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Air traffic control
Air traffic control
Air traffic control
Air traffic control
Air traffic control
Air traffic control
Air traffic control
Air traffic control
Air traffic control
Air traffic control
Air traffic control
Air traffic control
Air traffic control
Air traffic control
Air traffic control
Air traffic control
Air traffic control
Air traffic control
Air traffic control
Air traffic control
Air traffic control
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Air traffic control
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Air traffic control

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Air Traffic Control project for subject "Real Time Systems"

Air Traffic Control project for subject "Real Time Systems"

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  • 1. : INDEX :Approver’s Sheet…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Page 2Real Time Systems………………………………………………………………………………………………………...Page 3Real Time Operating System (with diagram).……………………………………………………………….Page 3Real Time Computing……………………..……………………………………………………………………………..Page 4Air Traffic Control…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..Page 5Airport Control………………………………………………………………………………………………………………Page 5Ground Control……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..Page 5The V-Process Model (diagram and description)………………………………………………………….Page 6Usage of the V-Model in our Project…………………………………………………………………………….Page 7Air Traffic Control Management (Project Report Analysis)…………………………………………..Page 8, 9, 10Compliance of our ATC Project with RTS (Diagram and Description)……………………………Page 11,12Scope of the Project (with Screenshot)………………………………………………………………………..Page 13Runway Design……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..Page 14Number of Planes to be used……………………………………………………………………………………….Page 14Directions and Positions………………………………………………………………………………………………Page 14Project Flow (with Diagram and Description)………………………………………………………………Page 15Project Flow(with Example and Description)……………………………………………………………….Page 16, 17Screenshots of the ATC Project……………………………………………………………………………………Page 18,19Hazard Analysis……………………………………………………………………………………………………….......Page 20Event Tree Analysis (EVA)..................................................................................................Page 21Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS)…………………………………………………………………..Page 22Bad Weather, Delays…………………………………………………………………………………………………..Page 22Technical Faults, Human Faults........................................................................................Page 23Software Specifications………………………………………………………………………………………………Page 23Significance of Simulation of ATC Project…………………………………………………………………..Page 24References…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………Page 251|Page
  • 2. FACHHOCHSCHULE FRANKFURT FRANKFURT UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SCIENCES HIGH INTEGRITY SYSTEMS (HIS) AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT (ATCM)APPROVERS NAME TITLE DATE SIGNATURE REMARKSPROJECT MEMBERS : 1. MOHAMMED SARFARAZ KHAN ..............936611 2. SOHAM KULKARNI.......................................935816 3. RISHU SETH.....................................................9361612|Page
  • 3. REAL TIME SYSTEMS (RTS) :Real-Real-time operating system : A real real-time operating system (RTOS) is an ´operating system´ (OS) )intended for ´real-time´ applications. Such operating systems serve application requests time´nearly real-time. A real-time operating system offers programmers more control over timeprocess priorities. An applications process priority level may exceed that of a system priorityprocess. Real-time operating systems minimize ´critical sections´ of system code, so that the timeapplications interruption is nearly critical. A key characteristic of a real real-time OS is the level of its consistencyconcerning the amount of time it takes to accept and complete an applications task; thevariability is jitter. A hard real-time operating system has less jitter than a soft real-time -timeoperating system. The chief design goal is not high ´throughput´, but rather a guarantee of a goal´soft or hard´ performance category. A realreal-time OS that can usually or generally meet adeadline is a soft real-time OS, but if it can meet a deadline deterministically it is a hard real- timetime OS.3|Page
  • 4. A real-time OS has an advanced algorithm for ´scheduling´. Schedulerflexibility enables a wider, computer-system orchestration of process priorities, but a real-time OS is more frequently dedicated to a narrow set of applications. Key factors in a real-time OS are minimal ´interrupt latency´ and minimal thread ´switching latency´, but a real-time OS is valued more for how quickly or how predictably it can respond than for theamount of work it can perform in a given period of time.Real-Real-time computing : In computer science, real-time computing (RTC), or reactive computing, isthe study of hardware and software systems that are subject to a "real-time constraint"—i.e., operational deadlines from event to system response. By contrast, a non-real-timesystem is one for which there is no deadline, even if fast response or high performance isdesired or preferred. The needs of real-time software are often addressed in the context ofreal-time operating systems, and synchronous programming languages, which provideframeworks on which to build real-time application software. A real time system may be one where its application can be considered(within context) to be mission critical. The anti-lock brakes on a car are a simple example of areal-time computing system — the real-time constraint in this system is the short time inwhich the brakes must be released to prevent the wheel from locking. Real-timecomputations can be said to have failed if they are not completed before their deadline,where their deadline is relative to an event. A real-time deadline must be met, regardless ofsystem load.Deadline Monotonic Algorithm (DMA) : - This algorithm usually has a fixed priority. - It uses the Relative Deadlines, .i.e. the shorter the Relative Deadline, the higher will be its priority.4|Page
