Greek Mythology Collected, Summarized and Edited By Riquette Mory T i t a n s Olympians Deities Primordial Deities Aquatic Deities Twelve Olympians Nymphs Pandora 25 September 2009 1 Greek Mythology
Greek Gods Their exploits were recorded and passed down through countless generations. Their images inspired some of the most beautiful art ever created. Their names echo throughout history. From their mythical home atop Mount Olympus, the Greek gods played an integral part in Ancient Greek life. From Aphrodite to Zeus, THE GREEK GODS presents an unforgettable exploration of the mythic and monumental world of Greek deities. 25 September 2009 2 Greek Mythology
The Titans The Titans were a race of powerful deities that ruled during the legendary Golden age. Their role as Elder gods was overthrown by a race of younger gods, the Olympians which effected a mythological paradigm shift that the Greeks may have borrowed from the Ancient near East. 25 September 2009 3 Greek Mythology
Titans There are twelve Titans from their first literary appearance, in Hesiod: The six male Titans are known as the Titanes, and the females as the Titanides: Ocean and fruitful earth, sun and moon, memoryand natural law. The twelve first-generation Titans were ruled by the youngest, Cronos (Saturn), who overthrew their father, Oranos('Sky'), at the urgings of their mother, Gaia('Earth'). These second-generation Titans include the children of Hyperion (Helios, Eos, and Selene), the daughters of Coeus(Leto and Asteria), and the sons of lapetus (Prometheus), Epimetheus, , and Menoetius). 25 September 2009 4 Greek Mythology
Titans The twelve Titans precede the Hecatonchires (100 Handers) and Cyclopes as the oldest set of children of Uranus, and Gaia: Uranus kept all of Gaia's children trapped within her womb, and Gaia groaned from the strain. Eventually, Cronus (Kronos), her youngest child at the time, volunteered to set upon his father, castrating him with a sickle, thereby freeing Gaia's children and setting himself up as king of the titans with Rhea as his wife and queen. 25 September 2009 Greek Mythology 5 RheaCronus' wife, one of the Titans.
Z e u s 25 September 2009 Greek Mythology 6 From all the children, only Zeus was saved from his father: Rhea gave Cronus a stone in swaddling clothes in his place, and placed the infant Zeus in Crete to be guarded by the Kouretes. A version of the myth was that Zeus was raised by the nymphAmalthea, who hid Zeus by dangling him by a rope from a tree so that he was suspended between the earth, the sea, and the sky, all of which were ruled by his father, Cronus. Still other versions of the tale say that Zeus was raised by his grandmother, Gaia.Once Zeus reached adulthood, he subdued Cronus by wile rather than force, using a potion concocted with the help of Metis, goddess of prudence, to force Cronus to vomit up Zeus's siblings. A war between younger and older gods commenced, in which Zeus was aided by the Hecatonchires and Cyclops, who had once again beenfreed from Tartarus. Zeus won after a long struggle, and cast many of the Titans down into Tartarus.
Primordial Deities1 Aether God of the upper air. Chaos The nothingness from which all else sprang. Chronos or Chronus The Keeper of Time. Not to be confused with the Titan Cronus, the aether of Zeus. Erebus God of darkness and shadow. Gaia or Gaea Goddess of the Earth (Mother Earth); mother of the Titans. Hemera Goddess of daylight and the sun. Zephyrus God of the west wind. 25 September 2009 Greek Mythology 7
Primordial Deities2 Nyx Goddess of night. She is also the only being from which Zeus turned from when her son Hypnos, who had angered Zeus, hid behind her. Tartarus The darkest, deepest part of the underworld. Ouranos God of the heavens (Father Sky); father of the Titans. He banished his children, the Cyclopes and the Hecatonchires, to the underworld because they did not please him. 25 September 2009 Greek Mythology 8
Aquatic Deities1 Poseidon(Latin: Neptune) was the god of the sea and, as Earth- Shaker," of earthquakes. Linear B tablets show that Poseidon was venerated at Pylos and Thebes in pre-Olympian Bronze age Greece, but he was integrated into the Olympian gods as the brother of Zeus and Hades. Poseidon had many children. There is a Homeric hymn to Poseidon, who was the protector of many Hellenic cities, although he lost the contest for Athens to Athena. Poseidon ruled over the Mediterranean. Oceanus was personified as a Titan, a son of Uranus and Gaia. In Hellenistic and Roman mosaics, this Titan was often depicted as having the upper body of a muscular man with a long beard and horns (often represented as the claws of a crab), and the lower torso of a serpent. Oceanus' consort is his sister Tethys, and from their union came the ocean nymphs, also known as the three-thousand Oceanids, and all the rivers of the world, fountains, and lakes. 25 September 2009 Greek Mythology 9
