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  • www.cloudcomputingchina.com www.cloudcomputingchina.com [email_address]
  • Hardware and low-level systems software change quickly High-level software (middleware, applications) changes more slowly
  • Hardware-assisted virtualization Hardware-assisted virtualization is very likely to emerge as the standard for server virtualization well into the future. While the first-generation hardware that supports hardware-assisted virtualization offers better CPU performance and improved virtual machine isolation, future enhancements promise to extend both performance (such as memory) and isolation on the hardware level. The key to isolation and memory performance lies in dedicating hardware space to virtual machines. This will come in the form of dedicated address space that is assignable to each VM. AMD-V's forthcoming nested paging support will remove the paging bottleneck found in the current shadow paging methodology and in turn improve memory performance. Note that Intel will offer the same functionality, referred to as Extended Page Tables (EPT), in future enhancements to its VT chips. CPUs that support hardware-assisted virtualization are fully aware of the presence of the server virtualization stack. With hardware-assisted virtualization enabled via the system's Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) setup, the system will automatically reserve physical address space exclusively for virtual machines. This provides true isolation of virtual machine resources. Also note the existence of a device I/O pass-through bus in the virtualization stack. This is significant because virtual machines can use this bus to access high I/O devices such as disk and network directly instead of through emulated hardware resources. However, the pass-through bus, also known as the VMBus, is part of the VMM/hypervisor architecture for hypervisors designed to support hardware-assisted virtualization. Keep in mind that while the pass-through bus can provide a clear data path to physical hardware resources, all control information is processed by the VMM, which prevents one VM from taking full control of a hardware resource.
  • www.cloudcomputingchina.com www.cloudcomputingchina.com [email_address]
  • The hypervisor (ESX Server and ESX Server 3i) then partitions a server into multiple virtual machines. VMs are basically just files and can be treated like files. This gives VMs amazing properties that then enable a much broader set of capabilities beyond just running many VMs on one server, not possible in the physical world. These properties: Partitioning: With ESX Server you are able to run many different OS-es on the same machine Isolation: These VMs running on a physical machine are independent and unaware of each other. Infecting one doesn’t mean affecting all the others. Encapsulation: Since the entire OS + app is packaged up into a set of files – manipulation of VMs becomes very much simpler than their physical counterparts Hardware independence: Virtual machines can be created on any x86 hardware and moved to any other x86 hardware; in many cases live
  • Tugas hasil

    3. 3. Contoh Virtualisasi• Virtual Memory• Virtualisasi Penyimpanan/StorageVirtualization• Mesin Virtual/Virtual Machines (misal: Java)• System Virtualization (misal: VMware, XEN)
    4. 4. Definisi Virtualisasi• Virtualisasi merupakan sebuah fenomenatentang mengembangkan atau menggantisebuah kondisi/antarmuka sistem sehinggaserupa/meniru perilaku sistem lainnya.• Contoh: virtual private network, virtual memory,virtual storage, virtual machine , dll
    5. 5. Pengelompokan/Kategori• Pengelompokan/Kategori Virtualisasi:– Virtualisasi Sistem/ System Virtualization– Virtualisasi Proses / Process virtualization
    6. 6. Virtualisasi Sistem• Melakukan virtualisasi sumberdaya perangkatkeras/peralatan, misal : CPU, I/O, memory,peralatan jaringan, GUI, dll– Perangkat lunaknya disebut VMM (virtualmachine monitor) atau hypervisor
    7. 7. Virtualisasi Proses• Sebuat platform virtual yang melakukaneksekusi sebuah proses.Misal: JVM membaca kode byte / programdan menginterpretasikannya ke format nativesystem.(write once, run everywhere)
    9. 9. Definisi Mesin Virtual• Mesin Virtual/Virtual machine (VM)merupakan sebuah duplikat yang efisien danterisolasi dari sebuah system mesinnyata/fisik.
    10. 10. Istilah Pada Virtualisasi/VirtualMachine• Hypervisor/Virtualizer: Perangkat lunak yangmelakukan virtualisasi system dan monitoringsumberdaya komputasi.Abstraction layer dari perangkat keras.• Host: Sebuah Komputer/server fisik yangdipasangkan software virtualisasi/hypervisor.• Guest: Sistem virtual yang berjalan diatassistem virtualisasi.
