Chapter 8 assessment of academic achievement

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Chapter 8 assessment of academic achievement

  1. 1. Assessment of Academic Achievement Chapter Eight
  2. 2. CHAPTER OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Understand the purpose of achievement tests </li></ul><ul><li>Understand why individually administered achievement tests are preferred rather than group achievement tests </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss oral reading and miscues associated with it </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the different types of reading comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Understand word recognition and word attack skills </li></ul>
  3. 3. CHAPTER OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Thoroughly evaluate the various reading assessment measures </li></ul><ul><li>Understand written composition and the tests associated with it </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate between mathematics and arithmetic </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and thoroughly evaluate the various arithmetic tests </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and thoroughly tests that measure spelling ability </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and thoroughly evaluate the various comprehensive achievement tests </li></ul>
  4. 4. ACHIEVEMENT TESTS <ul><li>Tests designed to assess the academic progress of a student. </li></ul><ul><li>When doing an evaluation for identification and/or placement in special education, achievement tests will be individually administered. </li></ul>
  5. 5. READING
  6. 6. ORAL READING Common errors seen on oral reading tests… <ul><li>Omissions </li></ul><ul><li>Insertion </li></ul><ul><li>Substitution </li></ul><ul><li>Gross mispronunciation of a word </li></ul><ul><li>Hesitation </li></ul><ul><li>Inversion </li></ul><ul><li>Disregard of punctuation </li></ul>
  7. 7. Analyzing Oral Reading Miscues <ul><li>An oral reading error is often referred to </li></ul><ul><li>as a miscue . </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of miscues can be of two types: </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative miscues </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative miscues </li></ul>
  8. 8. Miscues are significant when… <ul><li>The meaning of the sentence is altered and the student does not correct the miscue. </li></ul><ul><li>A nonword is used in place of a word </li></ul><ul><li>A partial word is substituted for the word or phrase </li></ul><ul><li>A word is pronounced for the student </li></ul>
  9. 9. Miscues are not significant when… <ul><li>The meaning of the sentences undergoes no change or minimal change </li></ul><ul><li>They are self-corrected by the student </li></ul><ul><li>They are applicable in the student’s dialect </li></ul><ul><li>They are later read correctly in the same passage </li></ul>
  10. 10. READING COMPREHENSION <ul><li>Literal comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Inferential comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Listening comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Critical comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Affective comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Lexical comprehension </li></ul>Diagnostic testing often assess six kinds of reading comprehension skills:
  11. 11. Word Recognition Skills <ul><li>The purpose of word recognition tests are to explore the student’s ability with respect to sight vocabulary. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Word Attack Skills <ul><li>Word attack skills are those used to derive meaning and/or pronunciation of a word through context clues, structural analysis, or phonics. </li></ul>
  13. 13. READING ASSESSMENT MEASURES <ul><li>Gates-MacGinitie Silent Reading Tests, 4 th Edition </li></ul><ul><li>Gray Oral Reading Test- 3 (GORT-3) </li></ul><ul><li>Durrell Analysis or Reading Difficulty (DARD) </li></ul><ul><li>Gates-McKillop-Horowitz Reading Diagnostic Tests </li></ul>
  14. 14. READING ASSESSMENT MEASURES <ul><li>Gilmore Oral Reading Test </li></ul><ul><li>Slosson Oral Reading Test- Revised (SORT-R) </li></ul><ul><li>Spache Diagnostic Reading Scales (DRS) </li></ul><ul><li>Woodcock Reading Mastery Test- Revised (WRMT-R) </li></ul><ul><li>Test of Reading Comprehension, 3 rd Edition (TORC-3) </li></ul>
  15. 15. WRITTEN EXPRESSION
  16. 16. <ul><li>Handwriting refers to the actual motor </li></ul><ul><li>activity that is involved in writing. </li></ul><ul><li>Most students are taught manuscript </li></ul><ul><li>(printing) initially and then move to cursive </li></ul><ul><li>writing (script) in later grades. </li></ul><ul><li>Handwriting skills are usually measured </li></ul><ul><li>through the use of informal assessment </li></ul><ul><li>measures. </li></ul>
  17. 17. The term writing refers to a variety of interrelated graphic skills including: <ul><li>Composition </li></ul><ul><li>Spelling </li></ul><ul><li>Handwriting </li></ul>
