FALLACY - Chada W. Mohamed, Rishu Mehra, Santram Maurya
Fallacy <ul><li>Definition : </li></ul><ul><li>A fallacy is a component of an argument which, being demonstrably flawed in...
List of Logical Fallacies
Two Wrongs Make A Right <ul><li>Definition : </li></ul><ul><li>When one tries to justify an apparently wrong action by cha...
<ul><li>Zinedine Zidane head-butted Markus Materazzi during the FIFA world cup. </li></ul><ul><li>He justified his actions...
Division <ul><li>Definition :  </li></ul><ul><li>This fallacy is committed when we </li></ul><ul><li>conclude that any par...
Division <ul><li>“ The fallacy is committed when we conclude that any part of a particular whole must have a characteristi...
Non Sequitur <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>When the premises have no direct relationship to the conclusion. </li><...
Red Herring <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>When an irrelevant issue into the discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Clinton Ca...
Questionable clause <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>The fallacy is committed when the cause for an occurrence is iden...
False Dilemma <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>Assumes that we must choose one of the two alternatives instead of all...
Far Fetched Hypothesis <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>It is the fallacy of inductive reasoning that is committed wh...
Attacking the Person <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Attacking the individual instead of argument. </li></ul><ul><li>...
Appeal to Authority <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>The fallacy tries to convince the listener by appealing to the r...
Inconsistency <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>A disclosure in inconsistent of self contradicting if it contains, exp...
False analogy <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>False analogy is an unsound form of inductive argument in which an argu...
 
Hasty Generalization <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>This fallacy is committed when a person draws a conclusion about...
Refrences <ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=exMrMcHpPLo </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vF4iWIE77Ts ...
THANK YOU <ul><li>Alias:-  [email_address] ,  [email_address] ,  [email_address] </li></ul>
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Fallacies in advertisements

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Various fallacies in various advertisements

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  • The Clinton example for a 'Red Herring' is not very accurate. It's not really a red herring. (It might not even be a fallacy at all, depending on how the campaign worded their claim).

    Claiming that Hillary is qualified because Bill was President is more like a non-sequitir. The claim doesn't necessarily follow from the premises.

    That said, however, did the Hillary campaign really make that claim? I doubt they did. What they probably claimed was that because she was the first lady for 8 years, she had a lot of relevant experience, since she was in the White House. The First Lady, well many of them at least, do indeed acquire political and policy experience in that role. It's not completely irrelevant as experience for the Presidency itself, and therefore also is not a red herring.

    A red herring is used to throw people off-track or to distract them, like how Nixon brought up his dog 'Checkers' in his apologia about campaign finances. THAT was completely irrelevant.

    A red herring is a 'look, over there!' fallacy that takes the focus off the actual issue, just like smelly fish makes the fox-tracking dogs go of course of the actual scent of the fox. (The fallacy is named after that practice).

    I mean, just about every fallacy throws people off-track from the real issue in some way, but the Clinton example is not a very fitting illustration of a 'red herring'.
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  • it is amazing deed
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  • Nice and enlightening. I believe that it is those fallacies that make advertisements exciting. The more exaggerated it is the more effective it is.
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  • its very nice. i got a great infomation from this one.
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  • A great explanation and illustration of fallacies!
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Fallacies in advertisements

