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IPv4 and IPv6 - addressing Internet infrastructure
IPv4 and IPv6 - addressing Internet infrastructure
IPv4 and IPv6 - addressing Internet infrastructure
IPv4 and IPv6 - addressing Internet infrastructure
IPv4 and IPv6 - addressing Internet infrastructure
IPv4 and IPv6 - addressing Internet infrastructure
IPv4 and IPv6 - addressing Internet infrastructure
IPv4 and IPv6 - addressing Internet infrastructure
IPv4 and IPv6 - addressing Internet infrastructure
IPv4 and IPv6 - addressing Internet infrastructure
IPv4 and IPv6 - addressing Internet infrastructure
IPv4 and IPv6 - addressing Internet infrastructure
IPv4 and IPv6 - addressing Internet infrastructure
IPv4 and IPv6 - addressing Internet infrastructure
IPv4 and IPv6 - addressing Internet infrastructure
IPv4 and IPv6 - addressing Internet infrastructure
IPv4 and IPv6 - addressing Internet infrastructure
IPv4 and IPv6 - addressing Internet infrastructure
IPv4 and IPv6 - addressing Internet infrastructure
IPv4 and IPv6 - addressing Internet infrastructure
IPv4 and IPv6 - addressing Internet infrastructure
IPv4 and IPv6 - addressing Internet infrastructure
IPv4 and IPv6 - addressing Internet infrastructure
IPv4 and IPv6 - addressing Internet infrastructure
IPv4 and IPv6 - addressing Internet infrastructure
IPv4 and IPv6 - addressing Internet infrastructure
IPv4 and IPv6 - addressing Internet infrastructure
IPv4 and IPv6 - addressing Internet infrastructure
IPv4 and IPv6 - addressing Internet infrastructure
IPv4 and IPv6 - addressing Internet infrastructure
IPv4 and IPv6 - addressing Internet infrastructure
IPv4 and IPv6 - addressing Internet infrastructure
IPv4 and IPv6 - addressing Internet infrastructure
IPv4 and IPv6 - addressing Internet infrastructure
IPv4 and IPv6 - addressing Internet infrastructure
IPv4 and IPv6 - addressing Internet infrastructure
IPv4 and IPv6 - addressing Internet infrastructure
IPv4 and IPv6 - addressing Internet infrastructure
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IPv4 and IPv6 - addressing Internet infrastructure

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Presentation given at EURODIG by Vesna Manojlovic

Presentation given at EURODIG by Vesna Manojlovic

Published in: Technology
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  • 1. IPv4 and IPv6 -addressing InternetinfrastructureVesna Manojlovic, trainerEuroDIG, Belgrade, 30-31.5.2011 1
  • 2. RIPE / RIPE NCCRIPE (’89) Operators community Develops addressing policies Industry self-regulation Working group mailing lists Meetings/conferences twice a yearRIPE NCC (‘92) Located in Amsterdam Not for profit membership organisation One of five RIRs - distributes IP & ASN Supports RIPE community 2 2
  • 3. Topics:• IPv4 Exhaustion: - IANA is out of IPv4 addresses since February 2011• Polices for getting last chunks of IPv4• Getting IPv6• Transition from IPv4 to IPv6: statistics - IPv6 RIPEness in SEE region• World IPv6 Day: 8. June 2011• “Diving with Sharks”: IPv6 @ RIPE NCC Regional Meeting in Dubrovnik, 6-9.9.2011 3 3
  • 4. IPv4 addresses in the global pool 40% 38% 36% 34% 32% 30% 30% 26% 22% 20% 17% 13% 10% 9% 5% 0% 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 4 4
  • 5. Reaching the next level• The Internet has around 1.6 billion users• They consumed 3.5 billion addresses• Growing in all directions - More users join up - More connections become ‘always on’ - More devices become ‘Internet aware’• IPv4 can no longer sustain this growth 5 5