Aquatic Deities2 Cetusalso called Ceto or Cetea was a hideous sea monster, a daughter of Gaia and Pontus. Her husband was Phorcys and they had many children, collectively known as the Phorcydes or Phorcydides. In Greek art, Cetus was drawn as a serpentine fish. Cetus also gave name to the constellation Cetus. Nereuswas the eldest son of Pontus (the Sea) and Gaia (the Earth), a Titan who (with Doris) fathered the Nereids, with whom Nereus lived in the Aegean Sea. Glaucuswas a Greek sea-god. Glaucus began life as a mortal fisherman living in the Boeotian city of Anthedon. He discovered by accident a magical herb which could bring the fish he caught back to life, and decided to try eating it. The herb made him immortal, but also caused him to grow fins instead of arms and a fish's tail instead of legs, forcing him to dwell forever in the sea. Glaucus was a son of Nereus, he assisted Menelaus on his homeward journey with good advice. He also helped the Argonauts. 25 September 2009 Greek Mythology 10
Aquatic Deities3 Silver-footed Thetisdisposer or "placer" is encountered as a sea nymph, one of the fifty Nereids, daughters of the ancient one of the seas with shape-shifting abilities who survives in the historical vestiges of most later Greek myths as Proteus (whose name suggests the "first", the "primordial" or the "firstborn"). While most extant material about Thetis concerns her role as mother of Achilles and, as such, she is largely a creature of poetic fancy rather than cultworship in the historical period, there is one notable exception. In a variant of the myth, Thetis tried to make Achilles invulnerable by dipping him in the waters of the Styx (the river of Hades). However, the heel by which she held him was not touched by the Styx's waters, and failed to be protected. 25 September 2009 Greek Mythology 11
Aquatic Deities4 Amphitritewas a sea-goddess. Under the influence of the Olympian pantheon, she became merely the consort of Poseidon, and was further diminished by poets to a symbolic representation of the sea. Tethysdaughter of Uranus and Gaia was an archaic Titaness and aquatic sea goddess, invoked in classical Greek poetry but no longer venerated in cult. Tethys was both sister and wife of Oceanus. She was mother of the chief rivers of the world known to the Greeks, such as the Nile, the Alpheus, the Maeander, and about three thousand daughters called the Oceanids. Considered as an embodiment of the waters of the world she also may be seen as a counterpart of Thalassa, the embodiment of the sea. 25 September 2009 Greek Mythology 12
Aquatic Deities 5 Tritonis a mythological Greek god, the messenger of the deep. He is the son of Poseidon, god of the sea, and Amphitrite, goddess of the sea, whose herald he is. He is usually represented as a merman, having the upper body of a human and the tail of a fish, "sea-hued", according to Ovid "his shoulders barnacled with sea-shells". Triton's special attribute was a twisted conch shell, on which he blew like a trumpet to calm or raise the waves. Its sound was so terrible, that when loudly blown, it put the giants to flight, who imagined it to be the roar of a mighty wild beast. According to Hesiod’s Theogony,Triton dwelt with his parents in a golden palace in the depths of the sea; Homer places his seat in the waters off Aegae. The story of the Argonauts places his home on the coast of Lybia. Ophioneus- In some versions of GreekMythology, Ophion "serpent", also called Ophioneus ruled the world with Eurynome before the two of them were cast down by Cronus and Rhea. 25 September 2009 Greek Mythology 13
Aquatic Deities6 Proteusis an early sea-god; one of several deities whom Homer calls the “Old Man of the Sea" whose name suggests the "first", as protogonos is the "primordial" or the "firstborn". He became the son of Poseidon in the Olympian theogony, or of Nerus and Doris, or of Oceanus and a Naiad, and was made the herdsman of Poseidon's seals, the great bull seal at the center of the harem. He can foretell the future, but, in a mytheme familiar from several cultures, will change his shape to avoid having to; he will answer only to someone who is capable of capturing him. He is "versatile", "mutable", "capable of assuming many forms". "Protean" has positive connotations of flexibility, versatility and adaptability. 25 September 2009 Greek Mythology 14
