Do you know the definition of acids and bases in general ?
Produce H+ (as H3O+) ions in waterProduce a negative ion (-) tooTaste sourCorrode metalsReact with bases to form salts and water
Produce OH- ions in water Are electrolytes Feel soapy, slippery React with acids to form salts and water LecturePLUS Timberlake 4
• Used for acid and bases in solution (neutralization)• Cations (positive ions) derived from the bases and anions (negative ions) derived from acid• Salt: compounds which can remove ion of• H + positive and negative ion of non OH-
Acids produce H+ in aqueous solutions water HCl H+(aq) + Cl- (aq) Bases produce OH- in aqueous solutions water NaOH Na+(aq) + OH- (aq)
• In this idea, the ionization of an acid by water is just one example of an acid-base reaction. H H + Cl H + O HO + Cl H H acid base conjugate acid conjugate base conjugate acid-base pairs• Acids and bases are identified based on whether they donate or accept H+.• “Conjugate” acids and bases are found on the products side of the equation. A conjugate base is the same as the starting acid minus H+.
Arrehenius Acids – produce H+ only in water Bases - produce OH- Acids – donate H+ Bronsted-Lowry Bases – accept H+ any solvent Lewis Acids – accept e- pairused in organic chemistry, Bases – donate e- pairwider range of substances
Acid, Base Name or SaltCaCl2 ______ _________________KOH ______ _________________Ba(OH)2 ______ _________________HBr ______ _________________H2SO4 ______ __________________
The pH scale measures how acidic or basic a solution is.
The pH scale is the concentration of hydrogen ions in a given substance. pH log H
Acids have a ph from 0-7 Lower pH value indicates a stronger acid. Bases have a pH from 7-14 Higher pH value indicates a stronger base.
Strong acids/bases – 100% dissociation into ions HCl NaOH HNO3 KOH H2SO4Weak acids/bases – partial dissociation, both ions and molecules CH3COOH NH3 Weak Acid Weak Base
pH of Rainwater across United States in 2001 You are here!Why is the eastern US more acidic? http://nadp.sws.uiuc.edu/isopleths