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Marine Spatial Planning Decision Support Tools Development in Canada
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Marine Spatial Planning Decision Support Tools Development in Canada


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  • 1. Marine Spatial Planning Decision Support Tools Development in Canada Lessons learned on the path towards meaningful ecosystem- based management
  • 2. Canada’s Approach to Oceans Management• Oceans Act (1996) and Canada’s Oceans Strategy (2005) commitments to: – Integrated Ocean Management (IOM) plans – National network of Marine Protected Areas – Marine Environmental Quality guidelines and standards• Key premise: human activities are dependant on the health and viability of marine ecosystems• Integrated Oceans Management: – Seeks to maintain the integrity of marine ecosystems & minimize user conflicts by proactively identifying key ecological & human use values, collaboratively establishing objectives & developing and implementing plans to ensure the optimal use of ocean spaces. – An ecosystem-based approach to management 2
  • 3. Integrated Oceans Management Planning Process 3
  • 4. Initial Achievements / ProductsPlanning Areas Identified Oceans Governance Bodies Bio-physical Overviews Human Use Analyses and Activity Maps Key Marine Ecosystem Features Identified Strategic Management Plans completed Marine Protected Areas established Marine Protected Area Network Planning 4
  • 5. EvaluationХ Most products were too general to be  Information products & governance useful processes promoted stakeholderХ Lengthy and resource intensive engagementХ Planning process with broad  Increased scientific support & guidance expectations  Identification of significant ecosystemХ Lack of focus on key issues and components & functions (e.g. EBSAs) responsible authorities  Advanced learning on how to proceedХ Difficult to demonstrate results (i.e. Focus on what is ecologically & socio-economically important) 5
  • 6. Focus on Problem Formulation• What are the planning priorities?• What economic activities are occurring where?• What is at risk? – What are the ecological impacts? – What are the socio-economic impacts? – What are the trade-offs?• Who is responsible for taking action?• What management measures exist / what are the gaps?• What specific governance is required? 6
  • 7. Adoption of an integrated Risk-based Approach:• Identifying & characterizing marine use activities – Assessments to identify ecological stressors & potential conflicts between uses• Assessing individual & cumulative impacts of activities – Development of ‘Pathways-of-Effects’ models for marine/coastal ecosystems• Identifying science-based conservation limits – To ensure structural viability & functioning of marine ecosystems• Establishing operational objectives for planning areas – Development of desirable state targets for ecosystems within context of Integrated Oceans Management plans 7
  • 8. New IOM/EBM Tools• We need another “information layer” on potential impacts to establish the links between ecosystem and human activities to address effects and to select management priorities• News tools under development: – Pathways of Effects (PoEs) • What are the impacts of human activities on ecosystem components? (Activities  Ecosystem) • What are the impacts of affected ecosystems goods and services on other human uses? (Ecosystem  Activities) – Integrated Risk Analysis Framework • What is the likelihood that ecological effects may occur or are occurring as a result of one or more identified pressures? • Way to prioritize issues based on actual risk versus perceived risk • A science-based framework from which to engage marine users and regulators 8
  • 9. Step 1: Identify Ecological Values 9
  • 10. Step 2: Geospatial Analysis of Key Pressures 10
  • 11. Step 3: Pathways of Effects to Identify Interactions and Potential Cumulative Effects Marine Transport Fisheries Collisions (Lobster Pots) Oil & gas Entanglement Pinnipeds and Cetaceans Noise Fisheries (Crab Pots)e.g. Human activities and Fisheriespressures on pinnipeds and (Gillnets)cetaceans 11
  • 12. E.g.: Marine Shipping Pathways of Effects Marine Shipping Transportaton Sector Activities and Sub-activities In Port Operations Loading / Decommission (Under way) Unloading Accidents Manouvering near shore Discharge Discharge Oils / Discharge Waste Ballast Water Discharge Oils / Discharge Waste Atmospheric Contaminants Streams Exchange Contaminants Streams Pollutants Pressures Oils / Increased Turbulent Oils / Increased Introduced Alien Reduced Air Contaminants Nutrients In Vertical Contaminants Nutrients In Waves Collisions Noise Species Quality In Water Water Mixing In Water Water PM Change in Change in VOC Water Quality Water Quality Injury / Mortality Sox Change in NOx (Nutrients) (Contaminants) Water Quality Shallow Change in Change in (Contaminants) Macrophytes Phytoplankton 2 Reduced Reduced Impacts Change in Breeding Benthic Habitat Feeding Success Success 1 Change in Larval Zooplankton Entrainment Change in Benthic Habitat Increased Structure Change In Stress Riparian Change in Change in Fish Vegetation Benthic Survival, Growth, Invertebrates ReproductionComponents Ecosystem Benthic Community Fish Populations / Marine Human Health Fish Community Mammal PopulationsEnd-pointsIntegrative Fish Water Biodiversity Climate Harvest Quality CO2Socio-Cultural 12 Values Fisheries & Tourism & Fish Aquaculture Recreation Processing
  • 13. Step 4: Risk AssessmentConduct risk assessmentwith existing data/informationDetermine which pressures andassociated “paths” affect theEBSA feature: e.g. pinnipedsand cetaceansBased on the results of the (fictive)assessment, collisions, followed bynoise from vessel traffic and seismicsurveys, are the pressures that canthe greatest affect on pinnipeds andcetaceans in and near West Coast ofNewfoundland EBSA. 13
  • 14. Step 5: Establish targets, thresholds and indicators for component(s) at risk Pathways of Effects Pressures on Northwest Atlantic Targets Thresholds Pressure Indicators Blue Whale population Direct Indirect To reduce Size and Number of Pressure Collision collisions to less speed of boats in than one a year boats the area Avoidance Injury Mortality Effects To reach a level of State IndicatorsEcosystem 1,000 mature Northwest Atlanticcomponent Blue Whale population individuals or 70% of Population number maximum historic population size 14
  • 15. Step 6: Evaluate Existing Policy / Management Measures• Identify accountable regulatory and/or non- regulatory management authorities• Complete gap analysis to determine where management measures may not be present, enforced or effective in mitigating affects• Evaluate effectiveness of existing management measures• Identify need for new or adjustment to existing management measures – Select and implement new management measures (e.g. codes of practice, regulations, standards, incentives, protection measures, etc) as required. 15
  • 16. Next Steps: New Integrative Tools• Ongoing Pathways of Effects / Risk Assessment• Additional Geospatial development – Targeted improvements in marine use information• Valuation of marine ecosystem goods and services – To support cost/benefit analysis of management actions• Evaluation of existing/Development of new management tools (e.g. codes of practices, standards, guidelines, etc)• Develop monitoring and reporting frameworks linked to ecosystem priorities 16
  • 17. Thank you! Darren WilliamsManager, Ocean Policy and Planning Unit Fisheries and Oceans Canada 17