Aquatic Deities7 Phorcys(also Phorkys, a primordial seagod, generally cited as the son of Pontus and Gaia. According to the Orphic hymns, Phorcys, Cronos and Rhea were the eldest offspring of Oceanusand Thetys. Pontus(or Pontos: "sea") was an ancient, pre- Olympian sea-god, one of the protogenoi, the "first- born". Pontos was the son of Gaia, the Earth: Hesiod says that Gaia brought forth Pontos out of herself, without coupling. The Oceanidswere the three thousand daughters of the Titans Oceanus and Thetys. One of these many daughters was also said to have been the consort of the god Poseidon, typically named as Amphitrite. Each was the patronessof a particular spring, river, ocean, lake, pond, pasture, flower or cloud. 25 September 2009 Greek Mythology 15
Twelve Olympians 1 25 September 2009 Greek Mythology 16 Aphrodite Goddess of love, lust, beauty, wife of Hephaestus. Ares is her lover. Eros is her son. Known as the most beautiful of the Greek goddesses. Her Attributes are the scepter, myrtle, and dove. Apollo God of music, medicine, health, prophecies, poetry, and archery. Also said to be the god of light and truth. Is associated with the sun. Also referred to as the most handsome of the gods. He is Artemis's twin brother, and son of Zeus. His symbols are the bow, lyre, and laurel.
Twelve Olympians 2 25 September 2009 Greek Mythology 17 Ares God of war, murder and bloodshed. Brother to Athena, and is the son of Zeus. Has an affair with Aphrodite. His Attributes are vultures, dogs, boars, and a spear. Artemis Goddess of the hunt, wild things, and the moon. Protector of the dewy young. She became associated with the moon. Apollo is her twin brother. Artemis is a virgin goddess. Her symbols are the bow, dogs, and deer.
Twelve Olympians 3 25 September 2009 Greek Mythology 18 AthenaGoddess of wisdom, warfare, strategy, handicrafts and reason. Sister of Ares, and is the daughter of Zeus. Sprung from Zeus‘ head in full body armor. She is the wisest of the gods. Her symbols are the aegis, owl, and olive tree. Demeter Goddess of fertility, agriculture, grain and harvest. Demeter is a daughter of Cronus and Rhea and sister of Zeus. Her symbols are the scepter, torch, and corn.
Twelve Olympians 4 25 September 2009 Greek Mythology 19 Hades God of the underworld and wealth. Brother of Poseidon, Zeus and Hera, and consort to Persephone. His symbols are the bident, the Helm of Darkness, and the three-headed dog, Cerberus. Abode : Underworld Attributes: Cerberus, Helm of darkness , Helmet of invisibility, Cypress, Narcissus and Key of Hades Parents: Cronus and Rhea Siblings: Poseidon, Demeter, Hestia, Hera, Zeus Dionysus God of wine, parties/festivals, madness and merriment. He represents not only the intoxicating power of wine, but also its social and beneficial influences. His attributes are the grape vine, ivy, and thyrsus.
Twelve Olympians 5 25 September 2009 Greek Mythology 20 Hephaestus God of fire and the forge (god of fire and smiths) with very weak legs. He was thrown off Mount Olympus as a baby by his mother and in some stories his father. He makes armor for the gods and other heroes like Achilles. Son of Hera and Zeus. Married to Aphrodite, but she does not love him because he is deformed and, as a result, is cheating on him with Ares. He had a daughter named Pandora. His attributes are an axe, a hammer and a flame. Hera Goddess of marriage, women, and childbirth. Zeus' wife and sister. Appears with peacock feathers often. Her symbols are the scepter, diadem, and peacock.
Twelve Olympians 6 25 September 2009 Greek Mythology 21 HermesGod of flight, thieves, mischief, commerce, and travelers. Messenger of the gods. He showed the way for the dead souls to Hade’s realm. He shows up in more myths than any other god or goddess. Likes to trick people and is very inventive. Hermes invented the lyre using a turtle shell and sinew. His symbols are the caduceus and winged boots. HestiaGoddess of the hearth and home, the focal point of every household. Daughter of Rhea and Cronus. Gave up her seat as one of the Twelve Olympians to tend to the sacred flame on Mount Olympus for Dionysus. Her symbol is the hearth.
