Teaching with Google Books: research, copyright, and data mining
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Teaching with Google Books: research, copyright, and data mining

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Do you know about Google Books? Join an exciting tour that will not only introduce the Google Books Project and its history, but will share ideas about using it as a springboard to delve into issues ...

Do you know about Google Books? Join an exciting tour that will not only introduce the Google Books Project and its history, but will share ideas about using it as a springboard to delve into issues like: a) data-mining; b) copyright law; and c) research, both personal and scholarly.

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  • We’ll talk about Google Books at it pertains to all of these things…
  • … . but we know, as did Franklin, that historically much knowledge had been the privilege of the few.
  • Knowledge is power because it allows for freedom….
  • So who can open the floodgates of knowledge and education to all people that they may thrive and flourish? Who can be the liberator and champion of the people? Is it not Google? (we’ll get to Google Books specifically soon) How is it not Google? For let me define “Google”. Google is not only “organizing the world’s information and making it universally accessible and useful”. It is, practically speaking, the instant gratification of our information needs and wants. It helps us to do what we want… what we think is right… to freely pursue the goals we think we should pursue. Does Google not mean freedom? How can you doubt that it does not? After all, let me tell you about the Google Books project…. (Having fun yet? Surely I jest a bit, but hopefully in the service of making serious points…eventually)
  • Sir-gay  
  • They have some 15 million completed already
  • Google does in a week what we could do in a year… Availability of massive collections of curated materials…
  • “ read”, “preview”, “snippet” and “no preview” books “ Free Google eBooks” link Most “read” books pre-1923 (in public domain) “ preview” and “snippet” – because of agreement with publisher, or… “ orphans”…. “ no preview” – strict publishers
  • All involved: librarians, scholars, publishers, authors, techies…..
  • Robert Darnton, noting how price-gouging academic journals once had been produced “solely in the spirit of free inquiry”, said, “Google’s record suggests that it will not abuse its double-barreled fiscal-legal power… But what will happen if its current leaders sell the company or retire?
  • Robert Darnton, noting how price-gouging academic journals once had been produced “solely in the spirit of free inquiry”, said, “Google’s record suggests that it will not abuse its double-barreled fiscal-legal power… But what will happen if its current leaders sell the company or retire?
  • Robert Darnton, noting how price-gouging academic journals once had been produced “solely in the spirit of free inquiry”, said, “Google’s record suggests that it will not abuse its double-barreled fiscal-legal power… But what will happen if its current leaders sell the company or retire?
  • Hard stuff. I think that this quote can at least give us an idea about how to think about these things
  • Only good for Google’s reputation….
  • take into account web search frequency, recent book sales, the number of libraries that hold the title, and how often an older book has been reprinted.
  • There can be no doubt, that as Millie Jackson says, “the transformation of the way we work as scholars and researchers is tremendous”. How can we not cry out “Freedom!”?
  • … and vanity searches might feel even more rewarding in GBS : )
  • Though I confess I have no idea if this is something that figures into the searches of our new discovery tools either…
  • to teach critical thinking not only about these concepts in history but the changing nature of language itself
  • to teach critical thinking not only about these concepts in history but the changing nature of language itself
  • to teach critical thinking not only about these concepts in history but the changing nature of language itself
  • to teach critical thinking not only about these concepts in history but the changing nature of language itself
  • OK – we’ll come back to this stuff….
  • Just in case you’ve remained blissfully ignorant of all this…
  • Just in case you’ve remained blissfully ignorant of all this…
  • Hard stuff. I think that this quote can at least give us an idea about how to think about these things
  • In sum, as Martin puts it, the question is when it is appropriate to use the Google [Books] product for text searching [and] when it is appropriate to use other products for searching”.
  • It is always a double-edged sword with Google. Hopefully, as we look towards the future, we will continue thinking hard about the best way to work with all the changes that have come our way – and to act as responsibly as we can.

Teaching with Google Books: research, copyright, and data mining Teaching with Google Books: research, copyright, and data mining Presentation Transcript

  • Teaching with Google Books: research, copyright, and data miningNathan RinneConcordia UniversityMar. 14, 2012Library Technology ConferenceMacalester College, St. Paul, MN.A ll im a g e s a r e f a ir u s e o rfro m th e
  • Short DescriptionDo you know about Google Books? Join anexciting tour that will not only introduce theGoogle Books Project and its history, but willshare ideas about using it as a springboardto delve into issues like: a) data-mining; b)copyright law; and c) research, bothpersonal and scholarly.This presentation is based on a paper archived here:http://hdl.handle.net/10760/16727
  • Outline-IntroBrief Google Book History and TourUnderstanding Copyright Law throughGoogle BooksGoogle Books and Research: the perksand pitfallsGoogle Books and the Digital Humanities-Conclusion
  • Intro Themes of education, freedom and ethics interwoven in… Benjamin Franklin, on the effects of the growth of lending libraries: “These Libraries,” he wrote, “have improv’d the general Conversation of the Americans, made the common Tradesmen & Farmers as intelligent as most Gentlemen from other countries, and perhaps have contributed to some degree to the Stand so generally made http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:B enjamin_Franklin_by_Joseph- throughout the Colonies in Defence of their Siffred_Duplessis.jpg Privileges.” Singer, Natasha. “Playing Catch-Up in a Digital Library Race.” New York Times, Jan. 8, 2011. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/09/business/09stream.html
  • Intro“Knowledge is the My definition of knowledge:common property of knowing how thingsmankind.” regularly transpire in the cosmos – and how these things can be understood (and perhaps harnessed) to help us move ever more successfully within it…http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Thomas_Jefferson_by_Rembrandt_Peale,_1800.jpg
  • Intro“Liberal arts” = arts “suitablefor a free man”“the areas of learning thatcultivate general intellectual abilityrather than technical orprofessional skills. The term liberalarts is often used as a synonym forhumanities, although the liberalarts also include the sciences.” The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Houghton Mifflin. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Valenti Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2002. s.v. "liberal arts," http://www.credoreference.com/entry/hmndcl/liberal_arts (accessed March 02, 2012).
