The Institutional of The Church: The Events of
the Protestant Reformation and the
Christian Living Class IV
Rio P. Antiola
The Holy Bible: John 17:2023
Second Vatican Council: Decree on
Ecumenism (Unitatis Redintegration)
Restoration of Unity among all
Christ founded one Church and one
However: many presents as true
inheritors of Jesus Christ;
profess to be followers of the Lord
but differ in mind and go their
different ways, as if Christ Himself
1. Martin Luther
Trained to become a lawyer
Turned to priesthood because
of terrible storm
A monk and became a priest in
Teaching the Holy Scriptures at
Moody, tendency toward
Easily felt guilty of his sins
Studied Paul’s Letters and
came to believe a way out of
The Recognition: Even though
humans are sinners and cannot do
anything to merit salvation God will
treat those who have faith as though
they were righteous.
Luther’s Principle: Justification
by Faith (Luther’s Theology)
The Church had gotten away from truth.
Saw people saying prayers and going
pilgrimages worthy for salvation, rather than
simply depending on God’s mercy.
Upset at the way of indulgences: to buy the
way out of sins rather than repenting and the
Church used this to make money.
Johann Tetzel came to Wittenberg to sell
indulgences, Luther decided to start
discussion with his colleagues with this
Luther did any Wittenberg professor who
wanted to start a debate.
Posted series of Thesis (statements or
proposition) on the door of the local church
as a way of inviting others to agree or
Became the center of a different kind of
Pope Leo X, declared to be a heretic and
demanded, that Luther must take it all back.
Luther publicly burned Pope Leo’s letter.
The Pope proceeded to excommunicate
Frederick, ruler of Luther, appealed to the
German Emperor Charles V, who decided
Germans should only be tried in German
On April 1521, Luther was called to stand
before the Diet of Worms (something like
parliament) led by the emperor: Luther
replied, “I am bound by the Scriptures I have
quoted and my conscience is captive of the
Word of God. I cannot and I will not recant
anything… I cannot do otherwise, here I
stand, may God help me.”
Emperor had him declared a heretic.
Luther had disappeared from Worms,
with the aid of his ruler, Frederick.
In Wittenberg, people devoted to his
ideas had taken the lead in reforming their
The call to reform was growing louder
by 1525, became clear that Western
Christianity was splitting down the middle.
Luther’s rallying cry for his theology,
“Sola Scriptura” – Scriptures alone.
Inside the Sola Scriptura
Popes and Councils, Bishops and
writings do not even collectively have
the authority of the Bible. It alone is
direct revelation of God and
everything else must flow fro it…
So, scripture alone is God’s revelation
to humans, and faith alone is what is
necessary for salvation, not even
Equally values the Holy Scriptures and
Holy Tradition; and Faith, coupled with
good works or charity, necessary for
Other Protestant Groups
Preached reformation in Geneva,
Teachings: Double Predestination
- God already chosen who will be
saved and who will be damned,
and there is nothing you can do
Church of Scotland
Belief only adult baptism is valid.
Focused on the individual’s ability Quakers, Baptists
to interpret the Scriptures and
living according to what they saw
Shared property, not perform
military service or take oaths,
tended to live in communities
separated from the rest of society.
It split from Rome over whether Anglicans,
or not the English King Henry
VIII could divorce his wife and
take another. Pope said, No!
King Henry declared himself
the head of the Church in
Picked up on Calvin
understanding, and split off
from the new Church of
Wanted Theocracy: secular
society is ruled by religious
Start over crossed the ocean to
the new world - America
Disciples of Christ,
United Church of
There are more than 33,000 Christian
denominations in the world today,
most of them can trace their roots
back to the Protestant Reformations.
The Catholic Reformation
Even before the Protestant
Reformations, there had been efforts
to change some of the practices in the
There were also Catholic Reformers.
1. St. Francis of Assisi
In the midst of enormous wealth and
power the Church enjoyed, St. Francis
rallied with his teachings on humility
Franciscan Spirituality – emphasis on
II. St. Therese of Avila
Lived in the time when monasteries
were populated with women of
Caused the call for intensifying the
witnessing of the evangelical counsels
of poverty, chastity, and obedience.
Led in answering this call, bringing
change in the Church, without leaving
III. Pope Adrian VI (15221523)
Church leaders also recognized the
need for reform.
Reforming the curia and bring German
princess into communion with the
Church, but he died before he could
A decade later…
IV. Pope Paul III (1534-1549)
Appointed a committee to report on the
problems of the Church.
Took decisive action: called for a council
to meet and deal with these issues head
The Council of Trent
Held at Trent in Italy.
Marked a turning point in the Church’s
1. The Authority of the Scriptures and
2. Doctrines and Sacraments