom and in other settings where the student operates can provide valuable information about: </li></ul><ul><li>Academic skills </li></ul><ul><li>Motor skills </li></ul><ul><li>Communication skills </li></ul><ul><li>Social skills </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>1. Nonsystematic observation: Observer simply watches the observer in his or environment and notes the behaviors, characteristics, and personal interactions that seem significant. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Systematic Observation: Here, the observer sets out to observe one or more precisely defined behaviors. The observer specifies observable events that define the behavior and then measures the behavior in a certain way. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Advantages-Get to see spontaneous behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages- </li></ul><ul><li>(1) No control over the situations </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Observer Bias </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>One source of error may come from the observer -- he or she must record accurately, systematically, and without bias. </li></ul><ul><li>If his or her general impression of the student influences how he or she rates that student in regards to specific characteristics, the data will be misleading and inaccurate. </li></ul><ul><li>This can be especially true if the student comes from a background that is different from the majority culture. </li></ul><ul><li>In such cases, it is important that the observer have an understanding of, and a lack of bias regarding, the student's cultural or language group. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>1. Anecdotal Recording: The observer describes incidents or behaviors observed in a particular setting in concrete, narrative terms (as opposed to drawing inferences about feelings or motives). </li></ul><ul><li>This type of record allows insight into cause and effect by detailing what occurred before a behavior took place, the behavior itself, and consequences or events that occurred after the behavior. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>2. Event Recording: The observer is interested in recording the number of times a specific behavioral event occurred (such as how many times the student hits or gets out of his or her seat). </li></ul><ul><li>A tally sheet listing the behaviors to be observed and counted is useful; when the observer sees the behavior of interest, he or she can simply make a tick mark on the sheet. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Duration Recording: This method usually requires a watch or clock, so that a precise measurement of how much time a student spends doing something of concern to the teacher or assessment team (e.g., talking to others, tapping, rocking) can be recorded. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>When observing the child in many different environments, you are conducting an Ecological Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological assessment involves directly observing and assessing the child in the many environments in which he or she routinely operates. </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of conducting such an assessment is to probe how the different environments influence the student and his or her school performance. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Interview: An assessment technique conducted face to face (or by telephone) between an interviewer and an interviewee where recorded responses to questions are obtained. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Structured Interview: Interview whereby a predetermined set of questions is asked </li></ul><ul><li>Unstructured Interview: Interview where predetermined questions are asked </li></ul><ul><li>Most interviews combine both structured and unstructured interview questions </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Personal </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Time consuming </li></ul><ul><li>“ Costly” </li></ul><ul><li>Rapport between interviewer and interviewee </li></ul><ul><li>Concerns with student’s language ability </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Interviewing the student in question, his or her parents, teachers, and other adults or peers can provide a great deal of useful information about the student. </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimately, an interview should be a conversation with a purpose with questions designed to collect information that relates to the observed or suspected disability of the child </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Often, an initial part of the assessment process includes examining a student's work, either by selecting work samples that can be analyzed to identify academic skills and deficits, or by conducting a portfolio assessment, where folders of the student's work are examined. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Perhaps the most important type of assessment for the classroom teacher is the portfolio assessment. </li></ul><ul><li>A portfolio is “a purposeful collection of student works that exhibits the student’s efforts, progress, and achievement in one or more areas.” </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>1. Working portfolio-Teacher, student, and parents all contribute to the portfolio. Both works-in-progress and final product pieces are included. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>2. Showcase portfolio-The portfolio houses only the student’s best work and generally does not include works-in-progress. The student manages the portfolio and decides what to place in it. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Record keeping or Teacher portfolio-The portfolio houses student test papers and work samples maintained by the teacher. It contains work not selected by the student for inclusion in the showcase portfolio. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Test: A set of questions or tasks administered to an individual to determine knowledge or skills. The results are reported in one or more types of scores. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>A norm-referenced test, also known as an NRT, is designed to compare student performance to that of other students. </li></ul><ul><li>In special education, almost every norm-referenced test compares an individual student’s score against national averages. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Scores on norm-referenced tests are not interpreted according to an absolute standard or criterion (i.e., 8 out of 10 correct) but, rather, according to how the student's performance compares with that of a particular group of individuals. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Criterion referenced tests (CRTs) are scored according to a standard, or criterion, that the teacher, school, or test publisher decides represents an acceptable level of mastery. </li></ul><ul><li>The test giver is interested what the student can and cannot do, rather than how his or her performance compares with those of other people. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Mastery- a level of performance on a criterion-referenced test that shows that a student has demonstrated the knowledge, skills, and abilities for a unit of instruction or subject area as defined by a predetermined standard. </li></ul><ul><li>CRT are more concerned with “describing what a student can do” rather than “comparing” her performance to others. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Examples of criterion-referenced questions would be: </li></ul><ul><li>Does Jane do 8th grade math computation problems with 85% accuracy? </li></ul><ul><li>Did Joe get 90% of the questions correct on the social studies exam? </li></ul><ul><li>In criterion-referenced assessment, the emphasis is on passing one or a series of questions. </li></ul>