Introducing to LAC-CI

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Overview of Location Area Code - Cell ID (LAC-CI) in a GSM network (definition and the purpose).

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Introducing to LAC-CI

  1. 1. Introducing to LAC-CI By Riswan
  2. 2. Do you know what LAC-CI is?
  3. 3. 3 Unique LAC-CI is a in a Mobile Network Ident it y
  4. 4. LAC-CI is Part of Cell Global Identity (CGI) CGI MCC MNC LAC CI 3 digit 2 or 3 digit 5 digit 5 digit CGI is a unique global identity for a Cell in the world
  5. 5. CGI Consist of MCC, MNC, LAC, & CI MCC MCC (Mobile Country Code) is represent the country. Indonesia : 510 Malaysia : 502 Singapore : 525
  6. 6. CGI Consist of MCC, MNC, LAC, & CI MCC MNC MCC (Mobile Country Code) is represent the country. MNC (Mobile Network Code) is represent the Mobile Operator. Indonesia : 510 Telkomsel : 10 Malaysia XL : 11 Indosat : 01 : 502 Singapore : 525
  7. 7. 10 08 27 11 28 09 07 01 89 99 Mobile Operators in Indonesia and their MNC
  8. 8. CGI Consist of MCC, MNC, LAC, & CI MCC MNC MCC (Mobile Country Code) is represent the country. MNC (Mobile Network Code) is represent the Mobile Operator. Indonesia : 510 Telkomsel : 10 Malaysia XL : 11 Indosat : 01 : 502 Singapore : 525 Combination between MCC & MNC will be used to identify a mobile operator uniquely in the world.
  9. 9. Beside in CGI, MCC & MNC also Used in IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity) IMSI MCC 510 MNC 10 MSIN* 5411234567 *MSIN = Mobile Subscriber Identity Number
  10. 10. CGI Consist of MCC, MNC, LAC, & CI MCC MNC MCC (Mobile Country Code) is represent the country. MNC (Mobile Network Code) is represent the Mobile Operator. Indonesia : 510 Telkomsel : 10 Malaysia XL : 11 Indosat : 01 : 502 Singapore : 525 LAC LAC (Location Area Code) is represent a serving area in a GSM network.
  11. 11. LAC=239 LAC=128 LAC=123 LAC=124 LAC=127 LAC=234 LAC=126 LAC=125 LAC=238 LAC=235 LAC=236 Usually, LAC is Defined Based on Geographical Area. LAC=237
  12. 12. CGI Consist of MCC, MNC, LAC, & CI MCC MNC MCC (Mobile Country Code) is represent the country. MNC (Mobile Network Code) is represent the Mobile Operator. Indonesia : 510 Telkomsel : 10 Malaysia XL : 11 Indosat : 01 : 502 Singapore : 525 LAC CI LAC (Location Area Code) is represent a serving area in a GSM network. CI (Cell ID) is represent a radio network element in a mobile operator.
  13. 13. 1 CI 1 CI 1 CI Totally, there are 3 CIs in this BTS Physically, a CI (Cell ID) is configured as an ID of a BTS antenna.
  14. 14. This is Sample of a CGI in Telkomsel GSM Network
  15. 15. Various Shape of Cell Coverage Area
  16. 16. The Hexagon Coverage is shaped by building a BTS with 3 sectors (antenna) at each corner of the hexagon. Each antenna has 60° beamwidth. 2 3 1 3 2 1
  17. 17. The Circle Coverage is shaped by building a BTS with 1 sector (antenna) at each center of the circle. Each antenna has 360° beamwidth. 1 1
  18. 18. The Quadrangle Coverage is shaped by building a BTS with 4 sectors (antenna) at each corner of the quandrangle. Each antenna has 90° beamwidth. 2 2 3 1 3 4 1 4
  19. 19. Various Type of BTS Tower ………
  20. 20. Why We Need to Configure LAC-CI in Our Network Properly ?