Zeus King of the Gods 25 September 2009 Greek Mythology 22 ZeusThe king of the gods, the ruler of Mount Olympus and the god of the sky and thunder. Zeus was brother and consort of Hera. His attributes are the thunderbolt, eagle, bull, and oak.
The chariot of Zeus
N Y M P H S 1 Dryadsare tree nymphs (signifies 'oak,') 'tree' or 'wood'. Thus dryads are specifically the nymphs of oak trees. The Naiadsor Naiades ("to flow" and "running water") were a type of nymph who presided over fountains, wells, springs, streams, and brooks. Naiads were associated with fresh water, as the Oceanids were with saltwater and the Nereids specifically with the Mediterranean. The Nereidsare sea nymphs, the fifty daughters of Nereus and Doris. They often accompany Poseidon and are always friendly and helpful towards sailors fighting perilous storms. They are particularly associated with the AegeanSea, where they dwelt with their father in the depths within a silvery cave. The most notable of them are Thetis, wife of Peleus and mother of Achilles; Amphitrite, wife of Poseidon; and Galatea, love of the Cyclops Polyphemus. 25 September 2009 Greek Mythology 23
N Y M P H S 2 The Meliaeor Meliai were nymphs of the ash tree, whose name they shared. They appeared from the drops of blood spilled when Cronus castrated Uranus, according to Hesiod. From the same blood sprang the Erinyes, suggesting that the ash-tree nymphs represented the Fates in milder guise (Graves 6.4). From the Meliae sprang the race of mankind of the Age of Bronze. Oreads(Britomartis), Cynosura, Cyllene or Kyllene , Echo, Oenone, Pitys were type of nymph that lived in mountains, valleys, ravines. They differ from each other according to their dwelling: the Idea were from Mount Ida, Peliades from Mount Pelia, etc. They were associated with Artemis, since the goddess, when she went out hunting, preferred mounts and rocky precipices. 25 September 2009 Greek Mythology 24
N Y M P H S 3 The Napaeae: "a wooded dell" was a type of nymph that lived in wooded valleys, glens or grottoes. Statius invoked them in his Thebaid, when the naiad Ismenis addresses her mortal son Krenaios: Hamadryadsare born bonded to a specific tree. They are beings living in trees, and are a specific species of dryad, which are a particular type of nymph. Limnades/ Leimenides were a type of Naiad. They lived in freshwater lakes. Their parents were river or lake gods. The Limnades include Astakides and Limnaee. The Crinaeae were a type of nymph associated with fountains. The Crinaeae included: Aganippe Appias (Roman mythology) 25 September 2009 Greek Mythology 25
N Y M P H S4 The Hesperidesare nymphs who tend a blissful garden in a far western corner of the world, located near the Atlas mountains in Tanger, Morocco at the edge of the encircling Oceanus, the world-ocean. The Pegaeaewere a type of naiad that lived in springs. One group of them dwelled in the spring of Pegae, and were responsible for the kidnapping of Hylas. Pegaeae included: Albunea (Roman mythology) Cassotis 25 September 2009 Greek Mythology 26
Pandora & Evil Pandora Zeus ordered Hephaestus to mould her out of Earth as part of the punishment of mankind for Prometheus' theft of the secret of fire, and all the gods joined in offering this "beautiful evil“ - she was the first woman - but now more gods contribute to her completion: Athena taught her needlework and weaving; Aphrodite "shed grace upon her head and cruel longing and cares that weary the limbs”; Hermes gave her "a shameful mind and deceitful nature”; Hermes also gave her the power of speech, putting in her "lies and crafty words” ; Athena then clothed her; next she, Persuasion and the Charites adorned her with necklaces and other finery; the Horae adorned her with a garland crown. Finally, Hermes gives this woman a name: Pandora – "All-gifted" – "because all the Olympians gave her a gift“. In all literary versions, however, the myth is a kind of theodicy, addressing the question of why there is evil in the world. 25 September 2009 Greek Mythology 27