  • 6. IPv4 exhaustion phases IPv4 still available. Final /8 policy RIPE NCC can only RIPE NCC continues triggered distribute IPv6 normal operation now timeIANA pool RIPE NCC RIPE NCCexhausted reaches pool final /8 exhausted Each ofthe 5 RIRs received a /8 6 6
  • 7. Current policy: “Run Out Fairly”• Gradually reduced allocation and assignment periods• Needs for “Entire Period” of up to... - 12 months (January 2010) - 9 months (July 2010) - 6 months (January 2011) - 3 months (July 2011)• 50% has to be used up by half-period 7 7
  • 8. Transfer of IPv4 allocations• LIRs can transfer IPv4 address blocks: - To another LIR - Only when the block is not in use - Meets minimum allocation size (/21)• Requests are evaluated by the RIPE NCC - Justified need• Registered in the RIPE Database 8 8
  • 9. Business as usual• As long as there are IPv4 addresses left, the RIPE NCC will keep on distributing them, based on justified need• Same allocation and assignment policies still apply (RIPE-509)• Until the final /8 is reached 9 9
  • 10. Final /8 policy• Each LIR will be able to get one /22 allocation - 1024 IPv4 addresses - New and existing members - As long as supplies will last• You must meet the criteria for an (additional) allocation• Only when you already have IPv6 addresses 10 10
  • 11. Getting IPv6 11
  • 12. Where do all the addresses come from? IETF IANA AfriNIC ARIN RIPE NCC APNIC LACNIC 7500 LIRs End Users 12 12
  • 13. Policy process: decision making Standards IETF IANA AfriNIC ARIN RIPE NCC APNIC LACNIC RIPE Community: Operations Open to everyone 13 13
  • 14. Governing principles of addressing policy• Registration (in RIR whois databases) - to ensure uniqueness of Internet number resources - to provide contact information for users of resources• Aggregation - introduction of Classless Inter Domain Routing (CIDR) - to provide scalable routing solution for Internet• Conservation - prudent stewardship of scarce resources - policies to ensure fair usage - number resources are distributed based on need 14 14
  • 15. IPv6 address basics• IPv6 uses 128 bit addresses – Hexadecimal notation, numbers between 0 and f – Separated by colons – 2001:db8:3042:2:5a55:cafe:fef6:babe• Every subnet should be a /64 - (2^64 hosts) - End-site assignment of /48 has 65,536 subnets of /64 - Allocation of /32 has 65,536 assignments of /48s 15 15
  • 16. IPv6 Address Distribution /3 IANA /12 RIR /32 LIR /48 /56 /48 End User Allocation PA Assignment PI Assignment 16 16
  • 17. Getting an IPv6 allocation• To qualify, an organisation must: - Be an LIR - Have a plan for making assignments within two years• Minimum allocation size /32• Allocation size is based on customer numbers and growth 17 17
  • 18. What does the first IPv6 allocation cost? - for all - pending General Meeting decision or: - for approximately 97% of the LIRs - more points, but not higher category! 18 18
  • 19. Getting IPv6 PI address space• To qualify, an organisation must: - Demonstrate it will multihome - Meet the contractual requirements for provider independent resources - Standard yearly fee for independent resources applies (50 Euro yearly)• Minimum assignment size /48• PI space can not be used for sub-assignment 19 19
  • 20. IPv6 statistics 20
  • 21. IPv6 Ripeness• 1* = IPv6 allocation or PI assignment• More stars: - visible in RIS - route6 object - reverse DNS• All 4* = IPv6 “ripe”• Zero stars - no IPv6• Total number of LIRs per conutry - in brackets next to country name on X axes 21 21