  • Intro Google: “organizing the world’s information and making it universally accessible and useful” = instant gratification of our information wants and needs. It helps us to do what we want… what wewww.flickr.com/photos think is right… to freely/72213316@N00/ pursue the goals we think3150692615/ we should pursue.So who can open the floodgates ofknowledge and education? Liberate?
  • Brief Google Book history and tour“[book] information wantsto be free”Depending on a book’scopyright status, the fulltext would be madeavailable freely online.
  • Brief Google Book history and tour “Part of core mission” What is the world of information without books? Nunberg, Geoffrey. “Google Book Search: A Disaster for Scholars.” Chronicle of Higher Education, August 31, 2009. http://chronicle.com/article/Googles-Book-Search-A/48245/
  • Brief Google Book history and tour Now they’ve got over 50 other such libraries to help them 2020 goal of digitizing 130 million books (the amount they estimate exist)Beck, Richard. “A bookshelf the Size of the World.” The Boston Globe (Boston) , July 24, 2011. http://articles.boston.com/2011-07-24/bostonglobe/29810463_1_google-books-robert-darnton-digitizatioSergey Brin (left) pic: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sergey_Brin_cropped.jpgLarry Paige (right) pic: http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Larry_Page_laughs.jpg
  • Brief Google Book history and tour Michigan’s Paul Courant: no way that libraries could have done this alone. themselves…. Mary Sue Coleman: project was a “legal, ethical and noble endeavor that will transform our society.” John P. Wilkin: “Things that can’t be found are not used. The things that are findable are used.”Suber, Peter, “Michigan President Defends Google Library to AAP,” Open Access News: News from the Open Access Movement (blog), February 7, 2006 (8:46 a.m.), http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/2006/02/michigan-president-defends-google.html, found originally here: Crawford, Walt. “Discovering Books: The OCA/GBS Saga Continues.” Cites & Insights: Crawford at Large 6, no. 6 (Spring 2006). http://citesandinsights.info/v6i6a.htm ) ; Kellog, Sarah, “Going Public: A March Toward a National Digital Library”. DC Bar, November 2011. http:// www.dcbar.org/for_lawyers/resources/publications/washington_lawyer/november_2011/digital_library.cfm
  • Brief Google Book history and tour Tour time: http://books.google.com/ Note:  “read”, “preview”, “snippet” and “no preview” books  “Free Google eBooks” link  Most “read” books pre-1923 (in public domain)  “preview” and “snippet” – because of agreement with publisher, or… “orphans”….  “no preview” – strict publishers
  • Brief Google Book history and tour Controversy: in-copyright but out-of-print book “snippets”. Sued by authors and publishers Orphans: who do they belong to? “Fair Use” defense -> settlement / book business $ 125 million registry to pay authors. Opt-out. Google gets to:  show longer previews of most all of the out-of-print books  allow persons to buy the books (print on-demand/e-books)  show ads on the book pages online  charge subscription fees to libraries and universities in order to access the full-text of the orphans “Judge Chin’s Ruling By the Number,” Open Book Alliance (blog), March 24, 2011. http://www.openbookalliance.org/2011/03/judge-chins-ruling-by-the-numbers/
  • Understanding Copyright Law throughGoogle Books Positives of the [revised] settlement  Did what librarians/gov’t c/would have never done  Access to millions of out-of-print but in- copyright books  New life to old books!  Service provided free of charge on at least one terminal in all public [and academic] libraries Darnton, Robert. “Six Reasons Google Books Failed.” NYR Blog (blog), March 28, 2011, (11:00 a.m.), http://www.nybooks.com/blogs/nyrblog/2011/mar/28/six-reasons-google-books-failed/ Kolowich, Steve. “Please Refine Your Search Terms.” Inside Higher Ed, March 23, 2011. http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2011/03/23/judge_rejects_google_books_settlement
  • Understanding Copyright Law through Google Books Positives of the [revised] settlement  Would be adapted to the needs of the visually impaired  Data would be available for “large scale, quantitative research”  Cuts down on expensive interlibrary loans – and help eliminate loans that disappoint  “Authors and publishers [would] be able to cash in on long-neglected works” Darnton, Robert. “Six Reasons Google Books Failed.” NYR Blog (blog), March 28, 2011, (11:00 a.m.), http://www.nybooks.com/blogs/nyrblog/2011/mar/28/six-reasons-google-books-failed/ Kolowich, Steve. “Please Refine Your Search Terms.” Inside Higher Ed, March 23, 2011. http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2011/03/23/judge_rejects_google_books_settlement
  • Understanding Copyright Law through Google Books Negatives of the [revised] settlement  Opt-out clause for rights holders of out-of-print but copyright-protected books  Foreign authors and publishers (U.K., Can. and Aus) not happy (international copyright law)  Google would have exclusive protection vs. legal action by any rights holders who might come forth (who is the owner here?) Darnton, Robert. “Six Reasons Google Books Failed.” NYR Blog (blog), March 28, 2011, (11:00 a.m.), http://www.nybooks.com/blogs/nyrblog/2011/mar/28/six-reasons-google-books-failed/
  • Understanding Copyright Law through Google Books Negatives of the [revised] settlement  Is the author’s guild (8,000 people) truly representative of all authors (6,800 authors opted out)?  Many academics want their books to be free on GBS, so their ideas can be spread (no “Creative Commons” option)  User privacy concerns (more on this later) Darnton, Robert. “Six Reasons Google Books Failed.” NYR Blog (blog), March 28, 2011, (11:00 a.m.), http://www.nybooks.com/blogs/nyrblog/2011/mar/28/six-reasons-google-books-failed/
  • Understanding Copyright Law through Google Books Big debate!  What happened? The Economist:  -Case thrown out. “The case has  -Universal library stirred up good…but this “too far” passions, conflict  -Would have in effect and conspiracy rewritten copyright law theories worthy of a literary  -Congress’ job! blockbuster.” http://www.flickr.com/photos/mgifford/6117421227“Google’s big book case,” The Economist. September 3, 2009. http:// www.economist.com/node/14363287
  • Understanding Copyright Law through Google Books Aftermath…  Settlement can be revised (“opt in” necessary?)  Author’s guild renewing lawsuit vs. Google and Hathi Trust  Google (now): Author’s guild not sufficiently representative…France-Presse, Agence. “U.S. Universities Hit with Copyright Infringement Suit”, The Raw Story (blog), September 12, 2011, (8:44 p.m.) http://www.rawstory.com/rs/2011/09/12/u-s-universities-hit-with-copyright-infringement-suit/Coyle, Karen. “Google Files Motion to Dismiss.” Coyle’s InFormation (blog), December 26, 2011 (2:16 p.m.), http://kcoyle.blogspot.com/2011/12/google-files-motion-to-dismiss.html
  • Understanding Copyright Law through Google Books Perils: “…dangers of placing all our information eggs in a private basket”. Darnton: “Google’s primary responsibility is to make money for its shareholders. Libraries exist to get books to readers…” http://www.flickr.com/photos/mrs_logic/4875924Darnton, Robert. "The Library: Three Jeremiads.” New York Review of Books. 57, no. 20: pp. 22-27.Desai, Santosh. "Column: Are Books on Google Good for Us?" Financial Express, (Feb 02, 2010) n/a. http://ezproxy.csp.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/872800719?accountid=26720 .
