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The fight against drug trafficking The fight against drug trafficking Presentation Transcript

  • RISK EVALUATION LTD AnalysisforDecisonMakers MEXICO - LONDON DRUG TRENDS THE FIGHT AGAINST DRUG TRAFFICKING ISTANBUL July 08, 2008 1
  • RISK EVALUATION LTD AnalysisforDecisonMakers MEXICO - LONDON DRUG PROBLEMS Globalization High profit margin  Increase in drug addiction Terrorist activities Changes in the political situation in various countries The drug problem has grown into a regional and international crime problem, not just a national problem. 2
  • RISK EVALUATION LTD AnalysisforDecisonMakers MEXICO - LONDON GLOBAL EVALUATION United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime(UNODC) World Drug Report 1/3 of $1 Trillion US Dollars is derived from illegal income which is approximately $321 Billion US. The source is from drug trafficking. 3
  • RISK EVALUATION LTD AnalysisforDecisonMakers MEXICO - LONDON OPIATES AFGHANISTAN MYANMAR MEXICO LAO PDR COLOMBIA 4
  • RISK EVALUATION LTD AnalysisforDecisonMakers MEXICO - LONDON COMPARING OPIUM PRODUCTION BETWEEN AFGHANISTAN AND REST OF THE WORLD OPIUM GLOBAL PERCENTAGE OF PRODUCTION IN OPIUM Year AFGHANISTAN PRODUCTION PRODUCTION IN AFGHANISTAN (TONS) (TONS) 1998 2,693 4,346 62% 1999 4,565 5,764 79% 2000 3,276 4,691 70% 2001 185 1,596 12% 2002 3,400 4,491 76% 2003 3,600 4,765 76% 2004 4,200 4,850 87% 2005 4,100 4,620 89% 2006 6,100 6,610 92% 2007 8,200 8,847 93% Source: UNODC 5
  • RISK EVALUATION LTD AnalysisforDecisonMakers MEXICO - LONDON OPIUM POPPY CULTIVATION IN AFGHANISTAN (1986 – 2007) 250,000 + 17% 200,000 193,000 Hectares (ha) 150,000 165,000 - 20.7% 131,000 100,000 104,000 50,000 0 Source: UNODC 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 6
  • RISK EVALUATION LTD AnalysisforDecisonMakers MEXICO - LONDON POTENTIAL OPIUM PRODUCTION IN AFGHANISTAN (1986 – 2007) +34.4% 9,000 8,000 8,200 7,000 6,000 6,100 - 2.4% Tons 5,000 4,000 4,200 4,100 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 Source: UNODC 7
  • RISK EVALUATION LTD AnalysisforDecisonMakers MEXICO - LONDON OPIUM POPPY CULTIVATION IN SOUTH EAST ASIA 140,000 127,752 120,000 81% decrease 2000-2006 100,000 Hectares 80,000 60,000 + 22% 40,000 29,200 24,000 20,000 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Lao PDR Myanmar Source: UNODC, Myanmar figures for 2000 & 2001 are US Government estimates 8
  • RISK EVALUATION LTD AnalysisforDecisonMakers MEXICO - LONDON OPIUM POPPY CULTIVATION IN COLOMBIA & MEXICO 10,000 8,900 9,000 - 41% 8,000 7,000 Hectares 6,000 5,250 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Colombia Mexico Source: UNODC: 2000-2006 Colombia, 2000-2005 Mexico; US Government Mexico 2006 9
  • RISK EVALUATION LTD AnalysisforDecisonMakers MEXICO - LONDON POTENTIAL OPIUM PRODUCTION IN SOUTH EAST ASIA 1400 1200 1,254 73% decrease 1000 2000-2006 800Tons 600 + 40% 469 335 400 200 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Lao PDR Myanmar Source: UNODC, Myanmar figures for 2000 & 2001 are US Government estimates 10
  • RISK EVALUATION LTD AnalysisforDecisonMakers MEXICO - LONDON POTENTIAL OPIUM PRODUCTION IN COLOMBIA & MEXICO 200 177 180 160 - 44% 140 120 Tons 99 100 80 60 40 20 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Colombia Mexico Source: UNODC: 2000-2006 Colombia, 2000-2005 Mexico; US Government Mexico 2006 11
