Potentials of Multi-Use Concepts within a MSP Process Bela H. Buck

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Potentials of Multi-Use Concepts within a MSP Process Bela H. Buck

  1. 1. Potentials of Multi-Use Concepts within a MSP Process Bela H. Buck International Marine Spatial Planning Public Symposium, Providence (RI)Courtesy of the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH)
  2. 2. Relatively small  N PL size of the area: EST Advantage or  S Disadvantage? RUS DK German LT Bight GB D LV NL B FIN F© B. H. Buck 2012 - MSP-Symposium 2012
  3. 3. Coastal Sea:  0‐12 nautical miles EEZ: 12‐200 nautical miles  Courtesy of BSH 2012© B. H. Buck 2012 - MSP-Symposium 2012
  4. 4. North Sea EEZ: Baltic Sea EEZ: Schleswig‐ 2 4,500 km 28,600 km2 Holstein Hamburg Mecklenburg‐ Vorpommern Bremen Lower‐Saxony© B. H. Buck 2012 - MSP-Symposium 2012
  5. 5. MSP at an early stages: (between 2001‐2006)  Defining the actual state of  uses Shipping & Pipelines, Cables, Mariculture, Military Features Sediment, Platforms  Ascertain priorities of  different uses  Set priorities regarding  national and international  Nature Conservation Offshore Wind Farms “dependencies”.© B. H. Buck 2012 - MSP-Symposium 2012
  6. 6. What makes the decision about priorities in MSP for traditiional and “new” uses?        or             What are the prevailing public interests? Current national regulations and international legislations National and international contracts Economic interestsIs there a mandate and who is responsible? No/yes  →  not EU directly  →  but implementation of EU guidelines [Natura 2000] as well as for the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) Driver: New uses Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH) on behalf of and in close  co‐operation with Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Affairs© B. H. Buck 2012 - MSP-Symposium 2012
  7. 7. What are the tools? planning principle (guideline that needs to be particularly considered in the  decision process)  priority areas (Vorranggebiete): reserved for a defined use, other  conflicting uses are excluded  reservation areas (Vorbehaltsgebiete): defined use with priority in this  area  suitable areas (Eignungsgebiete): defined use is excluded outside  designated areas© B. H. Buck 2012 - MSP-Symposium 2012
  8. 8. Priority list (with regard to UNCLOS) High  Safety and efficiency of shipping  National and international  contracts [e.g. pipelines, cables]  Protection of the marine  environment  National/Alliance defence Others  Resources  Scientific research  Wind farming© B. H. Buck 2012 - MSP-Symposium 2012
  9. 9. Are there potentials for more then one use? ‐ secondary use ‐ co‐use ‐ multi‐use ‐ multifunctional use© B. H. Buck 2012 - MSP-Symposium 2012
  10. 10. Case example Wind Farming: Decision to be independent (regarding oil/gas/coal, nuclear power) Follow the Kyoto Protocol Follow the Renewable Energies Act of Germany  35 % of electric power supply used in Germany by renewable  energy in 2020  50 % in 2030  25,000 MW by 2030 (6,000 – 8,000 turbines depending on MW‐ class) Infrastructure‐Planning‐”Speed Up”‐Act© B. H. Buck 2012 - MSP-Symposium 2012
  11. 11. Construction of the Alpha Ventus wind farm in the EEZ 60 km off the coast of Germany. 5 MW class turbines: 65 MWh∙day‐1∙windmill‐1 8,000 €∙day‐1∙windmill‐1 70% of companies SME© B. H. Buck 2012 - MSP-Symposium 2012
  12. 12. Offshore wind  In 2009, 2.8% of Europe’s total  farm wind power was offshore. development in  192,000 people in the EU are  the North Sea employed by the offshore wind  industry Courtesy of Arne Fredheim© B. H. Buck 2012 - MSP-Symposium 2012
  13. 13. Multi-use ideas to maximize the 1. Ecologybenefit of an offshore area: - Creating MPA‘s (nursery, sustainable fisheries…) - Set-up artificial reefs 2. Tourism 3. Additional energy resources 4. Offshore Aquaculture 5. Bio-Remediation / Bio-Extraction 6. Use of fouling organismsImage taken from Barry Costa‐Pierce© B. H. Buck 2012 - MSP-Symposium 2012
  14. 14. Motivation for Cooperation Next step is to add the entire  How is the economic value of  The progression of renewable  economic framework for the  a certain site offshore: energy worldwide recently has  wind energy side and combine  coincided with a similar  → only wind farming increase in marine  it with existing mussel  → in co‐use with another  aquaculture. See worldwide  aquaculture economics.  stakeholder stagnation of fisheries’  → unclear ownership status  harvest, coupled with the  → Are there cost savings by  and insurance growth in aquaculture and  operating jointly.  wind energy over the last 30  in cooperation with Dr. Robert  years. Griffin at Stanford University  (California)© B. H. Buck 2012 - MSP-Symposium 2012
