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Cell

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  • 1. Cell is the structural & functional unit of all living organisms. Cell Dr Khandaker Abu Rayhan Associate Professor Anatomy department Bangladesh
  • 2.
    • Cell consist of
    • 1. Cell membrane 2. Protoplasm:
    • a) Cytoplasm b) Nucleus
    Nucleus Nuclear membrane Nucleolus Nucleoplasm Chromatin
  • 3.
    • Cytoplasm contain :
    • 1. Membranous organelles
    • 2. Non membranous organelles
    • 3. Secretary granules
    • 1. Membranous
    • Mitochondria
    • Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi complex
    • Lysosomes
    • Peroxisomes
  • 4.
    • 2. Non membranous
    • Ribosome
    • Centrosome
    • Microtubules
    • Microfilaments
    3. Secretary granules Glycogen Lipids Pigments
  • 5. PLASMA MEMBRANES
  • 6.
    • All eukaryotic of is cells are enveloped by
    • a thin tough and elastic limiting membrane
    • between the external & internal environment
    • membranes
    • range from 7.5 to 10 nm in thickness
    • visible only in the electron microscope.
  • 7.
    • Compositions
    • Protein- 55%
    • Phospholipid- 25%
    • Cholesterol- 13%
    • Other lipid- 4%
    • CHO - 3%
  • 8.
    • Proteins are major molecular constituents of membrane about 50% weight in the plasma membrane. Two type Integral proteins Peripheral protein
  • 9. Integral proteins are directly incorporated with in the lipid bilayer providing channels for water soluble particles.
    • Peripheral protein
    • exhibits a looser association with
    • membrane surface
    • it is act as a enzyme.
  • 10. 2. Lipid all the lipids of the membrane form a lipid bilayer composed of a) Phospholipid & b) cholesterol.
    • a) Phospholipid
    • Within the membrane Phospholipid
    • are most stable when organized into a
    • double layer
  • 11.
    • With in the phospholipid hydrophobic
    • chain directed toward the center of the
    • membrane
    • their hydrophilic heads directed out word.
    b) Cholesterol It breakup the close packing of Phospholipid long chain & this disruption make the membrane more fluid.
  • 12. Cell controls the fluidity of the membrane through the amount of cholesterol.
    • 3. Carbohydrate
    • glycoprotein,
    • glycolipid &
    • protoglycans
    • make up the carbohydrate cover called
    • glycocalyx, projected from the external
    • surface of the plasma membrane.
  • 13.
    • Some of the protein molecules of
    • the inner layer of plasma membrane provide
    • anchorage to the
    • microfilaments and
    • microtubules,
    • which act as a cytoskeleton to attend
    • the cell-shape or movement of the cell.
  • 14.
    • FLUID MOSAIC MODEL OF THE PM, IN
    • WHICH PR ARE EMBEDDED OR
    • FLOATING OF VARIABLE IN THE LIPID
    • BILAYER.
  • 15.
    • Function
    • It maintains the shape of the cell.
    • It provides microenvironment for
    • cell function.
    • It allows free passage of water &
    • gases like O2 & CO2, because they are
    • highly soluble in lipid bilayer.
  • 16.
    • It is impermeable to intracellular
    • protein & other organic anions but selective
    • permeable to Na, K, Ca, Cl, HCO3
    • Receptors are the important
    • components of plasma membrane, which
    • participate, in important interaction such as
    • cell adhesion, recognition, and response to
    • protein hormones.
  • 17.
    • It relays any stimulation from cell to cell
    • through intercellular contact.
    • It is endowed with two very important
    • processes endocytosis & exocytosis.
  • 18. MITOCHONDRIA
  • 19.
    • Are spherical or elongated or rod shape or filamentous organelles
    • 0.5µm wide &
    • up to 10 µm length.
  • 20.
    • It tend to accumulate in parts of the cytoplasm
    • where the utilization of energy in more
    • eg-
    • Apical each of ciliated cells
    • Middle piece of spermatozoa
    • Base of ion-transferring cells
  • 21.
    • Number of mitochondria & the number of
    • cristae in each mitochondrion are related to the
    • energetic activity of cells with high-energy
    • metabolism-
    • Cardiac muscle
    • Cells of some kidney tubules.
    • Where cells with a low-energy metabolism have
    • few mitochondria with short cristae.
  • 22.
    • Structure
    • Under electron microscope it is composed
    • an outer mitochondrial membrane
    • an inner mitochondrial membrane
    • The inner membrane projects folds, termed
    • cristae ; into interior of the mitochondria
    • these membranes enclose two
    • comportments.
  • 23.
    • The omportment located between
    • the two membranes in termed the
    • intermembranous space.
    The inner membrane encloses the other compartment called interstate or matrix space, its membrane contains a large number of proteins molecules.
  • 24.