  1. 1. FALLACY - Chada W. Mohamed, Rishu Mehra, Santram Maurya
  2. 2. Fallacy <ul><li>Definition : </li></ul><ul><li>A fallacy is a component of an argument which, being demonstrably flawed in its logic. It can be a formal (Invalid form) or an informal (unclear expression) fallacy. </li></ul>
  3. 3. List of Logical Fallacies
  4. 4. Two Wrongs Make A Right <ul><li>Definition : </li></ul><ul><li>When one tries to justify an apparently wrong action by charged of a similar wrong. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Zinedine Zidane head-butted Markus Materazzi during the FIFA world cup. </li></ul><ul><li>He justified his actions saying that Materazzi bad-mouthed his sister. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore Zidane commited two wrongs make a right fallacy. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vF4iWIE77Ts </li></ul>
  6. 6. Division <ul><li>Definition : </li></ul><ul><li>This fallacy is committed when we </li></ul><ul><li>conclude that any part of a particular </li></ul><ul><li>whole must have a characteristic </li></ul><ul><li>because the whole has that </li></ul><ul><li>characteristic . </li></ul>
  7. 7. Division <ul><li>“ The fallacy is committed when we conclude that any part of a particular whole must have a characteristic because the whole has that characteristic.” </li></ul><ul><li>Film critics have no doubt that Ranbir Kapoor will be a great actor because of his family’s movie background. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Non Sequitur <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>When the premises have no direct relationship to the conclusion. </li></ul><ul><li>Cadbury’s Advertisement </li></ul><ul><li>Non Sequitur : Two children doing eyebrows dance have nothing to do with chocolates. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=exMrMcHpPLo </li></ul>
  9. 9. Red Herring <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>When an irrelevant issue into the discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Clinton Campaign. &quot;I am qualified to be president because my husband is Bill Clinton.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>The fact that her husband is Bill Clinton has no logical connection whatsoever to her personal qualification to the presidency ... it is used to throw people off. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Questionable clause <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>The fallacy is committed when the cause for an occurrence is identified on insufficient evidence. </li></ul><ul><li>This Duplex paints advertisement concludes that one can tell what paint is used inside, based on the exterior of the house. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, it raises the fallacy of questionable clause as one cannot predict the inside scenario based on the external look. </li></ul>
  11. 11. False Dilemma <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>Assumes that we must choose one of the two alternatives instead of allowing for other possibilities. </li></ul><ul><li>The punch line of the advertisement is creating fallacy as the punch line states that MasterCard exists for everything that can be bought. </li></ul>“ There are something money can’t buy. For everything else there is MASTERCARD.”
  12. 12. Far Fetched Hypothesis <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>It is the fallacy of inductive reasoning that is committed when we accept a particular hypothesis when a more acceptable hypothesis is available. </li></ul><ul><li>Super Man, Bat Man, Spider Man, Krrish etc. are the popular character who fights against the evil and has super natural power. </li></ul><ul><li>The characters are very much famous throughout the world and is taken as the super hero. However, in reality these are doesn’t exist in this world. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Attacking the Person <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Attacking the individual instead of argument. </li></ul><ul><li>Indian ex-cricket coach Chappell, in an interview to a London based newspaper criticized Ganguly on personal regards rather than on his professional fields. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the fallacy of attacking the person as the coach directly commented that Ganguly was hungry for money; instead of focusing on cricket issue he is targeting him for other factors. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Appeal to Authority <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>The fallacy tries to convince the listener by appealing to the reputation of a famous or respected personality. </li></ul><ul><li>This advertisement shows Hrithik Roshan, a Bollywood superstar, endorsing Hero Honda Karizma bike. </li></ul><ul><li>He may not know anything about the vehicle. But the company is using his superstardom for promoting the vehicle. Hence, this is a fallacy of appeal to authority. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Inconsistency <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>A disclosure in inconsistent of self contradicting if it contains, explicitly or implicitly, two assertions that are logically incompatible with each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Kareena Kapoor committed the fallacy of INCONSISTENCY in 2002, when she mentioned in TV interview that she believes women should stay at home. </li></ul><ul><li>This statement is a fallacy as Kareena has a profession; she isn’t practicing what she is preaching. </li></ul>
  16. 16. False analogy <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>False analogy is an unsound form of inductive argument in which an argument relies heavily on a weak analogy to prove its point. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Hasty Generalization <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>This fallacy is committed when a person draws a conclusion about a population based on a sample that is not large enough. </li></ul><ul><li>In this advertisement they have come to the conclusion that they have done a good job by changing lives of 600,000 managers which is just a small proportion of the total managers in India. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Refrences <ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=exMrMcHpPLo </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vF4iWIE77Ts </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.samizdata.net.blog </li></ul><ul><li>www.en.wikipedia.org </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.saawariya.org/2007/11/09/786137/movie-review-saawariya-ranbir-kapoor-does-a-good-job/index.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.masala.com/celebs/479-ranbir-kapoor </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fallacy </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.chakpak.com/celebrity/kareena-kapoor/21576 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.glamsham.com/download/picturegallery/picture.asp?subcatid=787 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.equitymaster.com/result.asp?symbol=HROH </li></ul>
  19. 20. THANK YOU <ul><li>Alias:- [email_address] , [email_address] , [email_address] </li></ul>
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