CHURCH
HISTORY
The Institutional Of The
Church: The Events of the
Great Schism and the
Crusades
The Holy Bible: John 17:20-23


The Church Teaching: Second Vatican
Council
Decree on Ecumenism (Unitatis Redintegratio)
...
•

Division contradicts the will of Christ…
Scandalizes the world
 Damages the Holy cause of preaching the
gospel to ever...


Second Vatican Council: Declaration on
the Relation of the Church to NonChristian Religions (Nostra Aetate)
o
o

o
o

C...
Points to Consider:
 Constantine
o

o

Time

Moved the capital of the Roman empire to
Constantinople in the first part of...
o

o

o

o

In 337 CE, a Germanic tribe, the
Goths, attacked the eastern part of the
empire.
The following year, the Emper...
o

o

Germanic tribes is what the Romans called,
as other in Western Europe, it is “Barbarian”
it comes from the Greek wor...
o
o

Who then could administer any form of
justice or get public works?
The local bishop (Pope in Rome) too more
public re...
Looking back over 1500 years of
Church history…
 Not

one perfect harmony…There were:
 Political Conflicts
 Religious C...
On between 9th & 13th Century
 The



situation went bad, worse and awful.
-Let’s take a look…
They Spoke Different Lang...


They Thought Differently about Political Issues:
Germanic invaders forced the Pope to assume
the political role.
They T...
 Another

Understanding: Authority should
really rest in the Church.



Western – considered the Pope as the head
of th...
 In

11th Century: the two sides were tried to
work thing out.
 In 1054: the Pope sent representatives to
Constantinople...
 The

separation was more on
administration and not about doctrine.
 In the middle ages: Christians were eager
to change...






Second half of 11th Century: European
Christians headed on pilgrimage to the Holy
land.
The area was controlled b...
The following provides a snapshot of the Crusades
CRUSADE

WHEN (AD/CE) WHY CALLED

HOW IT WENT

First

1096 - 1099

Pilgr...
CRUSADE WHEN (AD/CE) WHY CALLED

HOW IT WENT

Fourth

1201 - 1204

Failure to
recapture
Jerusalem during
3rd crusade

Crus...
 The

crusades also got people thinking
about what it means to fight a holy war
and when violence may be used in the
serv...
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Institutionalization 1