  • 5. CONTROLAIR TRAFFIC CONTROL :Air traffic control (ATC) is a service provided by ground-based controllers who direct aircrafton the ground and in the air. The primary purpose of ATC systems worldwide is to separateaircraft to prevent collisions, to organize and expedite the flow of traffic, and to provideinformation and other support for pilots when able. Preventing collisions is referred to asseparation, which is a term used to prevent aircraft from coming too close to each other byuse of lateral, vertical and longitudinal separation minima; many aircraft now have collisionavoidance systems installed to act as a backup to ATC observation and instructions. Inaddition to its primary function, the ATC can provide additional services such as providinginformation to pilots, weather and navigation information and NOTAMs (NOtices ToAirMen).Airport control : The primary method of controlling the immediate airportenvironment is visual observation from the airport traffic control tower (ATCT). The ATCT is atall, windowed structure located on the airport grounds. Aerodrome or Tower controllersare responsible for the separation and efficient movement of aircraft and vehicles operatingon the taxiways and runways of the airport itself, and aircraft in the air near the airport,generally 2 to 5 nautical miles (3.7 to 9.2 km) depending on the airport procedures. Radar displays are also available to controllers at some airports.Controllers may use a radar system called Secondary Surveillance Radar for airborne trafficapproaching and departing. These displays include a map of the area, the position of variousaircraft, and data tags that include aircraft identification, speed, heading, and otherinformation described in local procedures.Ground Control :Ground Control (sometimes known as Ground Movement Control abbreviated to GMC orSurface Movement Control abbreviated to SMC) is responsible for the airport "movement"areas, as well as areas not released to the airlines or other users. This generally includes alltaxiways, inactive runways, holding areas, and some transitional aprons or intersectionswhere aircraft arrive, having vacated the runway or departure gate. Exact areas and controlresponsibilities are clearly defined in local documents and agreements at each airport. Anyaircraft, vehicle, or person walking or working in these areas is required to have clearancefrom Ground Control. This is normally done via VHF/UHF radio, but there may be specialcases where other processes are used. Most aircraft and airside vehicles have radios. Aircraftor vehicles without radios must respond to ATC instructions via aviation light signals or elsebe led by vehicles with radios. People working on the airport surface normally have acommunications link through which they can communicate with Ground Control, commonlyeither by handheld radio or even cell phone. Ground Control is vital to the smooth operationof the airport, because this position impacts the sequencing of departure aircraft, affectingthe safety and efficiency of the airports operation.5|Page
  • 6. THE V – PROCESS MODEL : V-THE V-MODEL :The V-Model, also called the Vee Model, Vee-Model, is a product-development process originally developmentdeveloped in Germany for government defense projects. It has become a common standard insoftware development. The V-Model gets its name from the fact that the process is often -Modelmapped out as a flowchart that takes the form of the letter V.The development process proceeds from the upper left point of the V toward the right, endingat the upper right point. In the left left-hand, downward-sloping branch of the V, development slopingpersonnel define application design parameters and design processes. At the base point of theV, the code is written. In the right right-hand, upward-sloping branch of the V, testing and slopingdebugging is done. The unit testing is carried out first, followed by bottom- integration -uptesting. The extreme upper right point of the V represents product release and ongoing .support.The V-Model has gained acceptance because of its simplicity and straightforwardness. ModelHowever, some developers believe it is too rigid for the evolving nature of IT (informationtechnology) business environments.6|Page
