Darren Williams and Danna Campbell Canada's Approach to Marine Spatial Planning- an ecosystem based approach
Canada’s Approach to MarineSpatial Planning – an ecosystem- based approach Darren Williams & Danna Campbell Ocean Policy and Planning Unit Fisheries and Oceans Canada
Geographic Context• Marine area equivalent to 2/3rds of Canada’s landmass• Longest coastline and 2nd largest continental shelf in the world• $39B in economic activity and >326,000 jobs• Significant social, cultural and spiritual value for First Nations and Aboriginal communities• Sparsely populated coastline / few urban centers• Growing intensity and complexity of marine uses in specific areas – Multi-generational community dependant fishery – Offshore oil and gas 85% – Tourism 41% – Marine transportation 23% – Massive offshore wind, wave and tidal energy potential – Proven mineral, metal and aggregate deposits
Legal and Policy Context for Marine Planning• Oceans Act (1996) and Canada’s Oceans Strategy (2005) commitments to: – Integrated Ocean Management (IOM) plans – National network of Marine Protected Areas – Marine Environmental Quality guidelines and standards• Key premise: human activities are dependant on the health and viability of marine ecosystems• Integrated Oceans Management: – Seeks to maintain the integrity of marine ecosystems & minimize user conflicts by proactively identifying key ecological & human use values, collaboratively establishing objectives & developing and implementing plans to ensure the optimal use of ocean spaces
IOM vs. MSPSimilarities: – Ecosystem-based approach to management – Respond to increasing number and scope of human activities in marine environment – Aimed at reducing fragmentation of policies and decision-making – Follow a logical sequence of planning stepsDifferences: – MSP focused on allocation of oceans space whereas IOM is focused on establishing an ecological foundation for all marine use sectors – MSP is focused on the development of a “plan” whereas IOM is focused on integration of management authorities and tools from across a variety of marine use sectors to achieve ecological and socio-economic outcomes.Conclusion: – MSP is complimentary to IOM planning but not always required
Define and Assess Planning Area Identify & assess available information & knowledge Socio-Economic & Cultural Ecosystem Overviews &Integrated Overview & Assessment Assessments - Social demographic data - Geophysical information - Industry use & potential - Ecological characteristics andOcean - Cultural use and priorities processes - Existing licenses and rights - What resources exist (e.g. location, quantity, quality, etc) Work CompletedManagement Identification of Valued Economic, Social and Cultural Identification of Key Ecosystem Components: e.g. EBSAs, to DatePlanning Components: e.g. VESCAs Significant Species, Community properties, etcProcess Identification of Socio-economic Objectives Identification of Conservation Objectives Strategic IOM Plan (High Level Goals and Objectives) Priority Setting & Pathways of Effects Development Risk Assessment (threats analysis) Identification of Required Management Measures Current Priorities Strategies / Action Plans Indicators Monitoring
Define & Assess Planning Area Identify & assess available information & knowledgeSocio-Economic & Cultural Ecosystem Overviews & Overview & Assessment Assessments- Social demographic data - Geophysical information- Industry use & potential - Ecological characteristics and processes- Cultural use and priorities - What resources exist (e.g.- Existing licenses and rights location, quantity, quality, etc) Work Completed to Date Identification of Key Identification of Valued Ecosystem Components: Economic, Social and e.g. Ecologically and Cultural Components: Biologically Significant e.g. VESCAs Areas, Significant Species, Community properties Identification of Conservation Identification of Objectives Socio-economic Objectives Strategic IOM Plan (High Level Goals and Objectives)
EvaluationХ Most products were too general to Information products & governance be useful processes promoted stakeholder engagementХ Lengthy and resource intensive Increased scientific support &Х Planning process with broad guidance expectations Identification of significant ecosystemХ Lack of focus on key issues and components & functions (e.g. EBSAs) responsible authorities Advanced learning on how to proceedХ Difficult to demonstrate results (i.e. Focus on what is ecologically & socio-economically important)
Initial Framework: Large Ocean Management Areas Characterized by: • Important living and non-living marine resources • High biological diversity and productivity • Many stakeholders competing for ocean space and resources
Ecologically and Biologically Significant Area (EBSA)• EBSAs are tools for calling attention to an area that has particularly high ecological or biological significance, to facilitate provision of a greater-than-usual degree of risk aversion in management of activities in such areas.
