Computer Hardware

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A general introduction to computer hardware for students at the HS level.

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  • Explain further: Input devices Storage devices – HD Output devices
  • What is a chip? Contains and Integrated circuit, a very tiny piece of silicon with electronic circuits. CPU and Memory (RAM and ROM) come in chips.
  • One MHz represents one million cycles per second. For example, a microprocessor that runs at 200 MHz executes 200 million cycles per second. Each computer instruction requires a fixed number of cycles, so the clock speed determines how many instructions per second the microprocessor can execute. To a large degree, this controls how powerful the microprocessor is. One GHz represents 1 billion cycles per second.
  • Computer Hardware

    1. 1. Computer Hardware Rita Ester
    2. 2. Computer <ul><li>Hardware + Software </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic device that </li></ul>Takes data in Input devices Outputs information Output devices Stores data Storage devices Processes data CPU
    3. 3. Mother Board <ul><li>contains the computer's basic circuits and parts </li></ul>BIOS BUS RAM CPU BUS BUS Battery Expansion Slots and Expansion Cards
    4. 4. BIOS <ul><li>Basic Input Output System, </li></ul><ul><li>wakes up the computer when you turn it on (Boot process), </li></ul><ul><li>starts the operating system, </li></ul><ul><li>Is stored on a ROM chip. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Read Only Memory. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The battery supports the ROM chip. </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Chip <ul><li>Integrated circuit </li></ul><ul><li>Tiny piece of silicon with electronic circuits </li></ul><ul><li>CPU or memory (RAM and ROM) on a chip </li></ul>
    6. 6. CPU <ul><li>Central Processing Unit </li></ul><ul><li>(Micro-)processor </li></ul><ul><li>Brain of the computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Processes data and instructions. </li></ul><ul><li>Contains the ALU. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arithmetic Logic Unit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Has a clock rate. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sets the computer speed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed measured as MHz, GHz. </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. System Properties
    8. 8. RAM <ul><li>Random Access Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Holds data and programs while the CPU uses them </li></ul><ul><li>Everything disappears when power is off </li></ul><ul><li>Types: SDRAM, RDRAM. </li></ul>
    9. 9. BUS <ul><li>On the mother board </li></ul><ul><li>Path for data </li></ul>
    10. 10. Expansion Card <ul><li>Expands the capabilies of the CPU </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Graphics card. </li></ul><ul><li>Sits in an expansion slot. </li></ul>

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