  • Understanding Copyright Law through Google Books Lawrence Lessig: Can’t rely on special favors from private companies… “…It is the environment for culture that the settlement will cement. [it turns] books into documentary film [where each clip must be purchased and renewed again and again] ….the deal constructs a world in which control can be exercised at the level of a page, and maybe even a quote. It is a world in which every bit, every published word, http:// could be licensed.” www.flickr.com/photos/kubLessig, Lawrence. “For the Love of Culture.” The New Republic , January 26, 2010 (12:00 am) http://www.tnr.com/print/article/the-love-culture
  • Understanding Copyright Law through Google Books  Lessig: Pre-settlement, Google would have been victorious in court…project “sufficiently transformative” to be fair use.  Darnton: they should have made aFair Use logo robust case for fair use and tried tohttp:// set a legal precedent. wikimania2012.wikimedia.org/wiki/Main_Page Lessig, Lawrence. “For the Love of Culture.” The New Republic , January 26, 2010 (12:00 am) http://www.tnr.com/print/article/the-love-culture Whitebloom, Kenny. “Press: ‘Nothing Like it Has Ever Existed,” DPLA (blog), January 18, 2012, http://dp.la/2012/01/18/press-nothing-like-it-has-ever-existed/
  • Understanding Copyright Law through Google Books Copyright law purpose: “to promote the progress of science and the useful arts” (Act of 1790) Balancing “intellectual property” and “public domain”… Mattson: “Creativity requires stability…you can’t express yourself— write the book or article or teach the class—if you constantly worry about the next source of income… It’s about having time to reflect and think”. http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:G this kind of ownership goes hand in hand with people having the right to be paid for their work, and if they are not, trust in society decays.Mattson, Kevin. "Paying the Piper: Is Culture Ever Free?." Dissent (00123846) 58, no. 2 (Spring 2011): 69-73. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed March 9, 2012).
  • Understanding Copyright Law through Google Books  “Overprotecting intellectual property is as harmful as underprotecting it. Culture is impossible without a rich public domain….overprotection stifles the very creative forces its supposed to nurture.” – Judge Alex Kozinski  Lessig: the free access that this [pre- commodification] world created ishttp:// an essential part of how we passed our culture along. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Alex_Kozinski_cropped.jpg Dissenting in the White v. Samsung Elec. Am., Inc., 989 F.2d 1512Alex Kozinski, Chief Judge of the (9th Cir. 1993) ruling. United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, Lessig, Lawrence. “For the Love of Culture.” The New Republic , January 26, 2010 (12:00 am) http://www.tnr.com/print/article/the-love-culture
  • Understanding Copyright Law through Google Books “Justice is a denial of mercy, and mercy is a denial of justice. Only a higher force can reconcile these opposites: wisdom. The problem cannot be solved, but wisdom can transcend it. Similarly, societies need stability and change, tradition and innovation, public interest and private interest, planning and laissez-faire, order and freedom, growth and decay. Everywhere society’s health depends on the simultaneous pursuit of mutually opposedhttp:// activities or aims. The adoption of a final solution means en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:SchumacherSiB200.jpg a kind of death sentence for man’s humanity and spells either cruelty or dissolution, generally both… Divergent problems offend the logical mind.” Schumacher, E. F. A Guide for the Perplexed. New York: Harper & Row, 1977, 127.
  • Understanding Copyright Law through Google Books “Google’s record suggests that it will not abuse its double-barreled fiscal-legal power… But what will happen if its current leaders sell the company or retire?” journals once were produced “solely in the spirit of free inquiry”… http Need for a “Digital Public Lib. of ://www.flickr.com/photos/berkman America” (DPLA)Thompson, Chris. "The Case Against Google Books; How three East Bay librarians led the revolt against the companys plans to archive all earthly knowledge." East Bay Express (California). October 14: LexisNexis Academic. Web. (accessed March 7, 2012).
