How to make friends with "False Friends"?


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How to make friends with "False Friends"?

  1. 1. <ul><li>Konov Mark, </li></ul><ul><li>a pupil of the 4 th form, </li></ul><ul><li>lyceum 4, Ryazan </li></ul><ul><li>Korotkova </li></ul><ul><li>Irina Ivanovna, </li></ul><ul><li>an English teacher, </li></ul><ul><li>Doctor of Science </li></ul><ul><li>2011 </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>To study the phenomenon of “False friends” by the example of Russian and English, to find out its sources and to decide how to avoid mistakes dealing with them. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Though “False friends” are a very difficult phenomenon and can be translated incorrectly, there are some special features, which can help us to recognize them. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>1. To find and select the necessary information on my topic; </li></ul><ul><li>2. To analyze and systematize this information; </li></ul><ul><li>3. To test if it is possible to tell the difference between unfamiliar “False Friends” and “True Friends”; </li></ul>4. To make conclusions; 5. According to the conclusions to decide how we can avoid mistakes.
  5. 5. <ul><li>(false friends – (Fr . Faux amis), interlinguistic homonyms) are words from different languages, similar or almost similar in spelling and pronunciation, but completely different in meaning. The term was created in 1928 by </li></ul><ul><li>M. Koessler. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Magazine </li></ul>(журнал) (магазин)
  7. 7. <ul><li>These are homonyms which have absolutely different meanings. They can be confused only because of their similar pronunciation. </li></ul>Compositor наборщик КОМПОЗИТОР
  8. 8. <ul><li>These are homonyms which have related meanings, or meanings belonging to one sphere of use. </li></ul>Angina (quinsy) стенокардия АНГИНА
  9. 9. <ul><li>Some scientists (linguists) call polysemantic words (multiple-meaning words) “False friends” as they also cause a lot of mistakes in translation. </li></ul>староста класса монитор Monitor
  10. 10. <ul><li>Pseudo-international words are interlinguistic homonyms which are confused with international words (because of their spelling or pronunciation). </li></ul>род занятий, профессия Occupation оккупация ( invasion ) оккупация
  11. 11. <ul><li>There are several reasons: </li></ul>
  12. 12. Replica
  13. 13. <ul><li>The similarity of words is caused by a common word existing in the ancestor language of the two. There are no such cases among Russian – English misleading words as they have different ancestor languages. </li></ul>( художник )
  14. 14. The word «док» was borrowed to name dockage facility ( помещение для ремонта кораблей ), though in English it means the whole wharf.
  15. 15. <ul><li>Two different languages can borrow the same words from one language but in different meanings. In case of Russian – English “False friends” the ancestor language is mainly Latin. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>To prove the difficulty of misleading words and to find probable special features of “False Friends” I offered my classmates to test their intuition and say whether these words have similar meanings: </li></ul><ul><li>revolution = революция </li></ul><ul><li>spectacles = спектакли </li></ul><ul><li>politics = политика </li></ul><ul><li>replica = реплика </li></ul><ul><li>data = дата </li></ul><ul><li>concentration = концентрация </li></ul><ul><li>economics = экономика </li></ul><ul><li>more = море </li></ul><ul><li>cabin = кабина </li></ul><ul><li>crest = крест </li></ul><ul><li>magazine = магазин </li></ul><ul><li>music = музыка </li></ul><ul><li>occupation = оккупация </li></ul><ul><li>list = лист </li></ul><ul><li>fabric = фабрика . </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>1. Every translator (interpreter) has “friends” and “enemies” in English. These are words which can help to translate or mislead. </li></ul><ul><li>2. False friends are words from different languages, similar or almost similar in spelling and pronunciation, but completely different in meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>3. False friends can be of different types (according to the most frequent mistakes). </li></ul>4. Sometimes even the whole idioms may be misleading. 5. False friends appear because of: coincidence, independent development of related languages, change of meaning after borrowing or parallel borrowing. 6. There are no bright signs which can help to tell the difference, between “true” and “False friends” of a translator. But there is some advice how to make it easier.
  18. 19. 1. Better safe than sorry: don’t hurry to make a decision about the translation of a word if it resembles you a Russian one; 2. Take into account the word’s form (English adjective can’t correspond to a Russian noun: electric ≠ электрик ); 3. Think of possible words which contain the same root and can show you the true meaning of the word under question ( multiplication ≠ мультипликация , multiple = множественный -> multiplication = умножение ); 4. If you are not sure, consult a dictionary. This will guarantee you the correctness of your translation.
  19. 20. <ul><li>Акуленко В. “О &quot;ложных друзьях переводчика&quot;, М., 1969г </li></ul><ul><li>А к у л е н к о В. В., “Существует ли интернациональная лексика? &quot;Вопросы языкознания&quot;, 1961, № 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Англо-руссский словарь ложных друзей переводчика </li></ul><ul><li>Фасмер Макс Этимологический словарь русского языка (онлайн версия) </li></ul><ul><li>Longman Dictionary of contemporary English on-line </li></ul><ul><li>Online Etimology Dictionary </li></ul>