Church history institutionalization 2


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Church history institutionalization 2

  1. 1. CHURCH HISTORY The Institutional of The Church: The Events of the Protestant Reformation and the Counter-reformation Christian Living Class IV Rio P. Antiola
  2. 2. The Holy Bible: John 17:2023 Church Teaching:  Second Vatican Council: Decree on Ecumenism (Unitatis Redintegration)  Restoration of Unity among all Christians. Christ founded one Church and one Church only. 
  3. 3. However: many presents as true inheritors of Jesus Christ;  profess to be followers of the Lord  but differ in mind and go their different ways, as if Christ Himself were divided.
  4. 4. 1. Martin Luther        Trained to become a lawyer Turned to priesthood because of terrible storm A monk and became a priest in 1513 Teaching the Holy Scriptures at University in Wittenberg, Germany Moody, tendency toward depression Easily felt guilty of his sins Studied Paul’s Letters and came to believe a way out of the guilt
  5. 5.  The Recognition: Even though humans are sinners and cannot do anything to merit salvation God will treat those who have faith as though they were righteous.
  6. 6. Luther’s Principle: Justification by Faith (Luther’s Theology)  PROTESTANT REFORMATION:  The Church had gotten away from truth.  Saw people saying prayers and going pilgrimages worthy for salvation, rather than simply depending on God’s mercy.  Upset at the way of indulgences: to buy the way out of sins rather than repenting and the Church used this to make money.  Johann Tetzel came to Wittenberg to sell indulgences, Luther decided to start discussion with his colleagues with this practice
  7. 7.  Luther did any Wittenberg professor who wanted to start a debate.  Posted series of Thesis (statements or proposition) on the door of the local church as a way of inviting others to agree or disagree.  Became the center of a different kind of storm.  Pope Leo X, declared to be a heretic and demanded, that Luther must take it all back. Luther publicly burned Pope Leo’s letter.  The Pope proceeded to excommunicate
  8. 8.  Frederick, ruler of Luther, appealed to the German Emperor Charles V, who decided Germans should only be tried in German courts.  On April 1521, Luther was called to stand before the Diet of Worms (something like parliament) led by the emperor: Luther replied, “I am bound by the Scriptures I have quoted and my conscience is captive of the Word of God. I cannot and I will not recant anything… I cannot do otherwise, here I stand, may God help me.”  Emperor had him declared a heretic.
  9. 9.  Luther had disappeared from Worms, with the aid of his ruler, Frederick.  In Wittenberg, people devoted to his ideas had taken the lead in reforming their local church.  The call to reform was growing louder and clearer,  by 1525, became clear that Western Christianity was splitting down the middle.  Luther’s rallying cry for his theology, “Sola Scriptura” – Scriptures alone.
  10. 10. Inside the Sola Scriptura Popes and Councils, Bishops and writings do not even collectively have the authority of the Bible. It alone is direct revelation of God and everything else must flow fro it…  So, scripture alone is God’s revelation to humans, and faith alone is what is necessary for salvation, not even sacraments. 
  11. 11. Church Stands;  Equally values the Holy Scriptures and Holy Tradition; and Faith, coupled with good works or charity, necessary for Salvation.
  12. 12. Other Protestant Groups Group Main Issues Modern Christian Denominations from This Group John Calvin and Followers Preached reformation in Geneva, Teachings: Double Predestination - God already chosen who will be saved and who will be damned, and there is nothing you can do about it. Presbyterians, the Church of Scotland Anabaptist Belief only adult baptism is valid. Mennonites, Amish, Focused on the individual’s ability Quakers, Baptists to interpret the Scriptures and living according to what they saw in N.T. Shared property, not perform military service or take oaths, tended to live in communities separated from the rest of society.
  13. 13. Group Main Issues Modern Christian Denominations from This Group Church of England It split from Rome over whether Anglicans, or not the English King Henry Episcopalians, VIII could divorce his wife and Methodists take another. Pope said, No! King Henry declared himself the head of the Church in England. Puritans Picked up on Calvin understanding, and split off from the new Church of England. Wanted Theocracy: secular society is ruled by religious leaders. Start over crossed the ocean to the new world - America Congregationalists, Disciples of Christ, United Church of Christ
  14. 14. Note:  There are more than 33,000 Christian denominations in the world today, most of them can trace their roots back to the Protestant Reformations.
  15. 15. The Catholic Reformation Even before the Protestant Reformations, there had been efforts to change some of the practices in the Catholic Church.  There were also Catholic Reformers. 
  16. 16. 1. St. Francis of Assisi In the midst of enormous wealth and power the Church enjoyed, St. Francis rallied with his teachings on humility and poverty.  Franciscan Spirituality – emphasis on poverty. 
  17. 17. II. St. Therese of Avila Lived in the time when monasteries were populated with women of wealthy families.  Caused the call for intensifying the witnessing of the evangelical counsels of poverty, chastity, and obedience.  Led in answering this call, bringing change in the Church, without leaving it. 
  18. 18. III. Pope Adrian VI (15221523) Church leaders also recognized the need for reform.  Reforming the curia and bring German princess into communion with the Church, but he died before he could accomplish much.  A decade later… 
  19. 19. IV. Pope Paul III (1534-1549)    Appointed a committee to report on the problems of the Church. Long list: Nepotism Simony Pluralism Absenteeism Took decisive action: called for a council to meet and deal with these issues head on.
  20. 20. The Council of Trent Held at Trent in Italy.  Marked a turning point in the Church’s history 1. The Authority of the Scriptures and Tradition 2. Doctrines and Sacraments 3. Reforms 