  21. 21. 1 As Prerequisite of a Mobile Call Establishment. The Configuring Activity is Part of New BTS Deployment. son mother
  22. 22. Basic Call Establishment Flow in GSM HLR BSC 1 1 BSC A MSC A MSC B VLR A VLR B LAC = 456, CI = 789 BSC 2 Subscriber A 1 Subscriber A Dial MSISDN of Subscriber B (0811XXXXX) LAC = 123, CI = 788 LAC = 123 CI = 787 MSISDN B = 0811XXXXX IMSI = XYZ
  23. 23. Basic Call Establishment Flow in GSM HLR BSC 1 2 1 BSC A MSC A MSC B VLR A VLR B LAC = 456, CI = 789 BSC 2 Subscriber A 1 Subscriber A Dial MSISDN of Subscriber B (0811XXXXX) 2 MSC A ask what the IMSI and the current serving MSC of MSISDN B to HLR. LAC = 123, CI = 788 LAC = 123 CI = 787 MSISDN B = 0811XXXXX IMSI = XYZ
  24. 24. Basic Call Establishment Flow in GSM 3 HLR BSC 1 2 1 BSC A MSC A MSC B VLR A VLR B LAC = 456, CI = 789 BSC 2 Subscriber A 1 Subscriber A Dial MSISDN of Subscriber B (0811XXXXX) 2 MSC A ask what the IMSI and the current serving MSC of MSISDN B to HLR. LAC = 123, CI = 788 3 HLR send the IMSI of the IMSISDN B (IMSI=XZY) and also the information of it’s current serving MSC (MSC B) LAC = 123 CI = 787 MSISDN B = 0811XXXXX IMSI = XYZ
  25. 25. Basic Call Establishment Flow in GSM 3 HLR BSC 1 2 1 BSC A MSC A MSC B LAC = 456, CI = 789 BSC 2 4 Subscriber A 1 Subscriber A Dial MSISDN of Subscriber B (0811XXXXX) 2 MSC A ask what the IMSI and the VLR A VLR B current serving MSC of MSISDN B to HLR. LAC = 123, CI = 788 3 HLR send the IMSI of the IMSISDN B (IMSI=XZY) and also the information of it’s current serving MSC (MSC B) 4 MSC B send the IMSI XYZ to it’s VLR to asking the current LAC that serving the MSISDN B. LAC = 123 CI = 787 MSISDN B = 0811XXXXX IMSI = XYZ
  26. 26. Basic Call Establishment Flow in GSM 3 HLR BSC 1 2 1 BSC A MSC A 5 1 Subscriber A Dial MSISDN of Subscriber B 2 MSC A ask what the IMSI and the BSC 2 4 Subscriber A (0811XXXXX) MSC B LAC = 456, CI = 789 VLR A VLR B current serving MSC of MSISDN B to HLR. LAC = 123, CI = 788 3 HLR send the IMSI of the IMSISDN B (IMSI=XZY) and also the information of it’s current serving MSC (MSC B) 4 MSC B send the IMSI XYZ to it’s VLR to asking the current LAC that serving the MSISDN B. 5 VLR B answer by sending the serving LAC (LAC=123) to MSC B. LAC = 123 CI = 787 MSISDN B = 0811XXXXX IMSI = XYZ
  27. 27. Basic Call Establishment Flow in GSM 3 HLR BSC 1 2 LAC = 456, CI = 789 6 1 BSC A MSC A MSC B 4 Subscriber A 5 1 Subscriber A Dial MSISDN of Subscriber B (0811XXXXX) 2 MSC A ask what the IMSI and the BSC 2 VLR A VLR B current serving MSC of MSISDN B to HLR. LAC = 123, CI = 788 3 HLR send the IMSI of the IMSISDN B (IMSI=XZY) and also the information of it’s current serving MSC (MSC B) 4 MSC B send the IMSI XYZ to it’s VLR to asking the current LAC that serving the MSISDN B. 5 VLR B answer by sending the serving LAC (LAC=123) to MSC B. 6 MSC B order BSC with LAC=123 to send paging command to all cell with LAC=123 LAC = 123 CI = 787 MSISDN B = 0811XXXXX IMSI = XYZ
  28. 28. Basic Call Establishment Flow in GSM 3 HLR BSC 1 2 LAC = 456, CI = 789 6 1 BSC A MSC A MSC B 4 Subscriber A 2 MSC A ask what the IMSI and the 7 5 1 Subscriber A Dial MSISDN of Subscriber B (0811XXXXX) BSC 2 VLR A VLR B current serving MSC of MSISDN B to HLR. LAC = 123, CI = 788 3 HLR send the IMSI of the IMSISDN B (IMSI=XZY) and also the information of it’s current serving MSC (MSC B) 4 MSC B send the IMSI XYZ to it’s VLR to asking the current LAC that serving the MSISDN B. 5 VLR B answer by sending the serving LAC (LAC=123) to MSC B. 6 MSC B order BSC with LAC=123 to send paging command to all cell with LAC=123 7 Order all cell with LAC=123 to broadcast paging. LAC = 123 CI = 787 MSISDN B = 0811XXXXX IMSI = XYZ