  15. 15. Research Platform FINO No. I  Marine Facilities Ordinance  Licensing procedure for offshore  wind farms → change regulation and licensing  procedure to include multi‐use  concepts as an obligation → multi‐use concepts will be  promoted (even if concepts are not  successful)© B. H. Buck 2012 - MSP-Symposium 2012
  16. 16. © B. H. Buck 2012 - MSP-Symposium 2012
  17. 17. Meek, 1989 © B. H. Buck 2012 - MSP-Symposium 2012
  18. 18. Marine Facilities  Ordinance OSS‐Project forces  wind farm operators  to investigate in co‐ uses© B. H. Buck 2012 - MSP-Symposium 2012 Buck et al. (2008), Helg. Mar. Research
  19. 19. Mussel cultivation designs© B. H. Buck 2012 - MSP-Symposium 2012 Buck (2007), Helg. Mar. Res. Buck et al. (2010), Aquac. Econom. Management
  20. 20. Seaweed cultivation  longlines  ladder  grid© B. H. Buck 2012 - MSP-Symposium 2012
  21. 21. Bioextraction“An environmental management strategy by whichnutrients are removed from an aquatic ecosystem throughthe harvest of enhanced biological production, includingthe aquaculture of suspension-feeding shellfish or algae”Ecological Engineering“Ecological Engineering is an emerging field that usesecological processes within natural or constructedsystems to achieve environmental goals”Balanced Ecosystem Approach“Fed aquaculture of finfish or shrimp with extractiveorganic aquaculture of shellfish and extractive inorganicaquaculture of seaweed (IMTA)” SCIENCE VOL 323 20 FEB. 2009© B. H. Buck 2012 - MSP-Symposium 2012
  22. 22. IMTA (Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture) extractive species extractive species 1. defense line: filter feeders wind seaweed mussels farm with fish fish/ 2. defense line: fish/ wind turbine seaweeds wind turbine different directions bidirectionalMcVey & Buck (2008), WAS © B. H. Buck 2012 - MSP-Symposium 2012
  23. 23. Parameters measured:  Nutrients [NOX, P, Si, …]  Salinity  O2, CO2  pH  Chlorophyll FerryBox  Attenuation/turbidity  Fluorescence© B. H. Buck 2012 - MSP-Symposium 2012
  24. 24. Consideration of mechanical loads on grounding constructions of longline, cage windmills by or other aquaculture constructions devices© B. H. Buck 2012 - MSP-Symposium 2012
  25. 25. y N NW NO W O x  SW S0 S1 [N/mm²] S 8 Windrichtungen 8 Wellenanlaufrichtungen LC 5 EF 4 EF 5 EF 6Development of static modelsDiscussion of alternativeGeneration of representative(for 3-5 MWpoints ofclass)connection turbine foundationloads of wind energy LC 5 S1 [N/mm²] S1 [N/mm²]structureinstallations© B. H. Buck 2012 - MSP-Symposium 2012 Buck et al. (2006), Ocean, Offshore, and Arctic Engineering
  26. 26. © B. H. Buck 2012 - MSP-Symposium 2012 Buck & Krause (2010), Springer Encyclopedia
  27. 27. © B. H. Buck 2012 - MSP-Symposium 2012
  28. 28. Bird’s-eye view of the “Nordergründe” offshore wind farm Buck et al. (2009) Aquacult. Econ. & Mgmt.© B. H. Buck 2012 - MSP-Symposium 2012 Buck et al. (2003), Law International Buck et al. (2004), Ocean & Coastal Mgmt.
  29. 29. Break‐Even for Mussel Cultivation: Longline culture Breakeven price (assumption 10 kg/m) Above total variable costs 0,14Euro Above total costs 0,52Euro Breakeven yield (assumption: 1 Euro/kg) Above total variable costs 1,43kg Above total costs 5,17kg© B. H. Buck 2012 - MSP-Symposium 2012
  30. 30. Consumption mussel with new  Consumption mussel with  NPV (IRR) vessel and new land facility  existing capacity (5,667,073, 14.73%) (9,622,937, 28.11%)Price per kg mussel 0.9 € 3,369,576  (11.81) 7,325,440  (23.66) 1.1 € 7,964,570  (17.47) 11,920,433  (32.38)Total cost increase + 5 % p.a. ‐1,899,456  (2.13) 2,056,407  (15.56)Discount rates 6 % 6,867,422 10,871,396 8 % 4,611,108 8,522,651 9 % 3,678,854 7,549,757© B. H. Buck 2012 - MSP-Symposium 2012
  31. 31. Bird’s-eye view of the “Cape Wind” offshore wind farm Buck et al. (2009) Aquacult. Econ. & Mgmt.© B. H. Buck 2012 - MSP-Symposium 2012 Buck et al. (2003), Law International Buck et al. (2004), Ocean & Coastal Mgmt.
  32. 32. Break‐Even for Seaweed Cultivation: Longline culture Breakeven price (assumption 8 kg/m) Above total variable costs 167/197 US $ Above total costs 568/400 US $ Breakeven yield (assumption: 0,7$/kg) Above total variable costs 2,67/3,14 kg Above total costs 9,08/6,40kg© B. H. Buck 2012 - MSP-Symposium 2012
  33. 33. Example for possible macroalgae revenues and corresponding  value of raw material Relative value of raw material in US‐$ (→ extracted per tonne wet  weight) Carrageen 568 Alginate 355 Agar 1077 Fertilisers 500 Soil additives 27 Seaweed meals (dried) 100 Pharmaceuticals 1000© B. H. Buck 2012 - MSP-Symposium 2012
  34. 34. Key Issues: 1. Multi-use concepts ease MSP 2. Multi-use will have a better acceptance for both stakeholders and would save costs. 3. Multi-Use concepts will have economic benefits • Quick procedure • Combined EIA • Shared vessels/personal Prof. Dr. Bela H. Buck • training • Additional biomass Bela.H.Buck@awi.de • etc.© B. H. Buck 2012 - MSP-Symposium 2012

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