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Windows 7 V2
 

Windows 7 V2

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    Windows 7 V2 Windows 7 V2 Presentation Transcript

    • Back to the OS
      Vineet Gupta
      GM – Software Engineering, Directi
      http://vineetgupta.spaces.live.com/
    • It’s Commodity – Why Bother!
    • Meet the New PC
      Apple Mac Pro
      3.0 GHz Intel Xeon
      8 Cores
    • Intel TeraScale – 80 Cores in 5 years
      Source: http://techresearch.intel.com/articles/terascalepop.html
    • Welcome to Many-Core
    • The Free Lunch is Over
      No more “Old apps get faster on newer hardware”
      To make apps take advantage of new hardware, you need to utilize more cores
      99% of code is serial!
      Impact is even higher on Desktop
    • Disk Is Tape
      The straw to disk is getting skinnier
      Each generation:
      Capacity increases with areal density
      Read/Write time with linear density
      10+ Terabyte disks projected for 2010 ( $100 or so)
      5-15 hours read sequentially
      15-150 days to read randomly
      Need to Treat Most of Disk as Cold Storage
    • SATA Disks 40XCheaper per GB (2007)
      A Fat Straw RemainingFat as Capacity Rises
      Flash Is Disk
      Current TrendsShow Price
      Crossoverin 2012 or so…(SATA = Flash)
      Flash capacity doubled each year since 1995
      Market driven by phone, camera, iPod
      Low entry-cost  $30/chip  $3/chip
      Flash makes a better “disk” than disk
      5000 I/Os per second
      Read 20MB/sec; Write 10MB/sec (per chip)
      N chips  N * Bandwidth
      8 chips plus controller  1 Watt !
      Flash Is COOL!
      2010: 128GB Flash disk for $40
    • Storage Is Changing
      Flash Is Disk…
      Disk Is Tape…
      Tape Is Dead…
      Flash Is Cool…
    • The OS is far from being commodityPlease do bother!
    • Agenda
      Parallelism
      Storage
      User Interaction
      Power
      Security
      Management
    • Parallelism
    • Concurrency is Hard
    • Applications
      Automotive control system
      Internet – based photo services
      Applications
      Robotics-based manufacturing assembly line
      Silverlight Olympics viewer
      IFx / CCR
      Task Concurrency
      WCF
      Agents
      Maestro
      TPL / PPL
      WF
      Local Computing
      Distributed Cloud Computing
      Applications
      Ultrasound imaging equipment
      Media encode/decode
      Image processing/ enhancement
      Data visualization
      Applications
      Enterprise search, OLTP, collab
      Animation / CGI rendering
      Weather forecasting
      Seismic monitoring
      Oil exploration
      Data Parallelism
      Cluster SOA
      PLINQ
      D-PLINQ
      TPL / PPL
      OpenMP
      D-TPL
      MPI / MPI.Net
      CDS
      Parallel Technologies from Microsoft
    • Parallelism and the Software Stack
      Constructing Parallel
      Applications
      Applications
      Libraries
      Efficiently Executing
      Parallel Applications
      Languages, Compilersand Tools
      Concurrency Runtime
      CoordinatingSystem Resources and Services
      OS/Hypervisor
      OS/Hypervisor
      Hardware
    • Windows 7 Proccessing Unit Scaling
      128 Logical Processor System
      Group
      (up to 64 logical processors)
      NUMA Node
      Socket
      Core
      Logical Processor
    • Windows 7 Processing Unit Scaling
      Segmented specification – “groups” of CPUs
      CPUs identified in software by Group#: CPU#
      Allows backward compatibility with 64-bit affinity
      New applications have full CPU range using new APIs
      Permits better locality during scheduling than a “flat” specification
    • Enabling Concurrency Runtimes
      Reducing kernel intervention in thread scheduling with User Mode Scheduling (UMS)
      User
      Thread
      4
      User
      Thread
      3
      User
      Thread
      5
      User
      Thread
      6
      Core 2
      Core 2
      Core 1
      Core 1
      Thread
      4
      Thread
      5
      User
      Thread
      1
      Thread
      3
      Thread
      1
      Thread
      2
      Thread
      6
      User
      Thread
      2
      Kernel
      Thread
      1
      Kernel
      Thread
      2
      Non-running threads
      Kernel
      Thread
      4
      Kernel
      Thread
      3
      Kernel
      Thread
      5
      Kernel
      Thread
      6
    • Storage
    • Storage Technologies
      Growing gap between HDD and DRAM
      FLASH is here today – “solid state storage”
      No mechanics like HDD
      Persistent unlike DRAM
      Flash performance is complementary to HDD and DRAM
      PCM is potentially a new layer
      30x faster than today’s FLASH
      No write limit
      Being developed – future is not yet clear
      IOPS
      $/GB
      HDD
      PCM
      DRAM
      ?