  29. 29. Basic Call Establishment Flow in GSM 3 HLR BSC 1 2 LAC = 456, CI = 789 6 1 BSC A MSC A MSC B 4 Subscriber A 2 MSC A ask what the IMSI and the 7 5 1 Subscriber A Dial MSISDN of Subscriber B (0811XXXXX) BSC 2 VLR A IMSI XYZ VLR B LAC = 123, CI = 788 current serving MSC of MSISDN B to HLR. 3 HLR send the IMSI of the IMSISDN B (IMSI=XZY) and also the 6 MSC B order BSC with LAC=123 to send paging command to all cell with LAC=123 IMSI XYZ IMSI XYZ information of it’s current serving MSC (MSC B) 4 MSC B send the IMSI XYZ to it’s VLR to asking the current LAC that serving the MSISDN B. 5 VLR B answer by sending the serving LAC (LAC=123) to MSC B. 8 IMSI XYZ 8 IMSI XYZ LAC = 123 CI = 787 IMSI XYZ 7 Order all cell with LAC=123 to broadcast paging. 8 All cell with LAC=123 broadcast paging with key information is IMSI = XYZ to all MSISDN in it’s coverage. MSISDN B = 0811XXXXX IMSI = XYZ
  30. 30. Basic Call Establishment Flow in GSM 3 HLR BSC 1 2 LAC = 456, CI = 789 6 1 BSC A MSC A MSC B 4 Subscriber A 2 MSC A ask what the IMSI and the 7 5 1 Subscriber A Dial MSISDN of Subscriber B (0811XXXXX) BSC 2 VLR A IMSI XYZ VLR B LAC = 123, CI = 788 current serving MSC of MSISDN B to HLR. 3 HLR send the IMSI of the IMSISDN B (IMSI=XZY) and also the 6 MSC B order BSC with LAC=123 to send paging command to all cell with LAC=123 IMSI XYZ IMSI XYZ information of it’s current serving MSC (MSC B) 4 MSC B send the IMSI XYZ to it’s VLR to asking the current LAC that serving the MSISDN B. 5 VLR B answer by sending the serving LAC (LAC=123) to MSC B. 8 IMSI XYZ 8 IMSI XYZ LAC = 123 CI = 787 9 IMSI XYZ 7 Order all cell with LAC=123 to broadcast paging. 8 All cell with LAC=123 broadcast paging with key information is IMSI = XYZ to all MSISDN in it’s coverage. MSISDN B = 0811XXXXX IMSI = XYZ 9 MSISDN B (IMSI=XYZ ) that served by LAC=123 CI=787 receive the paging signal and then ringing, then answer the call, and the call established.
  31. 31. Basic Call Establishment Flow in GSM 3 HLR BSC 1 2 LAC = 456, CI = 789 6 1 BSC A MSC A MSC B 4 Subscriber A 2 MSC A ask what the IMSI and the 7 5 1 Subscriber A Dial MSISDN of Subscriber B (0811XXXXX) BSC 2 VLR A IMSI XYZ VLR B LAC = 123, CI = 788 current serving MSC of MSISDN B to HLR. 3 HLR send the IMSI of the IMSISDN B (IMSI=XZY) and also the 6 MSC B order BSC with LAC=123 to send paging command to all cell with LAC=123 IMSI XYZ IMSI XYZ information of it’s current serving MSC (MSC B) 4 MSC B send the IMSI XYZ to it’s VLR to asking the current LAC that serving the MSISDN B. 5 VLR B answer by sending the serving LAC (LAC=123) to MSC B. 8 IMSI XYZ 8 IMSI XYZ LAC = 123 CI = 787 9 IMSI XYZ 7 Order all cell with LAC=123 to broadcast paging. 8 All cell with LAC=123 broadcast paging with key information is IMSI = XYZ to all MSISDN in it’s coverage. MSISDN B = 0811XXXXX IMSI = XYZ 9 MSISDN B (IMSI=XYZ ) that served by LAC=123 CI=787 receive the paging signal and then ringing, then answer the call, and the call established.
  32. 32. 2 To Provision Various of Mobile Services Properly
  33. 33. Sample of The Impact of Invalid LAC-CI Configuration to a Mobile Services : Subscriber Charged with Wrong Tariff 12345-54321 Core Network VAS Network Billing System Billing System Table of Tariff Zone 12345-54321 Aceh Physically, LAC-CI = 12345-54321 is located in Jakarta. But in the Billing System it’s configured in Aceh (it’s a wrong configuration).
  34. 34. Sample of The Impact of Invalid LAC-CI Configuration to a Mobile Services : Subscriber Charged with Wrong Tariff 12345-54321 Subscriber A Core Network VAS Network Billing System Billing System Table of Tariff Zone 12345-54321 Aceh Subscriber B When Subscriber A (in Jakarta and serving by LAC-CI = 12345-54321) call subscriber B (in Jakarta), the call could be charged with wrong tariff, because Billing System recognizes LAC-CI = 12345-54321 is in Aceh.
  35. 35. 3 To be Used as Data by Many Kinds of Operation & Business Support Systems
  36. 36. Many of Operation & Business Support Systems use LAC-CI as data source and reference data in their systems. If the configuration of LAC-CI across the network elements is not done properly, the information that produced by OSBSS will not valid too. Operation Performance Reporting & Analysis Corporate Performance Dashboard Asset Management System Fault Management System Business Performance Reporting & Analysis Configuration Management System
  37. 37. THANK YOU. Hopefully this is useful for you. In Indonesia We say it : “TERIMA KASIH. Semoga bermanfa’at.

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