IPv4 and IPv6

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This presentation has been given by Marco Hogewoning during the RIPE NCC Roundtable Meeting in Amsterdam on 4 April 2011

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IPv4 and IPv6

  1. 1. IPv4 and IPv6current situationMarco Hogewoning, trainerRoundtable meeting4 April 2011, Amsterdam (NL)
  2. 2. IPv4 addresses in the global pool 40% 38% 36% 34% 32% 30% 30% 26% 22% 20% 17% 13% 10% 9% 5% 0% 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011Marco Hogewoning, 4 April 2011 2
  3. 3. Reaching the next level• The Internet has around 1.6 billion users• They consumed 3.5 billion addresses• Growing in all directions – More users join up – More connections become ‘always on’ – More devices become ‘Internet aware’• IPv4 can no longer sustain this growthMarco Hogewoning, 4 April 2011 3
  4. 4. IPv4 exhaustion phases IPv4 still available. Final /8 policy RIPE NCC can only RIPE NCC continues triggered distribute IPv6 normal operation now time IANA pool RIPE NCC RIPE NCC exhausted reaches pool final /8 exhausted Each of the 5 RIRs received a /8Marco Hogewoning, 4 April 2011 4
  5. 5. Business as usual• As long as there are IPv4 addresses left, the RIPE NCC will keep on distributing them, based on justified need• Same allocation and assignment policies still apply (RIPE-509)• Until the final /8 is reachedMarco Hogewoning, 4 April 2011 5
  6. 6. “Run Out Fairly”• Gradually reduced allocation and assignment periods• Needs for “Entire Period” of up to... – 12 months (January 2010) –9 months (July 2010) –6 months (January 2011) –3 months (July 2011)• 50% has to be used up by half-period Marco Hogewoning, 4 April 2011 6
  7. 7. Final /8 policy• Each LIR can get one /22 allocation – 1024 IPv4 addresses – New and existing members – As long as supplies will last• You must meet the criteria for an (additional) allocation• Only when you already have IPv6 addressesMarco Hogewoning, 4 April 2011 7
  8. 8. Transfer of IPv4 allocations• LIRs can transfer IPv4 address blocks: – To another LIR – Only when the block is not in use – Meets minimum allocation size (/21)• Requests are evaluated by the RIPE NCC – Justified need• Registered in the RIPE DatabaseMarco Hogewoning, 4 April 2011 8
  9. 9. No changes yet• Policy will only change when the RIPE NCC’s final /8 is reached• Be aware of the shorter assignment period!• And start deploying IPv6 now!Marco Hogewoning, 4 April 2011 9
  10. 10. Questions?
  11. 11. IPv4 vs IPv6
  12. 12. Address format• IPv4 uses 32 bit addresses – ‘Dotted decimal’ – 0.0.0.0 - 255.255.255.255• IPv6 uses 128 bit addresses – Hexadecimal notation, numbers between 0 and f – Separated by colons – ‘2001:980:3042:2:5a55:caff:fef6:bdbf’• IPv4 and IPv6 are not compatibleMarco Hogewoning, 4 April 2011 12
  13. 13. Coexistence• IPv4 and IPv6 can not talk to each other• But they can exist together on the same network• Known as ‘Dual stack’ – Computer has both an IPv4 and IPv6 address – Uses one of the two when communicating – If IPv6 is available it usually has preferenceMarco Hogewoning, 4 April 2011 13
  14. 14. A perfect world IPv4 IPv6Marco Hogewoning, 4 April 2011 14
  15. 15. A perfect world IPv4 IPv6Marco Hogewoning, 4 April 2011 14
  16. 16. A perfect world IPv6Marco Hogewoning, 4 April 2011 14
  17. 17. A perfect world IPv6Marco Hogewoning, 4 April 2011 14
  18. 18. The plan (1995 - 2009)• To have most computers and networks dual stacked before the IPv4 pool runs out• Traffic would have switched to IPv6• Smooth transition from IPv4 to IPv6• This failed :(Marco Hogewoning, 4 April 2011 15
  19. 19. IPv6 deployment issues• People are reluctant to change – If it isn’t broken...• Changes cost money• There wasn’t a business case – IPv4 run out was a long term problem – It is a ‘hidden’ problem• Equipment wasn’t available – Cause or side-effect ?Marco Hogewoning, 4 April 2011 16
  20. 20. Questions?
  21. 21. Alternatives
  22. 22. Extending the IPv4 pool• Find unused addresses• Use Network Address Translation (NAT) – Common technique in home environments – Machines get a ‘private IP address’ – And share a single public IP for connections• Do the same at the operator level – Customers will get a private IP – Carrier Grade NAT/Large Scale NATMarco Hogewoning, 4 April 2011 19