      70s EEPROM($10K/GB)
      1997 Digital photo – killer application ($1K/GB)
      2005 Mobile applications($20/GB)
      Flash
      1987 FLASH invented($5K/GB)
      2003 Digital music ($100/GB)
      2006 Computing UFDs($5/GB)
    • Windows 7 Enables Improved Endurance for SSD Technology
      SSD can identify itself differently from HDD in ATA
      Reporting non-rotating media will allow Windows 7to set Defrag off as default; improving device endurance by reducing writes
    • Best Of Both Worlds
      Small cache with different characteristics than Primary Store
      • Flash has faster random performance than HDD
      Caching benefit determined by
      • Type & speed of cache
      • Cache management method
      I/F (SATA)
      Buffer (DRAM)
      Cache (Flash)
      Performance & Power defined by Size & RPM
      • Incremental improvements gen-to-gen
      • Fast sequential performance
      • Random performance limited by mechanical latency
      Delivers Affordable Capacity
      Primary Store (disc)
      • Reliability gains come with integrating the flash-cache into the drive
    • User Interaction - Touch
    • Multi-Touch Capable PCs Are Available Today
      HP TouchSmart
      All-in-one PC with 2-touch digitizer from NextWindow
      Dell Latitude XT
      Laptop with Multi-touch and pen digitizer from N-Trig
    • Key Scenarios:
      • Navigating and consuming the web
      • Reading & sorting email
      • Viewing photos
      • Playing casual games
      • Consuming music and video
      • Navigating files & arranging windows
      • Using Office applications
      • All focused on consumption
      Touch Scenarios And Windows 7
      Areas of investment:
      Developer Platform: At the root is the touch developer platform that exposes touch APIs for any application
      UI Enhancements: Focusing on the core scenarios, many parts of the core UI have been optimized for touch experiences.
      Gestures: Multi-touch gestures have been added to enable consistent panning and zooming in most applications.
      Applications: A set of multi-touch focused applications that demonstrate the power of touch. These will ship separate from Win7.
    • Windows 7 Release
      NET 4.0 / Surface 2.0 Release
      Native
      Win32
      Application
      WinFormsApplication
      WPF Application
      Surface Application
      Surface SDK
      1.0
      Surface SDK 2.0
      Multi-Touch Controls
      Surface
      Multi-Touch Controls & API
      Multi-Touch API
      WPF 3.5 SP1
      WPF 4.0
      WPF 3.5
      Managed Wrapper and Interop
      Managed Wrapper and Interop
      Multi-Touch API and Controls
      Surface Hardware
      Windows 7
      Surface Hardware
      Windows Vista
      Windows 7
      Multi-Touch API
      Touch Development Roadmap
    • Touch Platform Overview
    • User Interaction - Readability
    • Unexploited High Resolution Displays
      Users with Max Resolution of 1600X1200
      Details
      Almost half of all of users are not configuring their display to maximum resolution (!)
      Users are lowering their screen resolution to get larger text…
    • High DPI Issues
      Clipped Text
      Layout Issues & Image Size Issues
      WinForms Issues
      Pixilated Bitmaps
      Blurry UI
      Mismatched Font Sizes
    • Configure DPI via Display CPL
      Windows 7 uses Scaling percentage instead of a raw DPI value
      This is because most users don’t understand DPI
      100% = 96 DPI, 125% = 120 DPI, 150% = 144 DPI
    • DPI Settings Change System Metrics
      Font and Text
      When the DPI increases the UI uses more pixels to draw icons, UI controls (e.g. scrollbars), and Text.
    • System Text Size Increases with DPI
      This is the letter “N” blown at 1300% using a magnifier.
      Notice the number of pixels used increases with DPI.
      Also notice the sub-pixel coloration from ClearType, which is why native resolution is important.
      96 DPI
      (11 pixels)
      120 DPI
      (13 pixels)
      144 DPI
      (16 pixels)
    • Desktop Composition Primer (DWM)
      DWM Composes the Desktop
      With DWM, all apps render off-screen and are composed by DWM at the screen refresh rate.
      These off-screen surfaces are also used for Thumbnails and for Flip 3D
      Off-screen Memory Surface
    • DPI Virtualization (Automatic Scaling)
      DWM Scales A at composition time
      A is not DPI Aware, and renders in a 96-DPI virtualized context
      System metrics for A are in a 96-DPI virtualized space.
      A is given a 96-DPI surface to render into (smaller).
      B is DPI-Aware
    • DPI Virtualization Compatibility
      Can be disabled per-application by right-clicking the app and selecting Properties -> compatibility.
      Note that DPI virtualization is only on by default if the DPI is set to 144 or greater.
      This can also be disabled globally via the “custom DPI” dialog (below).