  • Understanding Copyright Law through Google Books Digital Library to serve all Americans and beyond Would include many orphans and offer compensation Funded by grants, foundations and government Similar projects are taking place worldwide Google involved in efforts elsewhere and open to this to… Change the “ecology”…public good (not private gain)
  • Google Books and Research: theperks and pitfalls !Thomas Jefferson retirement library virtuallyreconstructed with help from GBS (evidence of a booktransaction found in old journal….)How does Google do it? New “popularity” algorithm.Optical character recognition (OCR) tech, and metadatafrom various sources…Marlowe, L. “Washington diary.” Irish Times, Feb 26, 2011. P 18. Retrieved fromhttp://ezproxy.csp.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/853784373?accountid=26720Madrigal, Alexis. “Inside the Google Books Algorithm.” The Atlantic (blog), November 1, 2010,(3:00 p.m.),http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2010/11/inside-the-google-books-algorithm/65422
  • Google Books and Research: theperks and pitfalls !A newspaper columnist:“Need Dutch oven history (my column two weeks ago)? Itsthere.Need first-person accounts of the Second Seminole War frombooks published in the 1850s? Theyre there, too.….From slave narratives to old travel guides to specializedencyclopedias, Google Books can be a fantastic tool for thehistorian or genealogist who is short on time to run to thelibrary.”“Google books is a great source.” The Ledger, Jan 30, 2011. pp. n/a. Retrieved fromhttp://ezproxy.csp.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/847983062?accountid=26720
  • Google Books and Research: theperks and pitfalls !An academic:“….now when doing research it is quite easy to track downfootnotes, whereas in the past one had to copy the referencedown, trudge over to the library, fill out an ILL slip, hope ourlibrarians found a library willing to lend a 150 year old book,and then wait for it to arrive. Instead of weeks of hoping toget a glimpse of a page, now often you can find thingsinstantly, delivered right to your desktop. (No, I don’t getpaid by Google for my posts)….”Kloha, Jeff, “Words, Words, Words”, Concordia Theology (blog), December 21, 2010, (6:00a.m.), http://concordiatheology.org/2010/12/words-words-words/
  • Google Books and Research: theperks and pitfalls !check to see if a specific book covers something you’reinterested infind out which books cite the journal article you areinterested incut down on interlibrary loan usagediscover rare texts and those with small print runshighly granular searching: easily find historicalconcepts that are not easily located using simple librarysubject headings.
  • Google Books and Research: theperks and pitfalls !confirm a quotation or see how a famous quote hasbeen useddiscover unknown authors and works….and of course… access to stuff that previously onlylibraries had… (picking out the “best of the best” –decades of collection development work by top-rankedlibraries…)
  • Google Books and Research: theperks and pitfalls !Check to see if a specific book coverssomething you’re interested in:  Use “search within the book” to find words, phrases or subjects in the book to see if the book will be useful…  Will this book assist me in my research or collection building?  Family history?
  • Google Books and Research: theperks and pitfalls !Find out which books cite the journal articleyou are interested in  Find out if a particular article was cited and commented on  Use author’s last name, title of article and periodical
  • Google Books and Research: theperks and pitfalls !Cut down on interlibrary loan usage  Easily and inexpensively fill a request that otherwise would have not been possible (get quick PDF in hand!)  May need to use advanced search functions
  • Google Books and Research: theperks and pitfalls !Discover rare texts and those with small print runs “If you want information on the history of an area where an ancestor lived, type something like “History of Pike County, Illinois.” When I entered that term, I was shocked to learn that an 1880 book with the same name has been digitized and is available for free download at Google Books… one can easily search the book for people, localities and other key words.” Later, she writes, “Perhaps someone in your family…helped found an early church. When I entered the term ‘Baptists in Missouri,’ I learned that an 1882 book, ‘A History of the Baptists in Missouri,’ has been digitized and is in public domain.”Meyer, Frankie. “Use Google as a resource for hard-to-find books” The Joplin Globe, February27, 2012,http://www.joplinglobe.com/lifestyles/x2118802287/Frankie-Meyer-Use-Google-as-a-resource-for-hard-t
  • Google Books and Research: theperks and pitfalls !Highly granular searching  easily find historical concepts that are not easily located using simple library subject headings  One shared how she searched for the term “pin money” (money women had for spending in the 18th century )  “Pin money” was not a subject heading, nor did it have a “see also heading”  GBS quickly located several thousand results from the earliest appearances of the terms upward on.Jackson, Millie. "Using Metadata to Discover the Buried Treasure in Google Book Search".Journal of Library Administration. 47, no. ½ (2008): 165-173.
  • Google Books and Research: theperks and pitfalls http://www.flickr.com/photos/zachklein/54389823 /-No authority controlOCR without human helpFlawed datesClassification errorsMismatched titles and authorsGov doc issues, multi-volume issues, scanningerrors
  • Google Books and Research: the perks and pitfalls No authority control  In library catalogs an author search for “Currer Bell” will re-direct you to the authorized heading “Bronte, Charlotte” (where can get all her books library has)  GBS does not appear to utilize features like cross references and see-also references.  No subject browsing! ->
  • Google Books and Research: theperks and pitfallsOCR without human help  “Enter the names of famous writers or public figures and restrict your search to works published before the year of their birth” – 29 hits for “Barack Obama” (in 2009)  A search Google recommends on its Ngram viewer here. Why does “Abraham Lincoln” spike in the early 1800s? Nunberg, Geoffrey. “Google Book Search: A Disaster for Scholars.” Chronicle of Higher Education, August 31, 2009. http://chronicle.com/article/Googles-Book-Search-A/48245/
  • Google Books and Research: theperks and pitfallsFlawed dates  Published in 1899? etc…Classification errors  Utilizes LCSH and BISAC…  Moby Dick = Computers  Cat Lovers Book of Fascinating Facts = Technology & Engineering  Unbearable Weight: Feminism, Western Culture, and the Body (misdated 1899) = Health & FitnessNunberg, Geoffrey. “Google Book Search: A Disaster for Scholars.” Chronicle of HigherEducation, August 31, 2009. http://chronicle.com/article/Googles-Book-Search-A/48245/
  • Google Books and Research: theperks and pitfalls /-Mismatched titles and authors  Madame Bovary by Henry James  Mosaic Navigator: the essential http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sigm guide to the Internet interface by Sigmund Freud and Katherine Jones. Pope J.T., and Holley R.P.(citing Nunberg) "Google book search and metadata". Cataloging and Classification Quarterly. 49, no. 1 (2008): 1-13.