  • 22. IPv6 RIPEness: 7491 LIRs (24 May 2011) 1 star 2 stars 3 stars 4 stars No IPv6 1 star No IPv6 2 stars 3 stars 4 stars 22 22
  • 23. 0 20 40 60 80 Slovenia (42 LIRs) Serbia (68) 1star Croatia (23) 2star Bosnia (28) Macedonia (19) 3star Montenegro (8) Romania (35) 4star Portugal (36 LIRs) Bulgaria (76) IPv6 RIPEness – countries (24 May 2011) 0star 2323
  • 24. 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% Slovenia (42 LIRs) Serbia (68) 1star Croatia (23) Bosnia (28) 2star Macedonia (19) Montenegro (8) 3star Romania (35) Portugal (36 LIRs) 4star Bulgaria (76) IPv6 RIPEness – relative (24 May 2011) All (7491) 0star 2424
  • 25. IPv6 enabled ASes in global routing http://v6ASNs.ripe.net 25 25
  • 26. Top-5 IPv6deploymentchallenges 26
  • 27. Top-5 IPv6 deployment challenges1. IPv4 and IPv6 are incompatible2. The equipment is not IPv6 ready3. There is no customer demand yet4. There is no IPv6 content yet5. There is still time to wait and do it later... 27 27
  • 28. Problem: IPv4 and IPv6 are incompatible• Solutions:• While you can, build dual-stack networks• Many translation and tunneling mechanisms exist – NAT64 / NAT-PT – 6in4, 6to4, Teredo, 6RD, TSP, A+P, 4RD... 28 28
  • 29. Problem: The equipment is not IPv6 ready• Solutions: - demand IPv6 feature-parity from your vendors - Requirements For IPv6 in ICT Equipment: RIPE-501 - list & review of home-routers that support IPv6: - https://labs.ripe.net/Members/mirjam/ipv6-cpe-surveys/ - “IPv6 Ready” program: http://www.ipv6ready.org/ 29 29
  • 30. Problems: no customers / no content• Solutions: - customer education - killer-app?• Use “World IPv6 Day” for testing! 30 30
  • 31. There is still time to wait and do it later...• Problems: - There is no business case - It costs money to implement changes• Temporary solutions: - “We will use more NAT”: CGN, LSN, NAT444...• Solution: think ahead! Make future-proof decisions! 31 31
  • 32. World IPv6 Day 32
  • 33. World IPv6 Day• 8 June 2011• Initiated by ISOC• 0:00 GMT - 23:59 GMT• Top 500 websites - Google, Facebook, Yahoo... - and you?• Great test opportunity 33 33
  • 34. RIPE NCC and World IPv6 Day• RIPE NCC Measurements - Measuring connectivity to World IPv6 Day participants - Testing connectivity and performance using TTM - Monitor performance of 6to4 versus native IPv6 - http://ipv6eyechart.ripe.net• Coordinated events - Amsterdam - Moscow• Live reports on http://www.ripe.net/worldipv6day 34 34
  • 35. Useful IPv6 links Websites:• http://IPv6ActNow.org• http://www.getipv6.info• http://datatracker.ietf.org/wg/v6ops/• http://www.ripe.net/ripe/docs/ripe-501.html Mailing lists:• http://lists.cluenet.de/mailman/listinfo/ipv6-ops• http://www.ripe.net/mailman/listinfo/ipv6-wg 35 35
  • 36. Implications of IPv4 /IPv6 transition forInternet Governance 36
  • 37. IPv4, IPv6 & Internet Governance?• IPv4 addresses trading?• Creating a new digital divide?• Governments and regulators involvement in encouraging / demanding IPv6 deployment?• Consumer choice?• RPKI / SIDR: resource certification & secure routing• Please, take part in RIPE Policy Development Process and IETF standards development! 37 37
  • 38. IPv4/IPv6 in S.E.E. region: 6-9.9. Dubrovnik• RIPE NCC Regional Meeting: - http://ripe.net/dubrovnik-2011• Tutorials & hands-on workshops, presentations... - IPv4/IPv6 Transition Mechanisms - IPv6 in Microsoft Environment - Basic & advanced BGP routing for IPv6 - IPv6 basics• Hosted by CarNET• Free of charge! 38 38

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