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Institutionalization 1

  1. 1. CHURCH HISTORY The Institutional Of The Church: The Events of the Great Schism and the Crusades
  2. 2. The Holy Bible: John 17:20-23  The Church Teaching: Second Vatican Council Decree on Ecumenism (Unitatis Redintegratio) o Principal Concern – Restoration of Unity all Christians. o Christ founded one Church and one Church only o However: Many present as true inheritors of Jesus Christ, but differ in mind and go their different ways as if Christ himself were divided.
  3. 3. • Division contradicts the will of Christ… Scandalizes the world  Damages the Holy cause of preaching the gospel to every creature The Second Council gladly notes all this: “It has already declared its teaching on the Church, and now, moved by a desire to the restoration of Unity among all the followers of Christ, it wishes to set before all Catholics the ways and means by which they too can respond to this grace and to this divine call.” 
  4. 4.  Second Vatican Council: Declaration on the Relation of the Church to NonChristian Religions (Nostra Aetate) o o o o CHURCH examines more closely her relation to non-Christian religions. TASK is to promote unity and love among men and women, indeed among nations, considers having in common and what draws them to fellowship. One in the community, origin and final goal Gods providence and goodness extend to all men and women, until God where the nations will walk in His light.
  5. 5. Points to Consider:  Constantine o o Time Moved the capital of the Roman empire to Constantinople in the first part of the fourth century (300-400 CE) Constantinople – old name “Byzantine,” where there was a straight line form Constantine to the emperors of the sixth and later centuries.
  6. 6. o o o o In 337 CE, a Germanic tribe, the Goths, attacked the eastern part of the empire. The following year, the Emperor Valens battled the Goths at Adrianople (in Modern Turkey) the fight went poorly as they lost two-thirds of his army and his life. The Goths advanced to he borders of Constantinople and invading various of the empire for many years. Then, another happened the Germanic tribe, the Visigoths, took Rome itself on August 23, 410 C.E (under commander Alaric) the tribe ran killing and plundering through the streets of the city for three days before moving on.
  7. 7. o o Germanic tribes is what the Romans called, as other in Western Europe, it is “Barbarian” it comes from the Greek word, which means “foreigner”. By 6th century, the Roman structure of government was just a memory… No civil service  No standing army  No legal code  No public court system  No method of taxation 
  8. 8. o o Who then could administer any form of justice or get public works? The local bishop (Pope in Rome) too more public responsibilities…involved so much in politics. Appointing Emperors or Kings  Taking part in negotiations between kingdom ( At this point, the Church became even more institutionalized taking on public administration over government of the fallen Roman empire.) 
  9. 9. Looking back over 1500 years of Church history…  Not one perfect harmony…There were:  Political Conflicts  Religious Controversies  Invasions  Destructions  Hatreds  Condemnations tore the Church apart bit by bit.
  10. 10. On between 9th & 13th Century  The  situation went bad, worse and awful. -Let’s take a look… They Spoke Different Languages:    Christians in the East spoke commonly in Greek and West in Latin. Invasions and communications became difficult, and the gap became also wider. It led to the differences in development of ideas; and further misunderstanding.
  11. 11.  They Thought Differently about Political Issues: Germanic invaders forced the Pope to assume the political role. They Thought Differently about Theological Issues:  Question: What did Christ do for humans? A theological question to consider…  There were different answer in the East and the West.  Eastern Theologians: “Christ is giving humans a way to become divine once again.”  Western Theologians: “Christ saving humanity from the consequences of their sins.” - These main ideas led to different implications whether or not priests should marry, and how liturgy should be made. 
  12. 12.  Another Understanding: Authority should really rest in the Church.   Western – considered the Pope as the head of the whole Church. Eastern – considered the Pope simply as the first among equals of the ancient patriarchal sees (the patriarch). - The east has always believe that the Church’s highest authority lay in the works of the councils, not in the decrees of Popes or Patriarchs.
  13. 13.  In 11th Century: the two sides were tried to work thing out.  In 1054: the Pope sent representatives to Constantinople in an attempt at diplomacy. When it became clear that this was not going to work, the Pope’s representative walked in the Hagia Sophia (the Church of the Holy Wisdom) during worship service, laid a letter excommunicating the Patriarch on the altar, and walked out. For the part of the Patriarch wasted no times in calling a council and excommunicating the papal representatives.
  14. 14.  The separation was more on administration and not about doctrine.  In the middle ages: Christians were eager to change the world up to the extent they wanted to change other lands to be rightfully ruled by Christians.  This attitude led to the event of the Crusades…  The impetus behind the Crusades was the desire to free from the hands of the infidels (non-believers) the land in which Jesus had lived and carried out his ministry – Jerusalem or the Holy Land.
  15. 15.    Second half of 11th Century: European Christians headed on pilgrimage to the Holy land. The area was controlled by the Saracen group known as Seljuks and they were unhappy at the arrival of European Christians. They began to make life difficult. In 1095; Pope Urban II become tired of hearing about the difficulties of the Christians having pilgrimage in Jerusalem; so he called on the French people to liberate the land from Seljuk control. Because of this, the first Crusade was called forth, adopting the slogan “Deus Volt” or “God wills it.” The first crusade was a military success, the Crusaders captured Jerusalem and other lands.
  16. 16. The following provides a snapshot of the Crusades CRUSADE WHEN (AD/CE) WHY CALLED HOW IT WENT First 1096 - 1099 Pilgrims Problems French knights set up kingdoms in Jerusalem and three other areas Second 1146 - 1149 Loss of one of the Crusader Kingdoms to Saracens Called by Pope Eugenius II and preached by Bernard of Clairvaux; ended in total defeat Third 1187 - 1190 Saracen leader Saladin’s conquest of Jerusalem Fell apart when the French king took his knights and went home; English king Richard the Lionhearted negotiated treaty that permitted Christian Pilgrims to visit the holy places
  17. 17. CRUSADE WHEN (AD/CE) WHY CALLED HOW IT WENT Fourth 1201 - 1204 Failure to recapture Jerusalem during 3rd crusade Crusaders turned aside to Constantinople and ended up conquering a Christian city; complete break of communion between East and West Fifth & Sixth 1228 - 1204 Wanted to capture Egypt, which would pave the way to recapture Jerusalem After some initial success, ended defeat, although an unstable kingdom was established in Jerusalem Seventh 1248 - 1254 Loss of Jerusalem in 1244 and vow of Louis IX of France to go Crusade of recovered from an illness Terrible loss of life and money with little show of it in 1270, Louis returned, wanting to finish what he had started, but both he and a son died on this Crusade
  18. 18.  The crusades also got people thinking about what it means to fight a holy war and when violence may be used in the service of religious goals.  Sadly, most people decide in favor of force. This led to Christians feeling justified in using brutality to evangelize areas that were not traditionally Christian.
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