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Presentation for topic Intelligent Network Sensors

Presentation for topic Intelligent Network Sensors

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    • Introduction to Sensor NetworksIntroduction to Micaz Sensor BoardProject ApproachProject ProposalsConclusionBibliographyMicazXplProject Reporthttp://micazxpl.googlecode.comAnkit SinghPhilipp OrekhovRishu SethMohammad TariqueFachhochschule Frankfurt am Main - University of Applied Sciences15 February 2011Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor NetworksIntroduction to Micaz Sensor BoardProject ApproachProject ProposalsConclusionBibliographyTable of Contents I1 Introduction to Sensor NetworksOverviewFields of ApplicationHome ApplicationsEnvironment ApplicationsMilitary ApplicationsType of SensorsFactors Inuencing Sensor Network Design2 Introduction to Micaz Sensor BoardSoftware componentsHardware components3 Project ApproachTutorialsResearch PapersAnkit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor NetworksIntroduction to Micaz Sensor BoardProject ApproachProject ProposalsConclusionBibliographyTable of Contents IIDocumentationsDevelopments of Applications4 Project ProposalsDataTransmissionMethodsImproving the Availability5 Conclusion6 BibliographyAnkit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor NetworksIntroduction to Micaz Sensor BoardProject ApproachProject ProposalsConclusionBibliographyOverviewFields of ApplicationType of SensorsFactors Inuencing Sensor Network DesignIntroductionA wireless sensor network is a collection of nodes organizedinto a cooperative network.Each node consists of processing capability (one or moremicrocontrollers, CPUs or DSP chips)Contain multiple types of memory (program, data and ashmemories),have a RF transceiver (usually with a single omnidirectionalantenna),have a power source (e.g., batteries and solar cells), andaccommodate various sensors and actuators.Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor NetworksIntroduction to Micaz Sensor BoardProject ApproachProject ProposalsConclusionBibliographyOverviewFields of ApplicationType of SensorsFactors Inuencing Sensor Network DesignHome ApplicationsHome automation: smart sensor nodes and actuators can beburied in appliances, such as vacuum cleaners, micro-waveovens, refrigerators, and VCRs. They are connected toexternal networks.Smart environment: Furniture and appliances (and servers)learn to provide the needed service.Smart kindergarten: to provide parents and teachers with theabilities to comprehensively investigate students learningprocesses; to collect, manage, and fuse the information of thesensorsAnd Many more applicationsAnkit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor NetworksIntroduction to Micaz Sensor BoardProject ApproachProject ProposalsConclusionBibliographyOverviewFields of ApplicationType of SensorsFactors Inuencing Sensor Network DesignEnvironment ApplicationsForest re detection: Strategically, randomly, and denselydeployed sensor nodes can relay the exact origin of the re.Biocomplexity mapping of the environment: integratinginformation across temporal and spatial scales.Flood detection: rainfall, water level and weather sensorssupply information to the centralized database system.Precision Agriculture: the pesticides level in the drinkingwater, soil erosion, and air pollution.Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor NetworksIntroduction to Micaz Sensor BoardProject ApproachProject ProposalsConclusionBibliographyOverviewFields of ApplicationType of SensorsFactors Inuencing Sensor Network DesignMilitary ApplicationsMonitoring friendly forces, equipment and ammunition.Battleeld surveillanceReconnaissance of opposing forces and terrainTargetingBattle damage assessmentNuclear, biological and chemical attack detection andreconnaissanceAnkit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor NetworksIntroduction to Micaz Sensor BoardProject ApproachProject ProposalsConclusionBibliographyOverviewFields of ApplicationType of SensorsFactors Inuencing Sensor Network DesignSensorsDierent types of sensors: seismic, low sampling ratemagnetic, thermal, visual, infrared, acoustic and radar.Monitors: temperature, humidity, vehicular movement,lightning condition, pressure, soil makeup, noise levels.Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor NetworksIntroduction to Micaz Sensor BoardProject ApproachProject ProposalsConclusionBibliographyOverviewFields of ApplicationType of SensorsFactors Inuencing Sensor Network DesignFactorsFault tolerance;scalability;production costs;operating environment;sensor network topology;hardware constraints;transmission media; andpower consumption.Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor NetworksIntroduction to Micaz Sensor BoardProject ApproachProject ProposalsConclusionBibliographySoftware componentsHardware componentsSoftware components ITinyOSit is open source.portable.designed for low-power wireless devices.supports scheduling.component library includes network protocols, distributedservices, sensor drivers, and data acquisition tools.Linux: We used because it is much compatible with TinyOSenvironment.Programming EnvironmentNetwork Embedded System C (nesC): is a component-based,event-driven programming language used to build applicationsfor the TinyOS platform.Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor NetworksIntroduction to Micaz Sensor BoardProject ApproachProject ProposalsConclusionBibliographySoftware componentsHardware componentsSoftware components IIJava: Allows portable message structure handling and used forGUI.Shell scripting: Frontend tool and for writing tools for workingsmoothly with TinyOS environment.Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor NetworksIntroduction to Micaz Sensor BoardProject ApproachProject ProposalsConclusionBibliographySoftware componentsHardware componentsHardware components ICrossbow oers a variety of sensor and data acquisition boardsfor the MICAz Mote.Some features are given belowSize 2.25 x 1.25 square inchesSame size as the Mica Board2 Layer Board (Top and Bottom)top in a stack of daughter cardsWe used MTS300 Sensor Daughter card board.We sensed Light, temperature, acoustic and sounder sensor.MICAz Mote:I/O: 51 pin connector for connection to a sensor boardSupports Analog inputs, Digital I/O, I2C, SPI and UART 3Diagnostic LEDsAnkit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor NetworksIntroduction to Micaz Sensor BoardProject ApproachProject ProposalsConclusionBibliographySoftware componentsHardware componentsHardware components IIRadios: TI CC2420CPU: Atmega 128L Microcontroller up to 16 MIPSStorage: 128K Flash, 4K SRAM, 4K EEPROMBase Stations: Any MICAz Mote can function as a basestation when it is connected to a standard PC interface orgateway board. The MIB510 or MIB520 provides a serial/USBinterface for both programming and data communications.Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor NetworksIntroduction to Micaz Sensor BoardProject ApproachProject ProposalsConclusionBibliographyTutorialsResearch PapersDocumentationsDevelopments of ApplicationsLearned from TinyOS Tutorials Iwe rst installed the TinyOs system and introduced withmotes and learnt how to use those motes. Also we learnt howwe pushed TinyOs application on motesin second step we learnt how we can write TinyOs applicationsusing nesC languages and usages of interfaces,commands andevents.The Tutorial "Mote-Mote Radio Communication" introducedus to radio communication in TinyOS. We got familiar with:PacketSendReceivePacketAcknowledgementsRadioTimeStampingAnkit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor NetworksIntroduction to Micaz Sensor BoardProject ApproachProject ProposalsConclusionBibliographyTutorialsResearch PapersDocumentationsDevelopments of ApplicationsLearned from TinyOS Tutorials IIThen we moved to Mote Pc communication tutorial. Welearnt here:How to communicate with a mote from a computer.We used RJ 45 cable i.e TCP/IP network for connectingprogramming board to computer (in our case Laptop).In sensing tutorial we learnt two thingsSense Application: It periodically takes sensor readings anddisplays the values on the LEDs.Oscilloscope: It periodically broadcast their sensor readings toa base station board to computer (in our case Laptop).Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor NetworksIntroduction to Micaz Sensor BoardProject ApproachProject ProposalsConclusionBibliographyTutorialsResearch PapersDocumentationsDevelopments of ApplicationsSummaries of Research Papers IAdhoc Routing architecture -We described general Ad-Hoc routing architecture.Our proposal − A new Ad-Hoc architecture with datareliability and integrity using Sliding window protocol.Generalised topology of WSN − Analysis of various kind oftopologies for WSN.StarBusMeshHybridRingCTP-Collection Tree Protocol −It is basic structure of data transmission protocol in WSN.Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor NetworksIntroduction to Micaz Sensor BoardProject ApproachProject ProposalsConclusionBibliographyTutorialsResearch PapersDocumentationsDevelopments of ApplicationsSummaries of Research Papers IIDemerits − It is only useful for low trac data.RSSI-Received signal strength indicator − Used to measuredistance between sensor nodes.Advantages − Indoor and Outdoor usageData and communication and sensor usage on same hardware.Disadvantages − Multiple propogationFading eectEnergy Eciency Topologies − We researched varioustopologies and approachesOnline battery monitoringPatterned topologiesLocation based topology(R & M and LMST)Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor NetworksIntroduction to Micaz Sensor BoardProject ApproachProject ProposalsConclusionBibliographyTutorialsResearch PapersDocumentationsDevelopments of ApplicationsContent of the ReportInitial proposal for the implementation a realiable dataacquisition systemTinyOS installation guide for Beginners (A quick cheatsheet toget started)Research paper based on several Research papers. :DA compilation of interesting ndings :))Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor NetworksIntroduction to Micaz Sensor BoardProject ApproachProject ProposalsConclusionBibliographyTutorialsResearch PapersDocumentationsDevelopments of ApplicationsMicazXpl Version 0.1 IMessage Structuretypedef nx_struct data {nx_uint16_t moteid; // ID OF THE SENSING MOTEnx_uint16_t timestamp; // timestamp to distinguish// between older data// 3 types of sensor readingsnx_uint16_t light[NREADINGS];nx_uint16_t sound[NREADINGS];nx_uint16_t temp[NREADINGS];} data_t;// message content + crc sum of the contentAnkit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor NetworksIntroduction to Micaz Sensor BoardProject ApproachProject ProposalsConclusionBibliographyTutorialsResearch PapersDocumentationsDevelopments of ApplicationsMicazXpl Version 0.1 IItypedef nx_struct msg_crc {data_t msg_data;nx_uint16_t crc;} msg_crc_t;// message to be encrypted + encrypted crc sumtypedef nx_struct enc_msg_crc {msg_crc_t msg;nx_uint16_t final_crc;nx_uint8_t counter; // hop (incremented// at each successive mote)} enc_msg_crc_t;Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor NetworksIntroduction to Micaz Sensor BoardProject ApproachProject ProposalsConclusionBibliographyTutorialsResearch PapersDocumentationsDevelopments of ApplicationsMicazXpl Version 0.1 IIIEncryptionvoid crypt(void *buf, uint8_t lenBuf, uint16_t key);void crypt(void *buf, uint8_t lenBuf, void *key,uint8_t lenKey)Forward-to-previous Routing:mote id 3 with sensor → mote id 2 → mote id 1 → mote id 0or base stationCRC Calculationasync command uint16_t crc16(void *buf, uint8_t len);Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor NetworksIntroduction to Micaz Sensor BoardProject ApproachProject ProposalsConclusionBibliographyTutorialsResearch PapersDocumentationsDevelopments of ApplicationsLive Sensor Result IThe sample of live recorded data with encrypted and decryptedpayload data is given below:Encrypted Payload Data00 00 01 00 02 19 00 EE FE EF FE ED FF 12 FF 12 FF 12 FF 12FF 12 FC ED FC ED FC ED DD F0 1D BF 0000 00 01 00 02 19 00 EE FE EF FE EC FC ED FC ED FC ED FCED FC ED FC ED FC EC FC EF