  • 7. V-USAGE OF THE V-MODEL IN OUR PROJECT :Our whole project is based on the V-Model process model as we begin with the explorationof the Requirement Analysis followed by our proposed Architechtural design which is thenfollowed by the Technical Blueprint of our design to be implemented. After the analysis partis finished, the designing part commences wherein the coding part is divided into severalunits and the coding is carried out for these units. After the coding part is done over with,the testing part begins and we test and debug the code for each unit, .i.e. the Unit Testingtakes place and after each unit is successfully tested and maintained, the System Integrationtakes place wherein we integrate all the units and then test the system as a whole. Thisprocess of System testing and maintaining is carried out several times and after getting rid ofevery possible loophole and implementing the ideas successfully, the project is affirmativewith respect to the implementation of the V- Process Model.7|Page
  • 8. AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT – HIGH INTEGRITY SYSTEMS (ATCM –HIS) : Air traffic control (ATC) is a service provided by ground-based controllerswho direct aircraft on the ground and in the air. The primary purpose of ATC systemsworldwide is to separate aircraft to prevent collisions, to organize and expedite the flow oftraffic and to provide information and other support for pilots when able.We have chosenthis topic as it is very demanding and a challenging task to implement.Plan of action during the first project report :1. Gathering required information regarding project. e.g. runways information, flight`s speed, height, distance information.2. Analyzing the practical result against the desired result with time as a constraint.3. Selecting the platform for the development of project. E.g. java or .net or C , C++ etc.Summary of Project Report 1 : As we were starting the project so we first tried to gather as muchinformation as possible which would help us during the development of the project andwhich were more appropriate taking many things into consideration. We studied the type ofrunways available, the actual process of how a flight operates and also the platform wecould use to produce the best possible display of our ideas.Plan of action during the second project report :Runways : One of the most important aspect of the project was the selection of the mostappropriate runway and these are the types which were at my disposal :1. Asterisk Runway : Handling of planes was possible from every possible direction.2. Plus Runway : Handling of planes is possible from 4 directions.3. Horizontal-T Runway : Quick arrivals and departures become easy. Horizontal-Specification of Zones : We tried to determine standard zones for an aircraft during its journey whichwould be named the RED and the YELLOW zones and an aircraft would be said be under oursupervision if it enters these zones and it was a challenge to determine these zones.8|Page
  • 9. Difficulties faced : Every option had its own advantages and disadvantages and thus it providesa challenge to review each one of it thoroughly and come up with the most appropriatesolution.Eventual Result (Project Report 2) : Result The type of runway that we opted for resembled much to the “HORIZONTALT-RUNWAY” but not exact. The reason being that the first two are more appropriate forscenarios where there are many number of planes in operation and also all the directionsare available. But due to time constraints, we had to limit our project and with limitedoperations the runway resembling the ‘T’ was much more suited to our purpose. There were a lot of probabilities and calculations involved which wasstretching the project and couldn’t fit into our scheme of things with the time constraint alsoplaying on the mind, so ultimately we had to drop this idea and go ahead without anyspecifications of the zones.Plan of Action for Third Project Report : The task that we had to accomplish during these two weeks was the mostimportant aspect in quest of taking the first big step towards implementation of the ideaswherein we had to do the designing of the technical blueprint of the project . We gatheredall the details and information and by selecting the most important points represented themon paper using which as a source, a graphical representation was designed in a GUI(Graphical User Interface ) environment which in our case was the QT JAMBI on Java so as toget the first real picture of the project .Plan of Action for Fourth Project Report : This time we needed to construct the scheduler for the project. In theprevious project reports we had discussed the scenarios involving 8 planes ,6 planes as wellas 4 planes. Also the other challenge was the use of QT-JAMBI where we had facedsome difficulties importing the SWING packages into it and it took a while before gettingused to the functionality of QT-JAMBI and so the study and operation of QT-JAMBI was alsoone of the tasks during these weeks.9|Page
