1. Nonsystematic observation: Observer simply watches the observer in his or environment and notes the behaviors, characteristics, and personal interactions that seem significant.
2. Systematic Observation: Here, the observer sets out to observe one or more precisely defined behaviors. The observer specifies observable events that define the behavior and then measures the behavior in a certain way.
2. Event Recording: The observer is interested in recording the number of times a specific behavioral event occurred (such as how many times the student hits or gets out of his or her seat).
A tally sheet listing the behaviors to be observed and counted is useful; when the observer sees the behavior of interest, he or she can simply make a tick mark on the sheet.
3. Duration Recording: This method usually requires a watch or clock, so that a precise measurement of how much time a student spends doing something of concern to the teacher or assessment team (e.g., talking to others, tapping, rocking) can be recorded.
Often, an initial part of the assessment process includes examining a student's work, either by selecting work samples that can be analyzed to identify academic skills and deficits, or by conducting a portfolio assessment, where folders of the student's work are examined.
2. Showcase portfolio-The portfolio houses only the student’s best work and generally does not include works-in-progress. The student manages the portfolio and decides what to place in it.
3. Record keeping or Teacher portfolio-The portfolio houses student test papers and work samples maintained by the teacher. It contains work not selected by the student for inclusion in the showcase portfolio.
Scores on norm-referenced tests are not interpreted according to an absolute standard or criterion (i.e., 8 out of 10 correct) but, rather, according to how the student's performance compares with that of a particular group of individuals.
Mastery- a level of performance on a criterion-referenced test that shows that a student has demonstrated the knowledge, skills, and abilities for a unit of instruction or subject area as defined by a predetermined standard.
CRT are more concerned with “describing what a student can do” rather than “comparing” her performance to others.