  • Google Books and Research: theperks and pitfalls /-Gov’tdoc issues, multi-volume issues,scanning errors  Many gov’t documents are not available  Cannot identify volume # in multi-volume works  “Artistic” scans and scanning errors - see the site, The Art of Google BooksPope J.T., and Holley R.P. "Google booksearch and metadata". Cataloging andClassification Quarterly. 49, no. 1 (2008):1-13.
  • Google Books and Research: theperks and pitfallsFound here: http://theartofgooglebooks.tumblr.com/post/18006886134/new-texts-created-when-read-through-burnt http ://theartofgooglebooks.tumblr.com/post/1789171
  • Google Books and Research: theperks and pitfalls Scholars want to be able to…  quickly locate multi-volume sets  be able to quickly distinguish between various editions  be able to count on accurate classification and headings, etc… Alternative: Hathi Trust  Consortium of over 60 libs ; using Google scans  More library tools ; for permanent curation  Seeking out owners of orphans…
  • Google Books and Research: the perks and pitfalls “Quick and dirty” = “one ring to rule them all” Constant vigilance in being aware http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Unico_Anello.png of information options? Geoffrey Nunberg: with its effective monopoly on the world’s only digital archive, researchers will come to depend on it, and they will assume Google’s got the details right… “Of course people will use it instead of their local library. Who wouldn’t? I use it all the time”.Thompson, Chris. "The Case Against Google Books; How three East Bay librarians led the revolt against the companys plans to archive all earthly knowledge." East Bay Express (California). October 14: LexisNexis Academic. Web. (accessed March 7, 2012).
  • Google Books and Research: theperks and pitfalls Hathi Trust problems:  Authors Guild “noted that author J. R. Salamanca’s 1958 novel The Lost Country was on the list of orphan books to be released by the consortium in October.”  “…in a series of brief Web searches and telephone calls, found Salamanca, a professor emeritus at the University of Maryland, within minutes of starting the process”  “extensive searches to find the original authors or copyright holders for all the orphan books scheduled for release”? Or no?Kellog, Sarah, “Going Public: A March Toward a National Digital Library”. DC Bar, November 2011. http://www.dcbar.org/for_lawyers/resources/publications/washington_lawyer/november_2011/digit
  • Google Books and the DigitalHumanities “Republic of Letters” clip (Digital humanities)  Lots of human attention needed: more than scanning, OCR, and fancy algorithms to “mine” data Jon Orwant (Google), after attending conferences on digital humanities data mining: “I realized…we were sitting on this huge trove of value”.Haven, Cynthia, “Stanford Technology Helps Scholars Get ‘Big Picture’ of the Enlightenment.” Stanford University News, December 17, 2009. http:// news.stanford.edu/news/2009/december14/republic-of-letters-121809.htmlSwift, Mike. 2010. "Google Books may Advance Humanities Research, Scholars Say." McClatchy - Tribune News Service, Aug 05, n/a. http://ezproxy.csp.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/737529948?accountid=2672 .
  • Google Books and the Digital Humanities Two men from Harvard improved the Google Book Search dataset to show how useful it could be… Lieberman Aiden: “The goal is to give an 8- year old the ability to browse cultural trends throughout history, as recorded in books”.Cohen, Patricia. "Google Database Puts Jean-Baptiste Michel and EricLanguage in a Petri Dish." International Lieberman Aiden presenting –Herald Tribune, Dec 18, 2010: 12. http ://www.flickr.com/photos/ritterbin/591332 /
  • Google Books and the DigitalHumanities Applying “high-turbro analysis to questions in the humanities” Called it “culturonomics” after “genomics” Google unveiled software in Dec. 16, 2010 and a paper by Lieberman Aiden and Michel and ten others released the same day… The Ngram viewer: Allows you do see the frequency of words or phrases over time – and the periods of times are statistically evened out (more books now than then)Nunberg, Geoffrey. “Counting on Google Books.” Chronicle of Higher Education, December 16, 2010. http://chronicle.com/article/Counting-on-Google-Books/125735/Hand, Eric. “Culturonomics: Word Play,” Nature 474, June 17, 2011 (published online): 436-440. http://www.nature.com/news/2011/110617/full/474436a.html , doi:10.1038/474436a
  • Google Books and the DigitalHumanities Take this prepared tour Try some of our own here:  the decline of "propaganda" goes hand in hand with the rise of "Orwellian” (do these together and separate, and make sure to capitalize, as this is case-sensitive) ,  “depression” overtakes “melancholy”, etc. Hours of fun, reflection…Wile, Rob, “Google Books Reveals How Words Have Changed in Popularity Over Time”, Business Insider (blog), January 25, 2012, (8:19 a.m.), http://www.businessinsider.com/charts-google-books-reveals-the-most-popular-words-in-history-2
  • Google Books and the DigitalHumanities Google is giving grant money to scholars (history, sociology, linguistics, etc.) who want to use this dataset. One project in literature explained: Stanford professor of English and comparative literature Franco Moretti’s “team takes the Hardys and the Austens, the Thackerays and the Trollopes, and tosses their masterpieces into a database that contains hundreds of lesser novels. Then they cast giant digital nets into that megapot of words, trawling around like intelligence agents hunting for patterns in the chatter of terrorists. “Learning the algorithms that stitch together those nets is not typically part of an undergraduate English education….”Parry, Marc. “The Humanities Go Google.” Chronicle of Higher Education, May 28, 2010. http://chronicle.com/article/The-Humanities-Go-Google/65713/