  • RISK EVALUATION LTD AnalysisforDecisonMakers MEXICO - LONDON GLOBAL PRODUCTION AND SEIZURES OF HEROIN 600 555 477 495 476 500 469 449 400 Tons 300 11.5% 33.8% 10.9% 11.1% 12.1% 12.2% 200 160 100 54 54 49 53 60 58 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Production Seizures Source: UNODC 12
  • RISK EVALUATION LTD AnalysisforDecisonMakers MEXICO - LONDON COCA AND COCAINE 13
  • RISK EVALUATION LTD AnalysisforDecisonMakers MEXICO - LONDON GLOBAL CULTIVATION OF COCA (1990 – 2006) 225,000 200,000 Coca Cultivation Andean region 175,000 2002 150,000 170,300 ha Hectares 125,000 2003 100,000 ` 153,800 ha 75,000 2004 50,000 158,000 ha 25,000 2005 0 159,600 ha 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2006 Colombia Peru Bolivia 156,900 ha Source: UNODC 14
  • RISK EVALUATION LTD AnalysisforDecisonMakers MEXICO - LONDON ESTIMATED GLOBAL COCAINE PRODUCTION (1990 – 2006) 1,200 1,000 Production Statistics 800 Ton 600 400 200 0 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Colombia Peru Bolivia Source: UNODC 15
  • RISK EVALUATION LTD AnalysisforDecisonMakers MEXICO - LONDON COCAINE TRAFFICKING ROUTES 1200 1000 76.7% Seizures of cocaine 800 transiting direct to Spain and Portugal 58.1% 57.4% 600 38.9% 45.1% 46.5% have decreased 400 200 Seizures on the “back door” 0 of Europe have increased 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Production Seizures Cocaine shipments through West Africa pose a significant threat Reports of large The amount of cocaine leaving quantities of cocaine Venezuela to the US and Europe to Asia increasing has increased dramatically 16
  • RISK EVALUATION LTD AnalysisforDecisonMakers MEXICO - LONDON COCAINE SEIZURES On October 30, 2007, a record 23.5 tons of cocaine was seized in Mexico.Low Profile Vessels:3 multi-ton cocaineseizures from November2006 to March 2008 Photo courtesy of the US Coast Guard 17
  • RISK EVALUATION LTD AnalysisforDecisonMakers MEXICO - LONDON CANNABIS AND DERIVATIVES Percentage of Global Production Africa North America Oceania Central/ and Caribbean Asia Europe Source UNODC (Statistics of 42,000 hectares under cultivation in 18
  • RISK EVALUATION LTD AnalysisforDecisonMakers MEXICO - LONDON GLOBAL SEIZURES OF MARIJUANA (TONS) - 35% 8,000 7,152 7,000 5,940 6,000 5,000 4,674 4,860 4,805 4,644 4,042 4,000 3,209 3,090 3,105 2,998 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Source: UNODC 19
  • RISK EVALUATION LTD AnalysisforDecisonMakers MEXICO - LONDON GLOBAL SEIZURES OF HASHISH (TONS) - 11% 1,600 1,466 1,385 1,400 1,302 1,200 1,090 1,030 1,047 1,000 934 877 896 889 818 800 600 400 200 0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Source: UNODC 20
  • RISK EVALUATION LTD AnalysisforDecisonMakers MEXICO - LONDON RECORD HASHISH SEIZURE In June 2008, a joint operation led to the seizure and destruction of approximately 262 tons of hashish. The hashish was stockpiled in several underground warehouses near Spin Boldak, Afghanistan. 21
  • RISK EVALUATION LTD AnalysisforDecisonMakers MEXICO - LONDON AMPHETAMINE-TYPE SIMULANTS 22
  • RISK EVALUATION LTD AnalysisforDecisonMakers MEXICO - LONDON GLOBAL PRODUCTION OF AMPHETAMINE-TYPE STIMULANTS (ATS) 600 480 479 500 445 126 113 400 113 Tons 54 63 88 300 200 278 291 278 100 0 2003 2004 2005 Methamphetamine Amphetamine Ecstasy Source: UNODC 23