  18. 18. TESTS OF WRITTEN LANGUAGE <ul><li>Test of Early Written Language- 2 (TEWL-2) </li></ul><ul><li>Test of Written Language- 3 (TOWL-3) </li></ul><ul><li>Test of Written Expression (TOWE) </li></ul><ul><li>Written Expression Scale (WES) </li></ul><ul><li>Writing Process Test (WPT) </li></ul><ul><li>Mather-Woodcock Group Writing Tests (MWGWT) </li></ul>
  19. 19. MATH
  20. 20. <ul><li>Mathematics refers to the </li></ul><ul><li>study of numbers and their </li></ul><ul><li>relationships to time, space, </li></ul><ul><li>volume and geometry. </li></ul><ul><li>Arithmetic refers to the </li></ul><ul><li>operations or computations </li></ul><ul><li>performed. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Three types of classifications are involved in diagnostic math tests: <ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><li>Operations </li></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul>
  22. 22. Analysis & Interpretation of Math Skills <ul><li>Four error types in computational analysis: </li></ul><ul><li>Incorrect operation </li></ul><ul><li>Incorrect number fact </li></ul><ul><li>Incorrect algorithm </li></ul><ul><li>Random error </li></ul>
  23. 23. ASSESSMENT OF MATHEMATICAL ABILITIES <ul><li>Key Math Diagnostic Arithmetic Tests- Revised (Key Math-R) </li></ul><ul><li>Test of Early Mathematics Ability- 2 (TEMA-2) </li></ul><ul><li>Test of Mathematical Abilities- 2 (TOMA-2) </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnostic Mathematics Inventory/Mathematics Systems (DMI/MS) </li></ul><ul><li>Stanford Diagnostic Mathematical Test- 4 (SDMT-4) </li></ul>
  24. 24. SPELLING
  25. 25. <ul><li>Spelling is the ability to </li></ul><ul><li>use letters to construct </li></ul><ul><li>words in accordance </li></ul><ul><li>with accepted usage. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Analysis of Spelling Skills <ul><li>Does the child have sufficient mental ability to learn to spell? </li></ul><ul><li>Are the child’s hearing, speech and vision adequate? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the child’s general level of spelling ability according to teacher comments, past evaluations, or standardized tests? </li></ul>Several questions should be addressed before one begins to analyze the results of the spelling subtest:
  27. 27. Spelling Errors Primarily Due to Auditory or Visual Channel Deficits <ul><li>Auditory discrimination problems or cultural problems </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory discrimination problems </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory acuity or discrimination problems </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory-visual association </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory-visual associative memory </li></ul>Certain spelling errors may be evident in students with certain auditory channel deficits:
  28. 28. Certain spelling errors may be evident in students with certain visual channel deficits: <ul><li>Visual memory problems </li></ul><ul><li>Visual memory sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Visual discrimination problems </li></ul><ul><li>Visual memory </li></ul>
  29. 29. ASSESSMENT OF SPELLING <ul><li>Diagnostic Word Patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Test of Written Spelling- 4 (TWS-4) </li></ul><ul><li>Spellmaster Assessment and Teaching Systems (SATS) </li></ul>
  30. 30. COMPREHENSIVE TESTS <ul><li>Brigance Diagnostic Inventory of Basic Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Kaufman Tests of Educational Achievement (KTEA) </li></ul><ul><li>Peabody Individual Achievement Test- Revised (PIAT-R) </li></ul><ul><li>Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-2 (WIAT-2) </li></ul>
  31. 31. COMPREHENSIVE TESTS <ul><li>Wide Range Achievement Test-3 (WRAT-3) </li></ul><ul><li>Woodcock-Johnson Achievement Test-III (WJ-III) </li></ul><ul><li>Test of Academic Achievement Skills- Revised (TAAS-R) </li></ul>
  32. 32. CHAPTER OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Understand the purpose of achievement tests </li></ul><ul><li>Understand why individually administered achievement tests are preferred rather than group achievement tests </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss oral reading and miscues associated with it </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the different types of reading comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Understand word recognition and word attack skills </li></ul>
  33. 33. CHAPTER OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Thoroughly evaluate the various reading assessment measures </li></ul><ul><li>Understand written composition and the tests associated with it </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate between mathematics and arithmetic </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and thoroughly evaluate the various arithmetic tests </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and thoroughly tests that measure spelling ability </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and thoroughly evaluate the various comprehensive achievement tests </li></ul>
  34. 34. THE END

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