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Acid & base
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  • 1. By : Siti Auliaddina
  • 2. Do you know the definition of acids and bases in general ?
  • 3. Produce H+ (as H3O+) ions in waterProduce a negative ion (-) tooTaste sourCorrode metalsReact with bases to form salts and water
  • 4.  Produce OH- ions in water Are electrolytes Feel soapy, slippery React with acids to form salts and water LecturePLUS Timberlake 4
  • 5. • Used for acid and bases in solution (neutralization)• Cations (positive ions) derived from the bases and anions (negative ions) derived from acid• Salt: compounds which can remove ion of• H + positive and negative ion of non OH-
  • 6.  Acids produce H+ in aqueous solutions water HCl H+(aq) + Cl- (aq) Bases produce OH- in aqueous solutions water NaOH Na+(aq) + OH- (aq)
  • 7. • In this idea, the ionization of an acid by water is just one example of an acid-base reaction. H H + Cl H + O HO + Cl H H acid base conjugate acid conjugate base conjugate acid-base pairs• Acids and bases are identified based on whether they donate or accept H+.• “Conjugate” acids and bases are found on the products side of the equation. A conjugate base is the same as the starting acid minus H+.
  • 8. Arrehenius  Acids – produce H+ only in water  Bases - produce OH-  Acids – donate H+ Bronsted-Lowry  Bases – accept H+ any solvent Lewis  Acids – accept e- pairused in organic chemistry,  Bases – donate e- pairwider range of substances
  • 9. Acid, Base Name or SaltCaCl2 ______ _________________KOH ______ _________________Ba(OH)2 ______ _________________HBr ______ _________________H2SO4 ______ __________________
  • 10.  The pH scale measures how acidic or basic a solution is.
  • 11.  The pH scale is the concentration of hydrogen ions in a given substance. pH log H
  • 12.  Acids have a ph from 0-7 Lower pH value indicates a stronger acid. Bases have a pH from 7-14 Higher pH value indicates a stronger base.
  • 13. Strong acids/bases – 100% dissociation into ions HCl NaOH HNO3 KOH H2SO4Weak acids/bases – partial dissociation, both ions and molecules CH3COOH NH3 Weak Acid Weak Base
  • 14. pH of Rainwater across United States in 2001 You are here!Why is the eastern US more acidic? http://nadp.sws.uiuc.edu/isopleths
  • 15. Dissolved carbon dioxide lowers the pHCO2 (g) + H2O  H2CO3  H+ + HCO3-Atmospheric pollutants from combustionNO, NO2 + H2O …  HNO3 both strong acidsSO2, SO3 + H2O …  H2SO4 pH < 5.3