  • RISK EVALUATION LTD AnalysisforDecisonMakers MEXICO - LONDON MDMA PRODUCTION • The Netherlands remains a significant producer of MDMA • “Mega-Labs” in South East Asia are capable of producing both MDMA and crystal methamphetamine. • Asian Organized Crime groups play an important role in the global MDMA trade. • Canada is now the primary source country for MDMA in the United States. 24
  • RISK EVALUATION LTD AnalysisforDecisonMakers MEXICO - LONDON METHAMPHETAMINE TRAFFICKING IN MEXICO• In 2007, decreased availability in the United MEXICO States.• Starting in 2008, no pseudo-ephedrine can be legally imported into Mexico.• Precursor Chemicals now flowing through Central America. Lab seized in Mexico in December 2007 25
  • RISK EVALUATION LTD AnalysisforDecisonMakers MEXICO - LONDON METHAMPHETAMINE IN SOUTH EAST ASIA• Synthetic drugs are the Yunnan Province primary threat in South East Burma Vietnam Asia. Laos• Increasing rates of abuse Thailand and production throughout Cambodia South East Asia. 26
  • RISK EVALUATION LTD AnalysisforDecisonMakers MEXICO - LONDON GLOBAL SEIZURES OF AMPHETAMINE-TYPE STIMULANTS (ATS) 50 44 45 40 5.0 3.2 35.4 31.7 35 29.6 5.3 30 26.6 4.4 24.7 4.5 Tons 25 5.8 12.9 4.0 6.7 20 7.9 35.8 4.4 15 5.9 10 21.1 21.5 15.5 17.2 5 10.9 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Methamphetamine Amphetamine Ecstasy Source: UNODC 27
  • RISK EVALUATION LTD AnalysisforDecisonMakers MEXICO - LONDON ORIGIN OF SEIZURES OF ECSTASY (2003 – 2005) The Netherlands Belgium Germany Canada Poland Lithuania Estonia England Bulgaria China Serbia South America Spain USA Hungary Bosnia & Herzegovina Other European Countries Other Asian Countries Other (Source: UNODC ) 28
  • RISK EVALUATION LTD AnalysisforDecisonMakers MEXICO - LONDON ORIGIN OF GLOBAL SEIZURES OF AMPHETAMINES (2003 – 2005) The Netherlands Poland Belgium Lithuania Estonia Serbia Germany Bulgaria Czech Republic Bosnia & Herzegovina SlovakiaOther European Countries Asian Countries American Countries Oceana (Source: UNODC) 29
  • RISK EVALUATION LTD AnalysisforDecisonMakers MEXICO - LONDON PRECURSOR CHEMICALS • Trafficking groups quickly adapt in response to tighter legal controls. • Countries in Asia, Africa and Middle East used for transit. How will new restrictions impact drug trafficking groups? 30
  • RISK EVALUATION LTD AnalysisforDecisonMakers MEXICO - LONDON ACETIC ANHYDRIDE (AA)• No licit production or legal use inAfghanistan• Produced in at least 18 countries aroundthe world • China, Russia, India, Germany, and South Korea• Smuggled to Afghanistan throughneighboring countries • Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, China, Pakistan, and Iran• Smuggled via maritime vessels incontainerized cargo and overland in cargotrucks 31
  • RISK EVALUATION LTD AnalysisforDecisonMakers MEXICO - LONDON ACETIC ANHYDRIDE (AA) • Price of AA in Afghanistan has reportedly increased over the past year. • Notable seizures: – In November 2007 10 tons of AA in Russia. – In March 2007 14 tons of AA traveling to Pakistan from South Korea. 32