Current Directions for IOM in Canada: • A shift away from LOMAs to marine bioregions and “hot spots”
Current Directions for IOM in Canada: • A shift away from LOMAs to marine bioregions and “hot spots” • Increased application of risk-based analysis and management including: – Identifying & characterizing stressors associated with marine use activities – Development of risk assessment models – Identifying science-based conservation targets and limits – Establishing operational objectives and guidance for marine use activities
Pathways of Effects for marine/coastal activities Socio-Cultural & Total Socio- Economic Municipalities Residential & Fish Aquaculture Fisheries Industries Mining Forestry Agriculture Land Marine Tourism & Oil and Gas Renewable Cultural & Commercial Processing Transportation Transportation Recreation Energy Activities Economic Dependencies Values Mechanism for Socio-Cultural & Economic effects Supporting Provisioning Cultural Regulating Aquatic Services Services Services Services Ecosystem Nutrient Agricultural Decompo- Fish Nature Flood Goods and cycling production sition harvest recreation Spirituality attenuation Others Services Waste Carbon Water Photo- Water Water Aesthetics Cultures assimila- sequestra- purification synthesis quality source tion tion Mechanism for changes in goods & services Valued Ecosystem Ecological Ecosystem Component Ecosystem Component Ecosystem Component Ecosystem Component endpointsComponents (VECs) Mechanism generating ecological impacts Introduction Sediment Introduction Habitat Nutrient Introduction Biota Hydrologic Riparian zone Habitat Pressures of load of connectivity regime of Invasive changes changes changes changes contaminants changes pathogens changes changes Species Mechanism generating Potential pressures mechanism for impacts Residential & Fish Land Marine Tourism & Renewable Drivers Municipalities Aquaculture Fisheries Industries Mining Forestry Agriculture Oil and Gas Commercial Processing Transportation Transportation Recreation Energy
Current Directions for IOM in Canada: • A shift away from LOMAs to marine bioregions and “hot spots” • Increased application of risk-based analysis and management including: – Identifying & characterizing stressors associated with marine use activities – Development of risk assessment models – Identifying science-based conservation targets and limits – Establishing operational objectives and guidance for marine use activities • Increased use of geospatial analysis and reporting tools
Recommendations Comparative analysis of International and National reports on marine ecosystem states and pressures States * Biodiversity Pressures Marine life Habitats Oceanography (benthic) * * Food webs Species * * Fisheries * Eutrophication condition * * Contaminants * Marine Litter * Energy (noise) Climate change Ocean acidification Wind farms, cables substances Radioactive Offshore oil and gas Tourism and recreation Cumulative pressures seafood Contaminants inReports Sea floor integrity Non-indigenous Hydrographical M M M M M M M M M MESTR M M MSOTO: I X M X X X X X M X X P, B, G, P* ESSIM X X X X X X X C X M X X C CHELCOM X M M M M X X X X X X XOSPAR X M M M M X X X X X X X X X X X X MLegend: • Generally, the focus of Canadian reports has been on describing the states/ecosystem* PBGB, Beaufort, GOSLIM, PNCIMA features. International reports focus on pressures and visually display the intensity and* MSFD descriptor location through mapping products.X= Detailed analysis of component with areaspecific dataM= Brief mention of componentI= Indirect 19C= Coming
Current Directions for IOM in Canada: • A shift away from LOMAs to marine bioregions and “hot spots” • Increased application of risk-based analysis and management including: – Identifying & characterizing stressors associated with marine use activities – Development of risk assessment models – Identifying science-based conservation targets and limits – Establishing operational objectives and guidance for marine use activities • Increased use of geospatial analysis and reporting tools • Increased coordination and use of marine conservation tools through development and application of marine protected area network planning and marine environmental quality provisions (e.g. industrial codes of practice, regulations, etc).
MPA networks can protect key life stages of important species(Bocaccio is a rockfishfound in the coastalwaters of the eastern Pacific ocean)
Ecosystem-Based / Integrated Oceans Management• Taking into account marine ecosystem health in the management of human activities affecting marine and coastal areas (including land- based activities)• Ensuring that significant components (areas, species, properties) which are key to maintaining ecosystem structure and function are not significantly impacted by activities (including cumulative effects)• Significant components become management priorities as they are translated into conservation objectives and limits in Integrated Oceans Management plans• Other development objectives for Integrated Oceans Management (social, economic, cultural) are set within the bounds defined by conservation objectives
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