  • 10. Eventual Result (Project Report 4) : As the number of planes were increasing the scenarios with it alsoincreased exponentially. As there was always the time constraint as a significant matter, wehad to select the number of planes using which we could demonstrate our projectsuccessfully. Finally after going through all the pros and cons and also considering the factthat the probability of errors creeping in would increase with the increase in the scenario,we finalized the number of planes that would be handled as 4 wherein 2 two planes wouldbe on the ground and 2 in the air. Then there was the issue of getting used to the QT-JAMBI environment, butultimately felt that it was not only time consuming as we weren’t used to it but also it wasnot very flexible as per the requirements we had and so decided to instead go for the morereliable and the one we are used to which is the ” JAVA DEVELOPMENT TOOLKIT NETBEANS6.8”.Plan of Action for Project Report 5 :After all the things had been set , the coding part was initiated during these weeks wherethe time constraint was kept in mind. The coding part was divided into different units andcode was written for each unit and then tested with respect to the actual project.What was also worked upon was the controlling of the landing and takeoff of the planesfrom the specified directions so as to divert the planes in case of delayed landing or takeoffand if the runway is busy.We also had to design the “ Screen Display “ with respect to the inputs where in the positionof the plane would be displayed depending on the values selected in this screen.Difficulties Faced : There was this Receiver part of the project which was being designed which was responsiblefor keeping the status of the plane as updated as possible with respect to the actual statusof the plane and the other part where we faced difficulty was displaying of the flight withrespect to the movement of the plane in another frame and keep it as current as possible.Eventual Result ( Project Report 5) :The design of the movement of planes was done using the JDK Net Beans 6.8 wherein weused the AWT components like the JPanel and JFrame and methods like FillOval,DrawLine,etc as a transmitter in the project.Also the “Screen Display” was designed using the same methodoligies and tools asmentioned above wherein the input values could be given and the result would be displayeddepending on those values.10 | P a g e
  • 11. Compliance of our ATC Project with RTS with Diagram and Descriptions : urNotations :Gamma (Ґ) = Set of Tasks.T.T = combines the event(E) with task gamma (Ґ), then task is activated and put intoque(Q).Q = set of all tasks which should be processed at a certain point of time.Sched = gets as input the set of ‘Q’(the tasks in Q), then ‘sched’ clears the ordering and putsthe task in Q* priority wise.Pie (π) = Set of rules about priority of tasks.DM=Deadline Monotonic-Di<Dj ,then π i> π j, i.e. if the deadline of i is smaller than j Di<Dj j,then the priority of i is greater than j, where D is the relative deadline and π is the priority. j,EDF = Earliest Deadline First.In EDF, Di<Dj which leads to π i> π j, where D is the absolute deadline.RR = Resource Rule : If a task is writing in a critical resource, it can’t be stopped orinterrupted anyhow.11 | P a g e
  • 12. E(events) = the events in our project our when the pilot asks the controllers.Whether to land or take off from outer environment and gets the reply according to dsituation.For eg-1)Should I land?2)Should I take off?Task = Our prime task in here in this project is to make sure that air traffic is controlledwithout any mishappening even in adverse conditions efficiently. The planes that are in airshould be provided runaway as soon as possible according to its deadline and the planeready to take off, should be given proper space to take off efficiently.Then the E(event) is combined with Tasks.Set of priority rules = The priority rules according to our project are given below : 1) The maximum priority is given to the plane with the shortest deadline. 2) Then the planes to be landed are given priority over the planes that have to take off. 3) In case we don’t consider any plane landing then the priority to the plane from the planes ready to take off is given according to the given input.EDF = Earliest Deadline First : We followed this criteria and is set in the inputwindow. Input is given according to the current situation based on already concludeddecision that which plane needs to be landed first or which can wait for sometime accordingto the deadline of the respective plane. So the sequence in the input window follows theEDF rule of RTS.RR = Resource Rule : This rule is also being followed and once the input has been givenaccording to the deadlines of respective planes and once our scheduler starts working, i.e.our processes of landing the planes or take off has started writing in the critical resource, itshouldn’t be and can’t be interrupted anyhow.In the end when the given task are being completed one by one, ‘RESPONSE’ is beingdisplayed showing the status of the processes, which are completed.12 | P a g e
  • 13. SCOPE OF THE PROJECT WITH SCREENSHOT :13 | P a g e
  • 14. 1. Runway Design : One of the most important aspect of the project was the selectionof the most appropriate runway and these are the types which were at my disposal :(i). Asterisk Runway : Handling of planes was possible from every possible direction.(ii). Plus Runway : Handling of planes is possible from 4 directions.(iii). Horizontal -T Runway : Quick arrivals and departures become easy. The type of runway that I opted for resembled much to the“HORIZONTAL T-RUNWAY” but not exact. The reason being that the first two are moreappropriate for scenarios where there are many number of planes in operation and also allthe directions are available. But due to time constraints, we had to limit our project and withlimited operations the runway resembling the ‘T’ was much more suited to our purpose. 