    11. 11. Istilah Lain• Emulasi: Sebuah teknik konversi perintah atau instruksimelalui perangkat lunak.Emulasi menciptakan overhead (semakin komplek perintahyang diemulasikan, semakin besar overhead).Emulator: software yang melakukan emulasi. Misalnya: DOSbox,Bochs, Qemu, Dynamips/Dynagen, ePSXe.
    12. 12. SEJARAH
    13. 13. Sejarah Umum• 1960an: VMM digunakan untuk melakukanmultiplexing mainframe– kenapa?• 1980-an hingga 1990-an: Studi tentang VMmenjadi tidak berkembang.– Multitasking OS– Harga perangkat keras semakin murah• 2000-an, Studi tentang VM kembali berlanjut– Security, resource utilization, reliability
    14. 14. Sejarah• 1964 - IBMs Cambridge Scientific Center developed CP-40, intended toimplement full virtualization.• 1970 - IBM System/370 announced, without virtual memory.• 1972 - Announcement of virtual memory added to System/370 series.• 1997 - First version of Virtual PC for Macintosh platform was released.• 1999 - VMware introduced VMware Virtual Platform.• 2003 - Microsoft acquired virtualization technologies.• 2005 - VMware releases VMWare Player, a free player for virtualmachines, to the masses.• 2008 - In April, VMWare releases VMWare Workstation 6.5 beta, the firstprogram for Windows and Linux to enable DirectX 9 accelerated graphicson Windows XP.
    16. 16. Jenis Virtualisasi Mesin• Partial Virtualization• Full Virtualization• Paravirtualization
    17. 17. Partial virtualizationMerupakan teknik vitualisasi atau simulasiperangkat keras, dimana tidak semua bagiandari perangkat tersebut di-virtual-kan,sehingga diperlukan modifikasi sebagian padasistem operasi atau perangkat lunak guest.Misal: Compatible Time-Sharing System(CTTS)pada IBM M44/44X.
    18. 18. Full virtualization (1)Merupakan teknik vitualisasi atau simulasilengkap semua perangkat keras yangdigunakan guest.Misal: Vmware, virtualbox,Parallels Desktop, dll.• Sistem pada guest dapat berjalan tanpamodifikasi.
    19. 19. Full virtualization (2)• Semua Guest mendapatkan sebuah virtualhardware, dan semua virtual harware dikelolaoleh hypervisor.
    20. 20. Paravirtualization (1)Merupakan sebuah teknik vitualisasi denganmelakukan eksekusi permintaan dariguest(OS) sehingga meniru perilaku kerjasebuah sistem perangkat keras yang berbeda.Misal: Xen
    21. 21. Paravirtualization (2)• Tidak dilakukan simulasi lengkap, melainkanpermintaan guest dilayani melalui API (paraAPI).• Guest perlu dipersiapkan/dimodifikasi untukberjalan dalam lingkungan ini.
    22. 22. Paravitualization (3)Istilah pada paravirtualisasi:Dom0: Guest OS utama yang ditumpangkanpada host untuk mengelola dan melayaniguest lainnya.Dom0 dapat mengakses langsung hardwarepada host.DomU: Guest OS yang dikelola oleh Dom0,mengakses hardware melalui para API padaDom0.
    23. 23. Ilustrasi• Full virtualization (direct execution)– Exact hardware exposed to OS– Efficient execution– OS runs unchanged– Requires a “virtualizable” architecture– Example: VMWare• Paravirtualization• OS modified to execute under VMM• Requires porting OS code• Execution overhead• Necessary for some (popular) architectures(e.g., x86)• Examples: Xen
    25. 25. Jenis/Segmen Perangkat Lunak• Jenis Desktop atau Workstation:– Misal : Vmware Workstation, Parallels Desktop,Xen Desktop,dll• Jenis Server atau Enterprise– Misal: Vmware ESX/vSphere, Xen Server, dll
    26. 26. Virtualisasi Segmen DesktopSistem virtualisasi dipasang ke sistem operasi host dandisertai dengan tools pengelolaannya, sehinggamelakukan kontrol sumberdaya komputasi yangberbagi dengan OS host• Pengelolaan sistem dan mesin virtual dilakukanmelalui tool yang dipasang pada sistem operasi host.