  • RISK EVALUATION LTD AnalysisforDecisonMakers MEXICO - LONDON MONEY LAUNDERING *Bulk cash smuggling continues unabated. *Trade-based money laundering linking organizations in South America, the Middle East and Asia. *Exploiting technology and developing new methods. – Online and Mobile telephone payment system – Virtual worlds 33
  • RISK EVALUATION LTD AnalysisforDecisonMakers MEXICO - LONDON K.K.T.C . •NORTHERN BLACK SEA ROUTE •BALKAN ROUTE •EAST MEDITERRANEAN ROUTE 34
  • RISK EVALUATION LTD AnalysisforDecisonMakers MEXICO - LONDON HEROIN SEIZURES IN EU AND TURKEY 15,000 Turkey – Transit country EU – Target Countries 12,000 10,810 10,274 9,206 8,963 8,975 10,312 Kilograms 9,000 8,069 7,462 ,8844 8,195 6,067 6,005 6,000 6,914 6,052 4,704 3,000 4,651 3,605 3,820 3,509 2,535 0 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 In 2006, Turkey seized more heroin than all the EU countries combined. (Source: UNODC ) 35
  • RISK EVALUATION LTD AnalysisforDecisonMakers MEXICO - LONDON EMERGING THREAT: NORTHERN BLACKSEA ROUTE 1 Operation 121 kg heroin 10 persons arrested 5 Operations 578 kg heroin 1 Operation 19 persons 140 kg heroin arrested 5 persons arrested K.K.T.C. 1 Operation 142 kg heroin 10 persons arrestedCooperation and operational information sharing resulted in large seizures in theUkraine (506 kg), Azerbaijan (142 kg), Kazakhstan (121 kg) and Romania (150 kg) 36/109 36
  • RISK EVALUATION LTD AnalysisforDecisonMakers MEXICO - LONDON SYNTHETIC DRUG ROUTES ECSTASY CAPTAGON 18,000,000 15,665,321 K.K.T.C. 16,000,000 1.592.200 14,000,000 12,000,000 10,963,979 10,000,000 845.390 8,656,886 8,443,719 8,000,000 1.748.796 1.047.559 5,848,457 13.856.097 6,000,000 473.240 9.493.470 4,000,000 6.694.923 7.609.327 5.375.217 2,000,000 0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Captagon Ecstasy 37
  • RISK EVALUATION LTD AnalysisforDecisonMakers MEXICO - LONDON REGIONAL ECSTASY EVALUATION 2004 2005 2006 5,619,269 1,854,487 Netherlands 306 kg 430 kg 4,118,300 210 lt 12 lt England 4,650,000 3,243,647 No Data TURKEY 845,390 1,748,796 1,592,200 France 1,893,226 833,648 1,488,919 Germany 2,052,157 1,588,907 1,082,820Although Turkey is not among the main producing or consumingcountries, it is among one of the top three ecstasy seizing countries inEurope. 38
  • RISK EVALUATION LTD AnalysisforDecisonMakers MEXICO - LONDON OPERATIONS CONDUCTED OVER THE LAST 3 YEARS INVOLVING INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION Local (59) Abroad (30) Countries (21) Heroin 1,854 Kg 2,244 Kg Germany, Austria, Bulgaria, Netherlands, Romania, Saudi Hashish 251 Kg Arabia, USA, Georgia, Cocaine 62 Kg Denmark, England,Spain, Opium 10 Kg 5 Kg Poland, Iran, Ukraine, Italy, Hungary, Norway, Serbia, Captagon 5,734,000 Tablets 2,890,000 Tablets Belgium, Macedonia, Ecstasy 354,523 Tablets 250,000 Tablets Slovenia, Kazakhstan Acetic Anhydride 12,960 Liters 39
  • RISK EVALUATION LTD AnalysisforDecisonMakers MEXICO - LONDON CONTROLLED DELIVERY OPERATIONS ( 1997 – 2007 ) Local (57) / Abroad (77) Countries (19) Heroin 1392 Kg Italy, England, France, Georgia, Hashish 3072 Kg Saudi Arabia, Belgium, Morphine Base 267 Kg Russia, Canada, Macedonia, Cocaine 65 Kg Bulgaria, Netherlands, Opium 57 Kg Hungary, USA, Germany, Romania, Captagon 4,720,000 Tablets Greece, Slovenia, Ecstasy 100,000 Tablets Austria, Pakistan. Acetic 29,427 Liters Anhydride 40
  • RISK EVALUATION LTD AnalysisforDecisonMakers MEXICO - LONDON OUR PROPOSALS 41