B4 45 1D BF 0000 00 01 00 02 19 00 EE FE EF FE EF FC FF FC F5 FC F6 FC F3FC F1 FC FA FC F9 FC FF 88 22 1D BF 0000 00 01 00 02 19 00 EE FE EF FE EE FC CA FC C6 FC C3 FC C2FC FC DD FC C6 FC CB 2F BF 1D BF 0000 00 01 00 02 19 00 EE FE EF FE E9 FC F2 FC CE FC C2 FC DAAnkit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor NetworksIntroduction to Micaz Sensor BoardProject ApproachProject ProposalsConclusionBibliographyTutorialsResearch PapersDocumentationsDevelopments of ApplicationsLive Sensor Result IIFC D6 FC D0 FC D3 FC D0 61 44 1D BF 0000 00 01 00 02 19 00 EE FE EF FE E8 FC DE FC C3 FC C7 FC C2FC D7 FC AF FC AB FC AA 86 B4 1D BF 0000 00 01 00 02 19 00 EE FE EF FE EB FC AB FC A9 FC AF FC D3FC D5 FC D9 FC DF FC DC D3 EA 1D BF 00Decrypted Payload Data00 00 01 00 02 19 00 EE 00 02 00 00 01 F5 01 F5 01 F5 01 F601 F6 01 F6 01 F6 01 F6 0F A7 1D BF 0000 00 01 00 02 19 00 EE 00 02 00 02 02 11 02 1A 02 1C 02 1602 11 02 0D 02 1B 02 25 DD 15 1D BF 0000 00 01 00 02 19 00 EE 00 02 00 06 02 40 02 3B 02 36 02 3302 31 02 3D 02 43 02 45 BD 4F 1D BF 00Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor NetworksIntroduction to Micaz Sensor BoardProject ApproachProject ProposalsConclusionBibliographyTutorialsResearch PapersDocumentationsDevelopments of ApplicationsLive Sensor Result III00 00 01 00 02 19 00 EE 00 02 00 07 02 46 02 41 02 3C 02 3702 34 02 32 02 31 02 30 81 80 1D BF 0000 00 01 00 02 19 00 EE 00 02 00 08 02 30 02 30 02 2F 02 2F02 2F 02 2E 02 2E 02 2E 47 E3 1D BF 0000 00 01 00 02 19 00 EE 00 02 00 09 02 2C 02 2A 02 29 02 2E02 39 02 41 02 44 02 46 73 FC 1D BF 0000 00 01 00 02 19 00 EE 00 02 00 0A 02 45 02 43 02 41 02 3E02 3B 02 38 02 3E 02 45 A0 93 1D BF 00Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor NetworksIntroduction to Micaz Sensor BoardProject ApproachProject ProposalsConclusionBibliographyTutorialsResearch PapersDocumentationsDevelopments of ApplicationsMicazXpl Version 0.2Version 0.1 + CTP RoutingProblemshard to monitor trac paths due to dynamic link estimation.extra overhead on the message format and size.real-time operations on the data become more time consuming.Possible steps to use CTPlink with the CTP, net and some link estimator libraries (inMakele).setup the root node to be at the base station.enable the routing to be performed through the CTP.manage the message format and size for proper data handling.ignore or overcome the real-time message operationsslowdowns.Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor NetworksIntroduction to Micaz Sensor BoardProject ApproachProject ProposalsConclusionBibliographyDataTransmissionMethodsImproving the AvailabilityDataCRC Checksum:we want to be sure the integrity of the data is intact.To achieve that a library function from the TinyOS can beused.Timestamp:we want to avoid duplicate data and be able to control theordering.For that a timer library function from the TinyOS can be used.Security:we want to ensure that the data is not easily available tounauthorized viewers.For that a fast and simple shared-key XOR based encryptionfunction is to be used. Additionally or alternatively the radiochips built in security mechanisms can be used.Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor NetworksIntroduction to Micaz Sensor BoardProject ApproachProject ProposalsConclusionBibliographyDataTransmissionMethodsImproving the AvailabilityDataSensor Readings:we want to be able to check for missing data and possiblyoutliers in data.For missing data - a predened value (eg 0xFF) can be used.For outliers - some simple statistical calculations.Message Structure:we want to make sure we can collect and transfer the dataitems of our choice, and to incorporate the above mentionedmechanisms.For that we specify our own message structure format with:counter, timestamp, security & integrity and the messagecontent itself.Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor NetworksIntroduction to Micaz Sensor BoardProject ApproachProject ProposalsConclusionBibliographyDataTransmissionMethodsImproving the AvailabilityTransmissionMultihop and Routing:we want to have dierent routing mechanisms to be in controlof the data transmission.The mechanisms we use are: broadcast transmission anddirected message passing.For directed: we can use a simple forward-to-previous-nodemultihop, as well as the more advanced multihop protocols,like CTP.Data Loss and Damage:we want to prevent accidental and malicious datamodications during transmissions.These requirements can be accomplished by use of controlmessages, timeouts and counters, and the security & integritymechanisms described previously.Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor NetworksIntroduction to Micaz Sensor BoardProject ApproachProject ProposalsConclusionBibliographyDataTransmissionMethodsImproving the AvailabilityTransmissionNetwork Congestion:we want to avoid network overloads leading to data loss.By combining the use of on-device storage with intelligentretransmission, we may have a simple way to achive that goal.Mote Availability:we dont want the data transmissions to be lost when somenodes become unavailable or more nodes become available.A simple solution that can be used is to require all nodes tobroadcast their IDs as alive messages periodically.Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor NetworksIntroduction to Micaz Sensor BoardProject ApproachProject ProposalsConclusionBibliographyDataTransmissionMethodsImproving the AvailabilityMethodsRedundancy:we would like to be able to handle the situations of hardwareand software components from failing or working unexpectedly.Appying the principles of software, data and hardwareredundancy is a common approach to be taken.Local Storage:in case something unintended happens to the data duringtransmissions we would like to have a copy of the original.Utilizing local storage is a simple and ecient solution for thisissue.Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor NetworksIntroduction to Micaz Sensor BoardProject ApproachProject ProposalsConclusionBibliographyDataTransmissionMethodsImproving the AvailabilityImproving the AvailabilityPower Management:for the battery powered devices motes are it is necessary tokeep the power consumption to the minimum the prolongunattended availability of the devices.Switching o unnecessary components and using the availablepower management options (eg Sleep state) is a way toachieve this requirement.Low Power Listening:TinyOS provides an option for putting the devicescomponents to sleep mode until woken by an event, like timerexpiry or a remote message.Taking advantage of this optional functionality might be veryuseful.Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor NetworksIntroduction to Micaz Sensor BoardProject ApproachProject ProposalsConclusionBibliographyConclusionWe learned many theoritical and practical aspects ofembedded sensor boards and general eld of sensor networks.We have learned the specics of micaZ sensor kits and deviseda project to learn and improve upon the basics of this eld.We have read around number of research topics that cover thecurrent practical problems in sensor network communities.We have gathered the practical experience in the production ofscientic and technical documentation. e.g Research &Development scientic papers.And there should be more open papers and research documentsavailable freely for the reseachers in this sensor network area.We need to work more our project MicazXpl Version 0.2.Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor NetworksIntroduction to Micaz Sensor BoardProject ApproachProject ProposalsConclusionBibliographyThank You for listening !Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor NetworksIntroduction to Micaz Sensor BoardProject ApproachProject ProposalsConclusionBibliographyBibliographyTinyOS Ocial Website http://tinyos.net/An Overview of Sensor Network Techniques, EECS 600 Advanced Network Research, Spring 2005Wireless Sensor Networks, John A. Stankovic, Department of Computer Science, University ofVirginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904The Collection Tree Protocol (CTP), TEP 123Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com