    27. 27. Virtualisasi Server/EnterpriseMerupakan Hypervisor yang berjalan pada perangkatserver fisik dan memiliki kontrol penuh ataspengelolaan dan pemetaan sumberdaya komputasiyang tersedia.• Pengelolaan sistem atau mesin virtual dilakukanmelalui tool dasar pada hypervisor atau tool lengkapdi komputer/server lain melalui jaringan komputer.
    28. 28. VMware
    29. 29. Xen
    31. 31. Kenapa dilakukan Virtualisasi?Konsolidasi Server sehingga menghasilkanpenghematan biaya harware dan softwarePengurangan Kompleksitas (Reduction ofComplexity)IsolasiKeseragaman PlatformLegacy SupportPortabilitasPengelolaan beban kerja server yang lebih efektifMenyediakan infrastruktur pengujian yang lebih baikPenyediaan/pembangunan dan instalasi yang lebih
    33. 33. DefinisiMerupajan metoda virtualisasi yangmemungkinkan akses penuh peralatan denganbantuan dari sebuah sistem atau modulhardware khusus pada host.misalnya:• Intel VT-x atau AMD-V• Intel VT-d
    34. 34. Hardware-assistedVirtualization– Server hardware is virtualization aware– Hypervisor and VMM load atprivilege Ring -1 (firmware)– Removes CPU emulation bottleneck– Memory virtualization coming in quadcore AMD and Intel CPUs
    35. 35. Hardware-assistedvirtualization• The guest OS runs at ring 0• The VMM uses processor extensions (such asIntel®-VT or AMD-V) to intercept and emulateprivileged operations in the guest• Hardware-assisted virtualization removes manyof the problems that make writing a VMM achallenge• The VMM runs in a more privileged ring than 0,a virtual -1 ring is createdVirtual Machine MonitorVirtualMachineGuestOSDevice DriversApp.AApp.BApp.CSpecialized APIHardwareHypervisorDevice Drivers
    36. 36. VIRTUALISASIServer/Datacenter
    38. 38. Telah dibahas• Definisi Virtualisasi, Pengelompokan/kategoridan contoh• Definisi Mesin Virtual, Karakter/Sifat, JenisVirtualisasi Server/System, KategoriSoftware/produk Virtualisasi System,Hardware Assisted Virtualization dancontohnya• Sejarah
    39. 39. • Virtualisasi Sistem tidak hanya Xen, Virtualboxdan Vmware• Baca tentang UML,KVM, Hyper-V, dll
    40. 40. Karakterisitik
    41. 41. Karakteristik•Partitioning Run multiple operating systems onone physical machine Divide system resources betweenvirtual machines
    42. 42. •Partitioning Run multiple operating systems on one physical machine Divide system resources between virtual machinesKarakteristik•Isolation Fault and security isolation at thehardware level Advanced resource controls preserveperformance
    43. 43. Karakteristik•Partitioning Run multiple operating systems on one physical machine Divide system resources between virtual machines•Isolation Fault and security isolation at the hardware level Advanced resource controls preserve performance•Encapsulation Entire state of the virtual machine canbe saved to files Move and copy virtual machines aseasily as moving and copying files
    44. 44. •Encapsulation Entire state of the virtual machine can be saved to files Move and copy virtual machines as easily as moving andcopying filesKarakteristik•Partitioning Run multiple operating systems on one physical machine Divide system resources between virtual machines•Isolation Fault and security isolation at the hardware level Advanced resource controls preserve performance•Hardware-Independence/Compatibility Provision or migrate any virtual machineto any similar or different physical server
    46. 46. Sistem Pengelolaan• System Pengelolaan Berbasis Aplikasi diTerminal– Vmware VI Client untuk ESX/ESXi– Citix XenCenter untuk Xen Server• System Pengelolaan Berbasis Server– VMware vCenter untuk ESX/ESXi
    47. 47. Metoda Pengelolaan• Backup• Pemindahan/Migrasi VM– Pemindahan Tanpa Mengganggu Layanan (onlinereplication)• Pengaturan Sumberdaya Komputasi• High Availability– Ketersediaan saat terjadi kegagalan (cluster VM,hardware, network, dll)• Bussiness Continuity/Disaster Recovery
    48. 48. Network Storage• Merupakan elemen sangat penting dalamvirtualisasi System/Server• Semua Mesin adalah file (ingat:enkapsulasi)