  • Google Books and the DigitalHumanitiesStuff they do:Trace the novel going from an aristocratic literary formto a more popular one: First names like “Jim” do notappear before the 1870s, whereas before there were many“Mr. Knightleys” and such.Calculate how quickly irregular English verbs wereregularized – “chid” and “chode” went to “chided” in only200 years (the “fastest verb to regularize”)Haven, Cynthia, “Non-consumptive Research? Text Mining? Welcome to the Hotspot ofHumanities Research at Stanford” Stanford University News, December 1, 2010.http://news.stanford.edu/news/2010/december/jockers-digitize-texts-120110.htmlHand, Eric. “Culturonomics: Word Play,” Nature 474, June 17, 2011 (published online):436-440. http://www.nature.com/news/2011/110617/full/474436a.html , doi:10.1038/474436a
  • Google Books and the DigitalHumanitiesStuff they do:“Detect the suppression of the names of artists andintellectual books published in Nazi Germany, the StalinistSoviet Union, and contemporary China”Realize that writing in a specific literary genre is“immediately restrictive of artistic freedom in wayswriters never would guess” – The “place-centered” genre ofGothic novels “(think: castles, dark places) [show] a “markedinclination” toward "locative prepositions"– "where," "at,""towards."Nunberg, Geoffrey. “Counting on Google Books.” Chronicle of Higher Education, December16, 2010. http://chronicle.com/article/Counting-on-Google-Books/125735/Haven, Cynthia, “Non-consumptive Research? Text Mining? Welcome to the Hotspot ofHumanities Research at Stanford” Stanford University News, December 1, 2010. http://news.stanford.edu/news/2010/december/jockers-digitize-texts-120110.html
  • Google Books and the DigitalHumanities Moretti: "Its like the invention of the telescope… All of a sudden, an enormous amount of matter becomes visible.” Implications: “…Culturonomics is clearly a discipline with a future, albeit one that hard to fathom for the time being.”Parry, Marc. “The Humanities Go Google.” Chronicle of Higher Education, May 28, 2010. http://chronicle.com/article/The-Humanities-Go-Google/65713/“Culturonomics and the Google Book Project,” The Physics arXiv Blog (blog), February 27, 2012. http://www.technologyreview.com/blog/arxiv/27608/?p1=blogs
  • Google Books and the DigitalHumanities Concerns: humanities caught in the digital net? mindful of Seneca’s admonition that “too many books spoil the prof”, some humanities scholars are “apprehensive about the prospect of turning literary scholarship into an engineering problem”. - Geoffrey Nunberg “We know nothing can replace the balance of art and science that is the qualitative cornerstone of research in the humanities.” – John Orwant, GoogleNunberg, Geoffrey. “Counting on Google Books.” Chronicle of Higher Education, December 16, 2010. http://chronicle.com/article/Counting-on-Google-Books/125735/“Find Out What’s in a Word, or Five, with the Google Books Ngram Viewer,” Google Official Blog (blog), December 16, 2010, (1:08 p.m.) http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2010/12/find-out-whats-in-word-or-five-with.html
  • Google Books and the DigitalHumanitiesConcerns:With financial stress and waning student interest, will the “lure ofmoney and technology…. Increasingly push computation front andcenter”?“Will [it] come at the expense of traditional approaches” and “sweepthe deck of all money for humanities everywhere else"?If things like the Ngram viewer are “the gateway drug that leads tomore-serious involvement in quantitative research” will humanitiesscholars give appropriate attention to their traditional way of working?Will scholars form “such a close relationship that the tools” that they“only work with Google-supplied data sets”, getting locked-in?Even if the “first generation” original thinkers like Moretti show promise,what about “’dullard’ descendants [who] take up ‘distant reading’ for theirresearch?”
  • Google Books and the DigitalHumanitiesCitations from previous page:Parry, Marc. “The Humanities Go Google.” Chronicle of Higher Education, May28, 2010. http://chronicle.com/article/The-Humanities-Go-Google/65713/Hand, Eric. “Culturonomics: Word Play,” Nature 474, June 17, 2011 (publishedonline): 436-440. http://www.nature.com/news/2011/110617/full/474436a.html ,doi:10.1038/474436aGeoffrey Nunberg Nunberg, Geoffrey. “Counting on Google Books.” Chronicle ofHigher Education, December 16, 2010.http://chronicle.com/article/Counting-on-Google-Books/125735/Parry, Marc. “Google Starts Grant Program for Studies of Its Digitized Books.”Chronicle of Higher Education, March 31, 2010.http://chronicle.com/article/Google-Starts-Grant-Program/64891/
  • Google Books and the Digital HumanitiesLieberman Aiden:“You can read a smallnumber of books verycarefully. Or you can readlots of books ‘very, very not-carefully’“…Hand, Eric. “Culturonomics: Word Play,” Nature474, June 17, 2011 (published online): 436-440.http://www.nature.com/news/2011/110617/full/474436a.html http:// , doi:10.1038/474436a en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Erez_Lieberman_Aiden
  • Google Books and the DigitalHumanitiesMarc Perry:“Data-diggers are gunning to debunk old claims based on‘anecdotal’ evidence and answer once-impossible questionsabout the evolution of ideas, language, and culture. Critics,meanwhile, worry that these stat-happy quants take thehuman out of the humanities. Novels arent commodities likebags of flour, they warn. Cranking words from deeplyspecific texts like grist through a mill is a recipe for lousyresearch, they say—and a potential disaster for theprofession.”Parry, Marc. “The Humanities Go Google.” Chronicle of Higher Education, May 28, 2010.http://chronicle.com/article/The-Humanities-Go-Google/65713/
  • Google Books and the DigitalHumanitiesPrivacy matters:The same kind of data-mining that isused in the Ngram viewer can also beused to produce advertising portfolios onthose who read.Google’s executive chairman EricSchmidt: “If you have something thatyou don’t want anyone to know, maybeyou shouldn’t be doing it in the firstplace.”“Google Book Privacy Still a Concern Post GBS,” OpenBook Alliance (blog), October 27, 2011. http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Eric_Shttp://www.openbookalliance.org/2011/04/google-book-privacy-still-a-concern-post-gbs/