2. Number of Planes to be used : The main obstacle that was obstructing the progress of the projectwas upon the decision making so as to how many planes to involve for demonstration of ourproject . Initially we started with considering 8 planes but the scenarios started increasingexponentially and so the number of planes decreased to 6 and then finally after consideringall the factors involving in the project where time was the biggest concern, we decided touse 4 planes wherein there would be a combination of 2 planes on the ground and 2 planesin the air. The idea of increasing the number of planes was not only time consuming but alsovery error-prone and so limitations had to be set. 3. Directions and Positions : Initially when the project had commenced we were planning to designa runway wherein there would be possibilities that all the directions would be utilised foroperations of flights and for this case it could have been any possible direction and thedesign would have resembled to that of a ´star´. But after some implementations, werealized that the scenarios were increasing exponentially and so after a lot of thought wedecided to design a runway that resembled a shape as ´T´ wherein we had four directions.The directions would be NORTH,WEST,SOUTH,EAST and there would be 4 positions fromwhere a plane could land and 4 positions from where the plane could takeoff.14 | P a g e
  • 15. Project Flow :Description : We begin by proving our authorization as it is a critical system and then start by egiving the inputs where we enter the number of planes for which we want to see the resultwhere the limit is a maximum of 4 planes from where on we specify the number of planesthat are on ground and in air with both the scenarios having a limit as 2 planes Now we planes.specify the direction of either (North, South, East, West) for each of the planes. After all theinputs have been given, the execution part starts where the movement of the plane isdisplayed and the highest priority is given to the plane which has been specified as the firstplane. Similarly the priority is specified for each plane in the order of which they areselected. The Receiver window then pops up and the current status of the plane is displayed heand we could view the status of the other planes as well and then by clicking on Exit, we arelogged out of the session.15 | P a g e
  • 16. Project Flow with Diagram :Description : In our example, we have shown the worst case scenario that we have consideredin our project, i.e. maximum 4 number of planes (2 in air ready for landing and 2 on ground ,waiting for take off). They are being set in our input window and now we have to control heytheir respective processes.16 | P a g e
  • 17. L1 = Plane that has to be landed first from north to south(maximum priority/shorterdeadline).L2 = Plane that has a bit less priority than L1 and has to be landed second.T1 = Plane ready to take off first as runway is free.T2 = Plane to take off after landing of L1. The basic steps that are executed when we handle our scenario are as follows :1) L2 was scheduled to land on runway no. 3 (i.e. from north to south), but L1 was havingmore priority, i.e. short deadline, so L1 was given the runway and L2 is being asked to landfrom east to west i. e. runway no. 2.2) L1 lands on runway 3 and L2 moves on the eastern side.3) After L1 lands and the runway is clear, T2 plane is being asked to take off from 3.4) In the mean time, L2 turns around from 3(north) to land from 2(i.e. east to west) theplane waiting there T1 takes off and the runway is clear for L2 to land safely. So according to the set of priority rules, the planes that were to be landedwere first landed safely and then the planes to take off started their journey.Implementation of the Deadline Monotonic Algorithm (DMA) :- Our project is based completely on the Deadline Monotonic Algorithm (DMA), where in ourcase, the plane with the shortest deadline is given the highest priority and is permitted touse the runway first followed by the planes getting the opportunity to use the runway as perthe priority they are having. So we can deduce the following equation :As Di<Dj (.i.e. the Deadline of i greater than the Deadline of j)So π i> π j (.i.e. the Priority of i will be greater than the priority of j).-So in our case :(i). As L1 has the shortest deadline, so it is allowed to land on the Runway 3 and L2 is askedto move to the Runway 2.(ii). In the meantime, the plane T1 takes off from the Runway 1.(iii). Then after L1 has landed, T2 takes off. - There is a Time frame window aside, which displays the current time along with the relative clock which are according to the deadlines, .i.e. the estimated time or the scheduled time of the respective planes.17 | P a g e
  • 18. SCREENSHOTS OF THE ATC PROJECT :18 | P a g e
  • 19. 19 | P a g e
  • 20. Hazard Analysis : A hazard analysis is a process used to assess risk. The results of a hazardanalysis is the identification of unacceptable risks and the selection of means of controlling oreliminating them. An analysis or identification of the hazards which could occur at each stepin the process, and a description and implementation of the measures to be taken for theircontrol.Severity definitions : Severity DefinitionCatastrophic Results in multiple fatalities and/or loss of the system Reduces the capability of the system or the operator ability to cope with adverse conditions to the extent that there would be: • Large reduction in safety margin or functional capability • Crew physical distress/excessive workload such thatHazardous operators cannot be relied upon to perform required tasks accurately or completely • Serious or fatal