    • Most mitochondria have flat, shelf like
    • cristae in their interior. Cristae increase
    • the internal surface area of mitochondria.
    • Contents of matrix
    • Calcium salt
    • Organic crystals
    • Glycogen
    • Ribosome
    • RNA
    • DNA
  • 25.
    • Their important enzymes are found in the
    • mitochondria
    • Citric acid cycle enzymes
    • Respiratory chain enzyme
    • Oxidative phospharylase
  • 26.
    • Functions
    • 1. It complete cell respiration by aerobic
    • pathway & yield high energy through the
    • formation of ATP.
    • 2.ATP provides energy for cell cellular
    • functions
    • 3. ATP is required for transport of ions
    • across the cell membrane.
    • 4. ATP cause muscular contraction
    • 5. It act as powerhouse of the cell.
  • 27. ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
  • 28. It is a system of anastomosing and intercommunicating channels & sac formed by a continuous membrane, which encloses a space called a cisterna.
    • The ER presents two varieties-
    • Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)
    • Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)
  • 29. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)
    • It called RER due to attachments of
    • ribosome to the outer surface of the
    • membranous vesicles.
    • It is prominent in cells specialized for
    • protein synthesis
    • eg- pancreatic acinar,
    • Fibroblasts,
    • Plasma cells.
  • 30.
    • Function:
    • Synthesis at exportable proteins.
    • Synthesis of Phospholipid
    • Post translation modification of newly
    • polypeptides
  • 31. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)
    • present in steroid H secreting cells
    • adrenal cortex,
    • testis,
    • ovary.
    • It not associated with ribosome’s
    • Its cisternae are more tubular
  • 32. Function
    • It is abundant in liver for oxidation,
    • conjugation, methylation to degrade some
    • H & neutralize noxious substance like
    • alcohol, barbiturate.
    • It involved in metabolism of lipid and
    • carbohydrate
    • Formation of steroid hormones
    • Detoxification
    • Participation in the contraction of
    • skeletal muscles
  • 33. GOLGI COMPLEX
  • 34.
    • It consists of smooth surfaced & closely
    • pocked flattened membranous cisternae
    • arranged in a stack of four to six, together
    • they’re with clusters of small vesicle around
    • its surfaces.
    Near the complex, the RER can sometimes be seen budding of smell vesicle that shuttle newly synthesized proteins to the Golgi complex for further processing.
  • 35. The Golgi cisterna nearest this point in called the forming, convex or cis-face , on the opposite is concave or trans face.
    • Function
    • It initiates packing, concentration and
    • storage of secrete product.
    • It important in glycosylation, sulfating,
    • phosphorylation and limited proteolysis of
    • protein.
  • 36. RIBOSOME
  • 37.
    • Are small electro dense particles,
    • 20x30 nm in size,
    • composed of 4 types of ribosomal RNA &
    • 80 different proteins.
    The RNA molecules are synthesized within the nucleus & their proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm then enter into nucleus then associated with rRNA.
  • 38.
    • Subunits then leave the nucleus via
    • Nuclear pores to enter the cytoplasm &
    • participate in protein synthesis.
    • Within the cytoplasm some of the
    • ribosome remains free, while others are
    • attached to the ER.
  • 39.
    • Functions
    • Free ribosome synthesizes proteins,
    • which are utilized for the metabolism
    • of the cells & its own growth.
    • Ribosome associated with ER
    • synthesis exportable protein.
  • 40. LYSOSOMES
  • 41.
    • Are membrane limited vesicles, usually
    • spherical in shape,
    • 0.05 to 0.5 µ in diameter,
    • Present a uniformly granular, electro
    • dense, contain a large variety of hydrolytic enzymes
  • 42.
    • Hydrolytic enzymes
    • acid phosphatase,
    • ribonuclease,
    • deoxyribonuclease,
    • protease,
    • sulfatases,
    • lipases,
    • ß glucouronidase.
  • 43.
    • The enveloping membrane separates
    • the lytic enzymes from the cytoplasm,
    • preventing digestion of cytoplasmic
    • components.
    • It enzymes are synthesized & segregate
    • in the RER & transferred to Golgi complex
    • where modification of enzyme take place.
  • 44. Lysosomes exist in three forms:
    • Primary lysosomes, which have just been formed;
    • Secondary lysosomes , which contain partially
    • digested material (myelin figures)
    • Residual bodies, in which the enzymes are inactive and which have evolved form digestible materials such as pigment and lipid.
  • 45.
    • Lipofuscin/age pigments some long-lived cells
    • large quantities of residual bodies accumulate,
    • eg :
    • Neuron
    • Cardiac muscles.
    • F unction
    • Inter cellular digestion & turn over of
    • Unwanted cytoplasmic organelles &
    • act as a intercellular scavengers
    • bacterial phagocytosis.

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