  • Google Books and the DigitalHumanities Google recently united all of their privacy policies into one…. “They know what you do online (Google Search), who you correspond with (Google Voice, Gmail, Google Plus), where you go (Google Maps), and what you do (Google Calendar). With the privacy policy change, Google will be using data-mining algorithms to combine these sources of personal information to create detailed profiles of their users.”“Hide from Google”, Wired How-to Wiki (Wiki), Last modified: February 3, 2012 (10:30 p.m.) http://howto.wired.com/wiki/Hide_From_Google
  • Google Books and the Digital Humanities Battle between the science and the humanities (“Two Cultures” – C.P. Snow) taken to the next level… If “culturonomics” gains more and more of a foothold, on what basis will agreements and disagreements in the humanities increasingly be evaluated? Will they primarily be evaluated on the basis of who has the better algorithmic methods and scientific methodologies? Or will they primarily be evaluated on the basis of the human interpretation that is the result of many hours of study via real reading? Shakespeare, John Brockman, and C.P. Snow – http ://gloriamundi.blogsome.com/category/science-a
  • Google Books and the Digital Humanities “Justice is a denial of mercy, and mercy is a denial of justice. Only a higher force can reconcile these opposites: wisdom. The problem cannot be solved, but wisdom can transcend it. Similarly, societies need stability and change, tradition and innovation, public interest and private interest, planning and laissez-faire, order and freedom, growth and decay. Everywhere society’s health depends on the simultaneous pursuit ofhttp:// mutually opposed activities or aims. The adoption of en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:SchumacherSiB200.jpg a final solution means a kind of death sentence for man’s humanity and spells either cruelty or dissolution, generally both… Divergent problems offend the logical mind.” Schumacher, E. F. A Guide for the Perplexed. New York: Harper & Row, 1977, 127.
  • Google Books and the Digital Humanities “Meaning has an extraordinary multiplicity that cannot be easily captured by the rigidly limited vocabularies of variables and standard methods” – Andrew Abbot. Remember: with Google Books you can indeed just read the books.Andrew Abbott, “The Traditional Future: A Computational Theory of Library Research” [pre-print])
  • Google Books and the Digital HumanitiesBetter Tools…Google Book search was built to sell ads against.Ronald G. Musto: Google Books has represented to us that its massive digitization project…that would make the digital at least the equivalent…of print. It is, after all, the ‘public good,’ not the ‘public good enough,’ that lies behind all of Google Books claims for fair-use rights to its digitization schemes.”Musto, Ronald G. "Google Books Mutilates the Printed Past". Chronicle of Higher Education. 55, no. 39(2009).
  • Google Books and the Digital HumanitiesMore Musto:“…..Within the scholarly and nonprofit realm over the past decade,there have been dozens of digitization projects: some small, somemassive, some open-access, some offered by subscription, somesuccessful, more not so. But several things have united them all: acommon purpose for the true good of the community, the higheststandards of quality in both technology and content, and a deep-seated and long-abiding concern for the curation, and widedissemination, of our cultural heritage as a living process that goesbeyond commodification.”Musto, Ronald G. "Google Books Mutilates the Printed Past". Chronicle of Higher Education. 55, no. 39(2009).
  • Google Books and the Digital HumanitiesFor example:Text Creation Partnership (TCP), University of MichiganCorpus of Historical American English at BYU.  Manually transcribe OCR scans  TCP: “Structural tagging” allows computer “to see elements of the book such as paragraphs, typeface changes, and chapters”  This metadata allows searches in introductions, summaries, quotations, etc.  OCR cannot detect non-standard typefaces, some foreign languages, even italics.See http://corpus.byu.edu/coha/compare-googleBooks.aspMartin, Shawn. “To Google or Not to Google, That is the Question: Supplementing Google BookSearch to Make it More Useful for Scholarship.” Journal of Library Administration 47, no 1-2 (2008):141-150.
  • Google Books and the Digital HumanitiesPrivacy:might not the commitment that librarians have to userprivacy be a “selling point” we should tout – especially assome people grow increasingly concerned about suchthings?Currently, Google’s new policy notes that it does not collectuser data from Google Books to combine with otherservices, but it is difficult to see why this seeminglyarbitrary decision will stand.Policy & Internet: 2, no. 4 (2010). http://www.psocommons.org/policyandinternet/vol2/iss4/art3/DOI: 10.2202/1944-2866.1072Law, Ifrah, “EPIC Unlikely to Prevail in Challenge to FTC Stance on Google Privacy,” JDSUPRA (blog),February 24, 2012.http://www.jdsupra.com/post/documentViewer.aspx?fid=29c4c5c1-4eec-4f14-8c9d-7b64a2dc3a87
  • Google Books and the Digital Humanities “An idea like Google Books represents both all that is wonderful and all that is terrifying about the digital revolution…. A knowledge society needs its information in a fluid, readily accessible and easily navigable form. It also needs diversity, freedom and the chaotic cadence of a million voices that sing their own determined tunes. The question before us is not an easy one. Either way, we will all win and we will all lose.”Desai, Santosh. "Column: Are Books on Google Good for Us?" Financial Express, (Feb 02, 2010) n/a. http://ezproxy.csp.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/872800719?accountid=26720 . 