injury to small number of occupants of aircraft (except operators) • Fatal injury to ground personnel and/or general public Reduces the capability of the system or the operators to cope with adverse operating conditions to the extent that there would be: • Significant reduction in safety margin or functional capability • Significant increase in operator workload • Conditions impairing operator efficiency or creatingMajor significant discomfort • Physical distress to occupants of aircraft (except operator) including injuries • Major occupational illness and/or major environmental damage, and/or major property damage Does not significantly reduce system safety. Actions required by operators are well within their capabilities. Include: • Slight reduction in safety margin or functionalMinor capabilities • Slight increase in workload such as routine flight plan changes • Some physical discomfort to occupants or aircraft.20 | P a g e
  • 21. EVENT TREE ANALYSIS :21 | P a g e
  • 22. Traffic collision avoidance system : A traffic collision avoidance system or traffic alert and collision avoidance system (both abbreviated as TCAS) is an aircraft collision avoidance system designed to reduce the incidence of mid-air collisions between aircraft. It monitors the airspace around an aircraft for other aircraft equipped with a corresponding active transponder, independent of air traffic control, and warns pilots of the presence of other transponder-equipped aircraft which may present a threat of mid-air collision (MAC). Bad Weather : Air Traffic Control (ATC) may stop traffic for hours due to bad weather, which can not only affect our departure flight, but it can affect flights that are hundreds of miles away. The most common reason for flight delays is the ‘bad weather’ and is the most challenging aspect while controlling the operation of flights as there is no room for error. This becomes very challenging for Air Traffic Controllers as there is always delays of flights, rescheduling becomes the order of the day and most importantly the danger of mishaps increases for the flights already in air. So we should always be one step ahead of the situation to ensure safe and precise operation of the flights. Delays : There are many reasons why flights are delayed. Some delays are for obvious reasons, such as the fact that the aircraft hasnt arrived at our departure gate, while other reasons could be more complicated such as maintenance or equipment related issues. But as already mentioned above, the most common reason for delays is bad weather. Delays are part and parcel of the Air Traffic System and there should always be a Plan B for such situations where the effect on the affected flights as well as other flights is minimal. Delays have and can never be avoided, but the best solution is to work not on “How to prevent it, but, how to resolve it “.22 | P a g e
  • 23. Technical Faults : As we say that no matter how magnificent a machine becomes, a machine always remains a machine. So respecting this fact we could say that errors are bound to occur wherein even a slightest of error could make the machine work abnormally. We may not be able to prevent such faults everytime but thorough checkups before the flight takes off and learning from previous mistakes could prevent such errors. Human Faults : As machines are always machines, similarly, humans are after all humans. But the most sad part about this reality is that this could pose a lot of dangers to human life. There are a lot of accidents in history that have occurred due to human errors and as human touch has always been the most influential part in the successful operations of the Air Traffic Systems, sometimes it has also been very unfortunate as no matter how experienced and mature a person is, his decision making is always prone to error, but complete automation of the process is also not advisable, as human controllable processes are bound to succeed more often than not. Software Specification : Environment used : Java (JDK 1.6), Java NetBeans Version 6.8. Operating System : Windows XP , Vista.23 | P a g e
  • 24. Simulation Significance of Simulation of Air Traffic Control Project : 1. This simulation of ATC considers and satisfies all the 4 directions successfully for the planes in the air, .i.e. for the planes preparing to land. 2. This simulation of ATC considers and satisfies all the 4 positions successfully for the planes on the ground, .i.e. for the planes preparing for take-off. 3. This simulation of ATC functions successfully without any collisions and it operates in such a way that the chances of any collision taking place nullifies. 4. This simulation of ATC prioritizes by using the Earliest Deadline First (EDF) where in the one with the nearest deadline is given the highest priority. 5. This simulation of ATC successfully maintains the exchange of instructions and signals between the ATC Controller and the Flight Crew. 6. This simulation of ATC successfully satisfies all the priorities that have to be considered during the Landing and Takeoff scenarios.24 | P a g e
  • 25. BIBLIOGRAPHY : http://www-verimag.imag.fr/~sifakis/final.pdf http://dli.iiit.ac.in/ijcai/IJCAI-91-VOL1/PDF/034.pdf http://beru.univ-brest.fr/~singhoff/cheddar/publications/audsley95.pdf http://www.eetindia.co.in/ARTICLES/2000JUN/PDF/EEIOL_2000JUN01_EMS_ TA.pdf?SOURCES=DOWNLOAD25 | P a g e

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