    • DirectWrite
      Modern Typography
      Works with any rendering technology
      Hardware accelerated text with Direct2D
      ClearType filter and blend performed in hardware
      Enables app-level hardware caching optimizations
      Reduced CPU usage in Windows OS components when drawing glyphs
    • DirectWrite Script Support
      الْعَرَبِيَّة
       Հայերէն
       বাংলা
       ㄓㄨˋ ㄧㄣㄈㄨˊ ㄏㄠˋ 
      ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ
       ᏣᎳᎩ
      简体汉字
      繁体漢字
      Кириллица
      𐐔𐐯𐑅𐐨𐑉𐐯𐐻
      देवनागरी
      ግዕዝ
      მხედრული
      Ελληνικό
      ગુજરાતી
      ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ
      עִבְרִית
      ひらがな、カタカナ、漢字
      ಕನ್ನಡ
      អក្ខរក្រមខេមរភាសា
      ශුද්ධ සිංහල
      ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ
      ᥖᥭᥰᥖᥬᥳᥑᥨᥒᥰ
      தமிழ்
      తెలుగు
      ތާނަ
      ⵜⵉⴼⵉⵏⴰⵖ
      อักษรไทย
      དབུ་ཅན་
      ꕙꔤ
      ꆈꌠꁱꂷ
      한글
      ພາສາລາວ
      Latin
      മലയാളം
      ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠻ
      ᦟᦹᧅ ᦎᦷ ᦑᦺ
      ߒߞߏ
      𐒋𐒘𐒈𐒑𐒛𐒒𐒕𐒀
      ଓଡ଼ିଆ
      ꡍꡂꡛꡌ
    • DirectWrite – Precise Glyph Shapes
    • Power
    • Deep Focus on Idle
    • Frequent Idle Activity
      Specific Windows 7 improvements
      Eliminate TCP DPC timer on every system timer interrupt
      Reduce frequency of USB driver maintenance timers
      Intelligent Timer Tick Distribution (ITTD)
      Timer Coalescing
      Eliminate idle activity in drivers and applications
      Target average idle period greater than 100ms
    • Background Process Management
      Background activity on the macro scale (minutes, hours) also important for power
      E.g., disk defragmentation, AV scans
      Prevents low-power idle and sleep modes
      Unified Background Process Manager (UBPM)
      New Windows 7 infrastructure
      Drives scheduling of services and scheduled tasks
      Transparent to users, IT pros, and existing APIs
      Enables trigger-starting services
      Delivers usage data and metrics to Microsoft via CEIP
    • Trigger-Start Services
      Many services configured to Autostart and wait for rare events
      UBPM enables Trigger-Start services based on environmental changes
      Device arrival/removal, IP address change, domain join, etc.
      Examples
      Bluetooth service is started only if a Bluetooth radio is currently attached
      BitLocker encryption service started only when new volumes detected
      Call to Action
      Leverage trigger-start capability for value-add services
      Validate performance impact with XPerf tools
    • Security
    • Why Data Protection Matters
      “Some of the largest and medium-sized U.S. airports report close to 637,000 laptops lost each year, according to the Ponemon Institute survey released Monday.”
      —PC World June 2008
      “More than 100 USB memory sticks, some containing secret information, have been lost or stolen from the Ministry of Defense since 2004, it has emerged.”
      —BBC News July 2008
    • BitLocker ArchitectureStatic root of trust measurement of early boot components
    • Disk Layout and Key Storage
      Operating System Volume
      Contains
      Encrypted OS
      Encrypted page file
      Encrypted temp files
      Encrypted data
      Encrypted hibernation file
      Where’s the Encryption Key?
      SRK (Storage Root Key) contained in TPM
      SRK encrypts the VMK (Volume Master Key)
      VMK encrypts FVEK (Full Volume Encryption Key) – used for the actual data encryption
      FVEK and VMK are stored encrypted on the Operating System Volume
      VMK
      FVEK
      SRK
      2
      3
      Operating System Volume
      1
      4
      System Volume
      Contains
      MBR
      Boot Manager
      Boot Utilities
      System
    • BitLocker in Windows 7
    • The UAC Prompt
      They allow the user
      to do privileged
      operations when
      needed
      These are UAC elevations
      Things an Administrator
      Can do
      Things a standard
      User can do
      Things a real user
      Needs to do
      While highlighting
      that these are privileged
      operations that you don’t want
      to happen without your consent
    • What Are These Elevations?
      Some are necessary
      Install or uninstall software
      Change firewall settings
      Change system time
      Don’t want malware doing this …
      Some are not so necessary
      Applications making unnecessary use of registry keys
      Change time zone (a Vista enhancement)
      Viewing (not changing) system settings
    • Management
    • Federated Search
      Enterprise information is growing at 40% annually
      Data is moving off desktops and into central document management systems
      Collaboration
      Information sharing
      Client search of remote Enterprise data repositories is a compelling need
    • Federated Search
      Rich client experience
      Previews, metadata, drag-and-drop
      Familiar Windows Explorer paradigms
      Simple and lightweight integration
      No client code
      Any server platform
      Standards-based
      OpenSearch 1.1
      RSS and ATOM
      Authentication
      Windows Integrated
      2. Windows sends search terms as HTTP request
      1. Search Connector (.osdx) Installed
      3. RSS results returned from server
    • Manageability
    • In Summary
      Parallelism
      Storage
      User Interaction
      Power
      Security
      Management
    • Questions?
    • Thanks!