  • Google Books and the Digital HumanitiesClosing:Remember what Google’s goals are.As Siva Vaidhyanathan reminds us, weare not actually consumers when it comesto Google (those would be its advertisers),but Google’s product.Our interests and attention are whatGoogle utilizes and ultimately sells.In addition to using Google for all that itis worth, we may also want to redirectour interests to some of the otherssources I’ve mentioned – and to seetheir value as well.
  • Select Bibliography(more citations found in endnotes of paper mentioned earlier)Bivens-Tatum, Wayne. “Libraries and the Commodification of Culture, Academic Librarian (blog), February 13, 2012,http://blogs.princeton.edu/librarian/2012/02/libraries-and-the-commodification-of-culture/Coyle, Karen. “Google Files Motion to Dismiss.” Coyle’s InFormation (blog), December 26, 2011 (2:16 p.m.),http://kcoyle.blogspot.com/2011/12/google-files-motion-to-dismiss.htmlDesai, Santosh. "Column: Are Books on Google Good for Us?" Financial Express, (Feb 02, 2010) n/a.http://ezproxy.csp.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/872800719?accountid=26720.Darnton, Robert. “A Library Without Walls,” NYR Blog (blog), October 4, 2010 (9:20 a.m.),http://www.nybooks.com/blogs/nyrblog/2010/oct/04/library-without-walls/.Darnton, Robert. “Can We Create a National Digital Library?” New York Review of Books, October 28, 2010,http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2010/oct/28/can-we-create-national-digital-library/Darnton, Robert. “Six Reasons Google Books Failed.” NYR Blog (blog), March 28, 2011, (11:00 a.m.),http://www.nybooks.com/blogs/nyrblog/2011/mar/28/six-reasons-google-books-failed/Darnton, Robert. "The Library: Three Jeremiads.” New York Review of Books. 57, no. 20 (November 2010): pp. 22-27.Efrati, Amir. “Judge Rejects Google Books Settlement.” Wall Street Journal, Mar. 23, 2011.http://ezproxy.csp.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/858106644?accountid=26720“Google Book Privacy Still a Concern Post GBS,” Open Book Alliance (blog), October 27, 2011.http://www.openbookalliance.org/2011/04/google-book-privacy-still-a-concern-post-gbs/ “Google’s Big Book Case.” Economist, September 3, 2009. http://www.economist.com/node/14363287 Hand, Eric. “Culturonomics: Word Play,” Nature 474, June 17, 2011 (published online): 436-440.http://www.nature.com/news/2011/110617/full/474436a.html , doi:10.1038/474436a Haven, Cynthia, “Non-consumptive Research? Text Mining? Welcome to the Hotspot of Humanities Research at Stanford”Stanford University News, December 1, 2010. http://news.stanford.edu/news/2010/december/jockers-digitize-texts-120110.html
  •  Howard, Jennifeer. "With No Google Books Deal, Libraries Push New Plans for Digital Access." Chronicle Of Higher Education 57, no. 30 (April 2011): A12. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed March 7, 2012) Jackson, Millie. "Using Metadata to Discover the Buried Treasure in Google Book Search". Journal of Library Administration. 47, no. ½ (2008): 165-173. Kloha, Jeff, “Words, Words, Words”, Concordia Theology (blog), December 21, 2010, (6:00 a.m.), http://concordiatheology.org/2010/12/words-words-words/ Lessig, Lawrence. “For the Love of Culture.” The New Republic , January 26, 2010 (12:00 am) http://www.tnr.com/print/article/the-love-culture Martin, Shawn. “To Google or Not to Google, That is the Question: Supplementing Google Book Search to Make it More Useful for Scholarship.” Journal of Library Administration 47, no 1-2 (2008): 141-150 Mattson, Kevin. "Paying the Piper: Is Culture Ever Free?." Dissent (00123846) 58, no. 2 (Spring 2011): 69-73. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed March 9, 2012). Meyer, Frankie. “Use Google as a resource for hard-to-find books” The Joplin Globe, February 27, 2012, http://www.joplinglobe.com/lifestyles/x2118802287/Frankie-Meyer-Use-Google-as-a-resource-for-hard-to-find-books Nunberg, Geoffrey. “Counting on Google Books.” Chronicle of Higher Education, December 16, 2010. http://chronicle.com/article/Counting-on-Google-Books/125735/ Nunberg, Geoffrey. “Google Book Search: A Disaster for Scholars.” Chronicle of Higher Education, August 31, 2009. http://chronicle.com/article/Googles-Book-Search-A/48245/ Parry, Marc. “Google Starts Grant Program for Studies of Its Digitized Books.” Chronicle of Higher Education, March 31, 2010. http://chronicle.com/article/Google-Starts-Grant-Program/64891/ Parry, Marc. “The Humanities Go Google.” Chronicle of Higher Education, May 28, 2010. http://chronicle.com/article/The-Humanities-Go-Google/65713/ Pope J.T., and Holley R.P. "Google book search and metadata". Cataloging and Classification Quarterly. 49, no. 1 (2008): 1-13.
  •  Schumacher, E. F. A Guide for the Perplexed. New York: Harper & Row, 1977,127. Singer, Natasha. “Playing Catch-Up in a Digital Library Race.” New York Times, Jan. 8, 2011 Swift, Mike. 2010. "Google Books may Advance Humanities Research, Scholars Say." McClatchy - Tribune News Service, Aug 05, n/a. http://ezproxy.csp.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/737529948?accountid=26720 Thompson, Chris. "The Case Against Google Books; How three East Bay librarians led the revolt against the companys plans to archive all earthly knowledge." East Bay Express (California). October 14: LexisNexis Academic. Web. (accessed March 7, 2012). “Tome Raider.” Economist, September 3, 2009. http://www.economist.com/node/14376406 Wile, Rob, “Google Books Reveals How Words Have Changed in Popularity Over Time”, Business Insider (blog), January 25, 2012, (8:19 a.m.), http://www.businessinsider.com/charts-google-books-reveals-the-most-popular-words-in-history-2012-1