  23. 23. Problems with NAT• Does it really scale ? – How many users can share a single address ?• Who is using address X ? – Who am I talking to ? – Who to blame for abuse ?• It doesn’t allow to offer services• Some protocols will break• It does not talk to IPv6!Marco Hogewoning, 4 April 2011 20
  24. 24. Plan B• Technical community is very active• Countless protocols and proposals are around – 6in4 – 6to4 – 6RD – TSP – A+P – 4RD – ...etcMarco Hogewoning, 4 April 2011 21
  25. 25. Transitioning techniques• Most of them use ‘tunnels’ – Put X in Y (IPv6 in IPv4)• The end point has both protocols• And the network in between doesn’t• Requires assistance in the form of so called ‘tunnel servers’ – ‘Bridge’ between the 2 worlds – Unpacking and repacking the dataMarco Hogewoning, 4 April 2011 22
  26. 26. Tunnels Tunnel IPv4 server IPv6Marco Hogewoning, 4 April 2011 23
  27. 27. Drawbacks of tunnels• Still require (public) IPv4 addresses• Most of them work one way (IPv4 -> IPv6) – IPv6 content ?• Who owns the tunnel server ? – Does it come with some guarantee ? – Can you trust them ? – ‘man in the middle’• Filtering prohibits tunnelsMarco Hogewoning, 4 April 2011 24
  28. 28. Translation (NAT64/NAT-PT)• Alternative #3: translate IPv4 into IPv6• Customer will only get one protocol• Translator box sits in between – Talks to both IPv4 and IPv6 – Shares addresses• Drawbacks – Who is who – Can you trust the ‘man in the middle’ – Breaks DNSsecMarco Hogewoning, 4 April 2011 25
  29. 29. Dual stack where you can• “The most customer friendly way of transitioning to IPv6”• Long term solution• IPv4 run out is everybody’s problem• The key in solving it lies with those who already have IPv4 addresses• Worst case scenario: split brain!Marco Hogewoning, 4 April 2011 26
  30. 30. What does this mean for you?• Remember you are a customer – Same problems apply – Can you still reach all the data you require ? – Are your services still available to everybody ?• Use your buying power• Be sure to be future proofMarco Hogewoning, 4 April 2011 27
  31. 31. Is there any impact ?• Law enforcement: – Do you still know who you are after ? – Can your lawful Interception handle X in Y ? – Data retention will grow beyond imagination• Economic effects ?• What about that future: – Smart grid ? – Internet of things ? – Education ?Marco Hogewoning, 4 April 2011 28
  32. 32. Questions?
  33. 33. IPv6 statisticsMarco Hogewoning, trainer
  34. 34. IPv6 RIPEness • Rating system: – One star if the member has an IPv6 allocation – Additional stars if: - IPv6 Prefix is visible on the internet - A route6 object is in the RIPE Database - Reverse DNS is set up –A list of all 4 star LIRs: http://ripeness.ripe.net/Marco Hogewoning, 4 April 2011 31
  35. 35. IPv6 RIPEness: 7433 LIRs 1 star 12% 2 stars 5% No IPv6 3 stars 61% 9% 4 stars 13%Marco Hogewoning, 4 April 2011 32
  36. 36. IPv6 RIPEness over time100%80%60%40%20% 0% 09-2010 10-2010 11-2010 12-2010 01-2011 02-2011 03-2011 Current No IPv6 1 star 2 star 3 star 4 star Marco Hogewoning, 4 April 2011 33
  37. 37. IPv6 RIPEness February 2011100% 11.4% 11.5% 11.8% 12.0% 12.3% 12.7% 12.8% 13.3% 8.1% 8.3% 8.2% 8.3% 8.4% 8.6% 8.7% 8.8%80% 4.6% 4.6% 4.8% 4.9% 4.9% 4.6% 4.8% 4.6% 11.0% 11.1% 11.6% 11.9% 12.1% 12.0% 12.0% 12.4%60% 64.9% 64.5% 63.6% 62.9% 62.3% 62.1% 61.7% 60.8%40%20% 0% 25-01 01-02 08-02 15-02 22-02 01-03 08-03 Current No IPv6 1 star 2 star 3 star 4 star Marco Hogewoning, 4 April 2011 34
  38. 38. IPv6 RIPEness per country15001125 750 375 0 is no se fi ee lv ua dk uk nl be lu de pl fr ch li at es pt it si ba il sa ae ru No IPv6 1 star 2 star 3 star 4 star Marco Hogewoning, 4 April 2011 35
  39. 39. IPv6 RIPEness per country100%75%50%25% 0% is no se fi ee lv ua dk uk nl be lu de pl fr ch li at es pt it si ba il sa ae ru No IPv6 1 star 2 star 3 star 4 star Marco Hogewoning, 4 April 2011 36
  40. 40. Questions?
  41. 41. The End! Kрай Y Diwedd Fí Соңы Finis Liðugt Ende Finvezh KiнецьKonec Kraj Ënn FundLõpp Beigas Vége Son Kpaj An Críoch ‫הסוף‬ EndirFine Sfârşit Fin Τέλος Einde Конeц Slut Slutt Pabaiga Amaia Loppu Tmiem Koniec Fim

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